David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

HhuQaT – Engaging Experience, Despite Being Afraid

The Israelites failed to willingly accept God’s challenge to enter into what was oppressively drawing in of experience (Canaan).1 They failed to be as one doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something (Calev ben Y’phunah).2 After being told to strive to look at and draw in the factual details to be found in experience (TsiTsit),3 they turned to festering over an innumerable amount of data (Qorahh)4 and thereby missed the novel and well sculpted thing (בריאה) in experience that HaShem intended for them to see. Therefore, HaShem reiterated that the job of the Levites remains the act of continuously clinging to experience so as to become familiar with things (tent).5,6 The job of directly engaging any of the things about which they have become aware is reserved for the priests – the acts of giving things precise and mindful attention.7 Parashat Hhuqat further delineates the job of the Israelites in their making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience.8 In order for them to channel what is thrown into the light (Hhuqat haTorah),9 these behaviors must take up a behavior of meandering about experience (cow),10 thoughtfully absorbed with things (red),11 without a habit of drawing away (defect)12 and without circumventing (yoke).13 Although it is they who initially engage in this behavior – acting as a way of surveying experience – they immediately transfer this responsibility over to Elazar, the person’s advancing into experience with initiative, becoming involved with the things around,14 an act of giving things precise and mindful intention.

Elazar engages with the behavior, removed from mentally attending to what is ordinary in experience (outside the camp).15 He leans (slaughters)16 into the behavior, takes from what flows forth of the behavior (blood)17 and nimbly and adeptly leaps18 into an act of confronting the many things encountered through the act of becoming familiar with things in being enduringly mentally present (tent of meeting)19 – a bubbling up of many inspiring things (seven times).20 Then he extracts from and oversees (burns)21 this behavior for the purpose of his making observations22 – exposing things (skin),23 confidently driving into things (flesh),24 and what flows forth of it (blood) – upon its clarifying things (dung).25 Then, the person’s giving something precise and mindful attention (priest) launches into this process: a striving so as to hover over and examine things (ceder),26,27 and an act of sweeping through (hyssop),28 and an act of repetitively chewing on the details (scarlet).29 Having engaged in this process, the act of giving things precise and mindful attention (priest) pushes into (washes)30 the many factual details (clothes)31 attained and moves his ability to confidently drive into things (flesh)24 back and forth in the things stirred up in experience (water).32 Since he then comes into the act of mentally attending to ordinary things (camp),33 he will be inundated with information and otherwise mentally unavailable (impure),34 until a time of getting mixed up and confused (evening).35

Having closely dealt with the particulars, the attention returns to a more general treatment of the scene with the extracting and overseeing of things (שורף) and a gathering in of a superficial dusting of details (ash).36 This dusting of details is for an act of being enduringly mentally present (congregation)37 of the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel),8 for something to be observed (משמרת)38 and to be regarded as things drawn off of experience in espying a scene (מי נדה).39 Any act of thrusting forth40 onto a particular aspect of experience that is completely drawn out (dead)41 will be inundated with information and otherwise mentally unavailable (impure)34 – a bubbling up of many stirring things (seven days).42 If an interruption occurs (third day),43 then he must realign himself with all of the information in order to be mentally available when he is satiated with the data (seventh day). If he fails to realign himself with the act of dwelling upon God’s bringing forth of experience (mishkan44 of HaShem), then he will be cut off from being able to make a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)8 because he failed to throw upon himself the things drawn off of experience in espying a scene (מי נדה).39 He is mentally unavailable (impure).34

If something clear (זאת),45 of what is thrown into the light (Torah),46 as a result of one’s being mentally absorbed with experience (אדם),11 is completely drawn out (dies)41 through an act of becoming familiar with things (tent)6 and a person comes into that act of becoming familiar – he will be inundated and mentally unavailable,34 a bubbling up of many stirring things (seven days).42 Any person who is an open vessel47 will also be inundated. Any person, behaving as a vessel for available information, that shall thrust upon the many things being presented in experience when going back and forth in a frenzy (field)48 that shall thrust upon what is tossed about49 of what is ravaging (sword),50 or upon something drawn out from experience (dead),41 or upon a thing densely packed (bone)51 of an act of being mentally absorbed with experience,11 or upon what is inundating of experience (tomb)52 shall be inundated and mentally unavailable34 – a bubbling up of stirring things.42 Of course, that person must process that information by taking from the ability to examine every detail (עפר)53 resulting from an overseeing of these things (burning)21 and putting upon it what is stirred in experience (water)32 that is lively, advancing toward an act of containing the information.47 Then an act of being mentally persistent of perfect mental clarity (pure man)54, 55 must sweep through it (hyssop)28 by immersing into what is stirred up (water).32 After nimbly and adeptly leaping from one detail to the next (הזה),18 the person can press into (wash)30 the many factual details (clothes)31 attained and move back and forth in the things stirred up in experience (water)32 such that he will be perfectly mentally clear (טהר)55 a midst the confusion (evening).35 A person who nimbly and adeptly leaps from one detail to the next (מזה)18 of the things drawn off of experience in espying a scene (מי נדה)39 shall press into (wash)30 the many factual details (clothes)31 attained; however, a person who thrusts (נוגע) into the things drawn off of experience in espying a scene (מי נדה)39 shall be inundated and mentally unavailable (impure),34 until the time of becoming mixed up and confused (evening).35

The Death of Miriam
Having been instructed about how to engage the large amount of information found in experience, the person’s behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)8 come into the barrage of experience driving directly forward (wilderness)56 of one’s holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable (Tsin).57 Even though the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)58 was settling down into a commitment to advance forward (Qadaesh),59 the person’s rejecting what is stirred up in experience (Miriam)60 was completely drawn out (dying)41 and being channeled (buried).52 Unable to find anything of interest that was stirring in experience (water),32 the people complained of being brought into a bad place, a place that was not one of scattering about so as to insert oneself into experience (seed),61 nor of applying oneself (fig),62 nor of tightly wrapping oneself around things (vine),63 nor of appropriating for oneself an aspect of experience (pomegranate).64 Nevertheless, the intensity65 of God’s bringing forth of existence appeared when the person’s mental faculty of drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)66 and the person’s repeatedly bringing things to light (Aharon)67 were going back and forth over the many things before them in experience (falling on their faces).68, 69

Speak to the Overhanging Crag
In order for Moshe to bring out for the congregation a thing of interest stirred up (water),32 HaShem instructed Moshe to speak to what was dangling in experience (סלע)70 before their eyes. Unfortunately, because the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)8 contended and postured, their ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things (Moshe)66 elevated his power (hand)71 and struck the rock. Therefore, it was bringing out an enormous amount of stirring things (water).32 HaShem called the place Mae Maribhah, the waters of contention. However, the word Maribhah (מריבה) literally means “posturing” or making oneself bigger.72 HaShem concluded that neither Aharon (the act of repeatedly bringing things to light)67 nor Moshe (the act of drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things)66 were suitable to bring the community into the act of disposing oneself to experience (land)73 because they did not remain ever present with (have faith),74 nor bring forward (sanctify)59 God’s bringing forth of existence.

Having attained from experience an enormous amount of opportunities (water),32 Moshe beseeched the act of deliberating over things (king)75 associated with one’s being mentally absorbed with experience (Edom)11 to allow them to pass through its way of disposing oneself (land).73 He promised that they would not pass into the frenzy of going back and forth (field)48 nor into the act of piling up all that surrounds in experience (vineyard),76 and that they would not align with (drink)77 the many things drawn off of the act of making clarifications (waters of the well).78 In response, the being mentally absorbed with experience (Edom)11 threatened them saying: “Lest I shall come out to meet you with what is ravaging (sword).”50 Ultimately, the act of being mentally absorbed with experience (Edom)11 refused to allow them to pass and came out against them with an intense amount of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people).58

Aharon Dies upon Hor haHaR:
After diverting from the act of being mentally absorbed with experience (Edom),11 they were traveling from the dedication to advance forward (Qadaesh).59 They were coming in – what was brought into view (Hor) as a result of the act of bringing things into view (mountain)79 – upon the boundary of the act of disposing oneself (land)73 to the being mentally absorbed with experience (Edom).11 There the act of repeatedly bringing things to light (Aharon)67 was to be gathered in toward its many acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people).58 There the act of repeatedly being things to light (Aharon)67 was stripped of the factual details that it had attained from experience (clothes)31 and they were layered upon the act of advancing forward with initiative so as to become involved with the things around (Elazar).14 There, the act of repeatedly bringing things to light (Aharon)67 was completely drawn out and manifest in reality (died)41 through the act of seeing (head)80 of the act of bringing things into view (mountain).79 Therefore, along with the act of advancing forward with initiative so as to become involved with the things around (Elazar),14 the ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things (Moshe)66 was continuously accumulating (descending)81 as a result of the act of bringing things into view (mountain).79

In connection with this event, the person’s being subdued by what was oppressively drawing inward of experience (Canaanite)82 – the person’s deliberating over experience (king),75 driving in without restraint (ערד),83 one who settles into the act of making distinctions between things so as to make a selection (Negev)84 – was being attentive. This occurred because the act of making of a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward (Israel)8 had come in – an act of threshing through85 the many things coming forth in experienced, forcefully aligned (אתרים).86 The place was called Charmah (dedication to confiscate)87 because there they dedicated the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)58 and their many stirred up situations (cities)88 to total confiscation for the purpose of engaging them.

Firey Serpents – Arnon between Moab and the Amorite
Then they traveled, threshing85 through what was stirred up as a result of one’s going to the edge to make observations of experience (Yam Suph).89 But because of the threshing, the people’s spirit regarding the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)58 was being cut back and short. This time they spoke out not only against their ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things (Moshe),66 but also against God’s Guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).90 They complained not only of there being nothing of interest stirred up (water),32 but also of there being nothing in experience to get closely into (bread)91 – except that which is held in light esteem (קלקל).92 So HaShem sent acts of feeling about, those of overseeing experience (firey serpents),93,21 and they bit into the many acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people).58 After going back and forth with God in contemplation (prayed)94 on behalf of the people, Moshe makes an act of overseeing (Seraph),21 an act of feeling about that coaxes things out from experience (cooper snake).93 If the act of feeling about had hedged in a person’s ability to be mentally persistent with experience (man),54 he would look toward it and remain lively.

From there, they moved on to many acts of willingly giving forth of oneself in taking notice of things (אבת),95 then to acts of twisting about as a result of things passing through (עיי העברים)96 with what was barreling down in experience (wilderness)56 that was concerning the many presentations of one’s yearning to give forth of oneself in taking notice of things (Moab),97 as a result of throwing oneself forth in showing fortitude (ממזרח השמש).98,99 From there, they moved on to leaning in-swirling around with alertness and valor (נחל זרד)100,101 and then to crossing over into the act of repetitively looking out upon experience with a mesmerized gaze (Arnon)102 that was the boundary between one’s yearning to give forth of oneself in taking notice of things (Moab)97 and one’s tenaciously examining experience (Amorite).103 From there, toward making an elucidation of things (באר).78 Nevertheless as a result of the flash flood of experience driving directly forward (מדבר),56 they moved toward procrastination (מתנה).104 But thereafter, the leanings of advancing forward with initiative (נחליאל)104 and making many attempts at pushing oneself inward so as to make observations (במות).105 Thereafter, the arching and drawing inward (הגיא)106 that is with the frenzied going back and forth (שדה)48 of yearning to give forth to something in taking notice of things (Moab),97 the seeing (head)80 of the many branching paths (upon which one could go)(Pisgeh),107 that in contemplation, looks upon the many things being presented in experience of what is repetitively put forth and available in experience (הישימן).108

Sihhon, king of Amorites, and Og, king of Bashan
At this point, they are ready to confront the act of deliberating over things in experience (king),75 an act of tenaciously examining a scene (Amorite),109 an act of musing over things in trying to persuade oneself (Sihhon).110 Again they wished not to divert into the frenzy of going back and forth (field),48 nor into the act of piling up the many things around (vineyard),76 nor of aligning with the many things drawn out of making further clarifications of things (waters of the well).78 Their goal was to thresh through the act of deliberating over things found in experience (דרך המלך).75,85 But the act of musing over things in trying to persuade oneself (Sihhon)110 was gathering up all of its being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people).58 Nevertheless, the acts of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)8 were taking possession of its way of disposing oneself in experience (land)73 – from the act of looking upon a scene with a mesmerized gaze (Arnon),102 unto an act of searching deeply (Yaboq),111 and unto the many acts of repetitively being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (Amonites).58 The Israelites were settling into all of the situations stirred up (cities)88 associated with the act of making a tenacious examination (Amorites)109 – into the act of repetitive calculated consideration (Hheshbon)112 and into all of its acts of endeavoring into the scene (בנתיה).113 While their ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things in experience (Moshe)66 sent forth to spy out the act of getting involved with the things that are all around (Yazaer).114

Finally, they were facing and ascending – an act of threshing through experience (דרך),85 repetitively driving in upon something so as to visually fix upon it, yet holding oneself back from engaging (Bashan).115 There they encountered the act of heedfully going around and around the scene (Og),116 a way of deliberating over experience (king)85 of the act of repetitively driving in upon something so as to visually fix upon it yet holding oneself back from engaging (Bashan).115 It and all of its being mindful of what was crowding in from experience (people),58 regarded as an act of engaging particular things (מלחמה),117 the act of taking particular things into one’s hand (אדרעי).118 But there was nothing to fear because HaShem assured Moshe that he would do to it in accordance with what he did regarding the act of musing over things so as to persuade oneself (Sihhon),110 an act of deliberating over things (king)75 of the act of tenaciously examining things (Amorite).109

Notes:
1 – Canaan – from the root KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. A comparison with related roots such as KaNaS (כנס to enter), KaNaPh (כנף wing, (what is drawn in)), KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon. So Canaan allegorically means one’s being subdued by the many things drawing in from experience from context.
2 – Calaev son of Yiphunah (כלב בן יפונה Kalaebh ben Y’phunah) Allegorically: a person’s doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something. From the root KaLaBh (כלב) from which evolved כילבית barnacle and כלוב cage (Jr5:27) (closed ??) basket (Am8:1,2). The root evolved from KaLaH (כלה) meaning “to contain” and “container,” and כָלָה certitude, conviction, decision, and resolution (SmI20:33). Yiphunah (יפונה) is the pual of PaNaH (פנה) to turn, to face; (piel) literally meaning “to rapidly change the face of s.th / s.o” > to prepare a surface > to clear or empty out; (pual) “one who is made to rapidly turn to face s.th.”
3 – TsiTsiT (ציצת) which represent “little acts of striving.” From TsuTs (צוץ) to bud, blossom, flourish > (hiphil) הציץ (striving to see) to look, gaze (Ss2:9); From the root TsaWaH (צוה – to strive with > command), evolved from NiTsaH (נצה – to strive), by dropping the initial letter nun. The essential meaning is to strive. AND wings (כנף KaNaPh) Allegorically: what is drawn in, what draws in. Many K.N. (כנ) roots mean “to draw in” – KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. KaNaS (כנס to enter), , KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon. AND clothing (בגד BeGeD) Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From the (probably unrelated) root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
4 – Qorah (קרח) one’s getting in very close and festering over a particular thing. Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. essentially mean “to get in very close”: קרה to come upon, happen occur; קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read; קרב to approach; קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate; קרן horn, to project; קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner; קרש to contract, gnash, bite into; קרס to stoop; קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse; נקר to gouge, chisel; שקר to gouge > deceive, lie. In Arabic, the root קרח means to wound, fester, ulcerate. From the idea of fester over something it also means to think up, propose, invent, and improvise. In Sabaic, to inflict a wound. In Syriac: to become bald, (?be clear >>) expose, divulge, disclose, declare expressly, make clear, evident, specify). This idea of baldness which predominates in Hebrew comes from wound > ulcerate > clear out / away > bald, ice/ frost, inside lining (of clothing).
5 – Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
6 – tent of (אהל /oHeL) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude).”
7 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10).
8 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
9 – the ordinance of the Torah (חוקת התורה HhuQaT haToRaH) Allegorically: act of channeling what is thrown into the light. The word HhuQaH (חוקה) from HhoQ – HhaQaQ (חוק חקק) literally meaning “to channel” but used to mean to carve, engrave, inscribe, draw, and portray. Its intensive form means “to set a limit, rule, and to decree.” The related noun HhaeyQ (חיק) means “bosom, gutter (channel).” AND Torah (תורה) from YaRaH (ירה) to throw into the light > teach > aim > penetrate; from /aRaH (ארה) to pick out into the light.
10 – cow (פרה PaRaH) Allegorically: to scatter-meander about. The unattested root PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck. A bull or cow are described as PaR(aH) because it is disengaged from the rest of the herd.
11 – Edom, red (אדומה /aDuMaH) from red (אדום /aDoM) which evolved from DaM (דם blood). Despite being used allegorically as being related to the words for human (אדם /aDaM) and ground (אדמה /adaMaH) and despite almost universal contention, these words have no etymological connection. human (אדם – /aDaM) evolved from DaMAH (דמה – to make comparisons, to think) which evolved from DuM (דום – be still, silent). Also related ground (/aDaMah – אדמה) comes from the root DuM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparitive Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
12 – defect (מום MuM) Allegorically: a habit of drawing away. This word evolved from MaHaH (מהה) literally meaning “to do as water (מי) does” it is used to mean “to dissolve, dilute, make threadbare, fray.” The word (מום MuM) literally means speck > spot (a drawn out, diluted particle). In Syriac: spot, mark, speck, blemish, flaw, infirmity, plague-spot; fault, vice, defect, bad, habits. That this root also means “to draw out” can be seen in the derived roots: MaHaR (מהר) to hasten (her to him) (transfer); MuSh (מוש) to draw out and remove.
13 – yoke (\oL עול) Allegorically: circumventing. It is related to a number of roots that mean to go around. The verb \aLaH (עלה to rise, ascend) primarily, because it basically means to go around > drape over > be above-over > ascend. Also related are \aLaL (עלל to meander, perform, busy oneself), \oLaL (עולל to glean) and to circumvent (מעל – Ma\aL) and m’il (מעיל) article of clothing that drapes over its wearer.
14 – El’azar (אלעזר) one’s advancing forward with initiative, becoming involved with the things that are around; from El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.” + \aZaR (עזר) surround, around. Syriac: entangle, involve, swaddle.
15 – outside the camp (מחוץ למחנה) Allegorically: outside of the being mindful of what is prosaic and common. camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (חן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
16 – slaughter (people or animals) (שחט – ShaChaT) from HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). Compare cognates: Ugaritic: butcher, slaughterer; Arabic: be annoyed / displeased / angry, to resent, wrath; exasperation; Syriac: to harm, mar, abuse, impair, vitiate, infringe, violate (law / woman)
17 – blood (דם – DaM) allegorically means “what flows,” evolved from DaWaH (דוה – to flow). Incidentally, not related to DuM (דום – still, silent) which evolved from DaMaH (דמה – to cease, be still) meeting (מועד Mo\eD);
20 – seven (שבע Sheva/). Although with a shin, this word appears to have been derived from the similar root with a letter sin, SaBha\ understood as satiated, it derives from either NaBha\ (נבע – to swell or well up) or Ba\aH (בעה – to bubble up, boil). Perhaps it means the number seven because it fulfills a period of one week, although this too is not completely clear. Metaphorically, from context and this etymology it means “being satiated by what bubbles up” or just “a bubbling up of something. AND once or (a number of) times (פעם Pa\aM), its verb means “to startle / be startled.” The root Pa\aM (פעם) literally means “a single puff of air” from PW\ (פוע) and Pa\aH (פעה) to pant; haPhya\ (הפיע) to resuscitate. Hence Pa\aMon (פעמון) bell; (פעם Pa\aM) anvil; (פעמים Pa\aMim) hoof beats.
21 – to burn (שרף SaRaPh) Allegorically: to extract and oversee. This root literally means “what is released > to make dissipate, to cause to secrete and draw out resin, to coat with resin.” It evolved from the root RaPhaH (רפה) to loosen and release. In Arabic the two related roots mean: (release>) (SaRaPh) to dissipate, squander, exceed all bounds, immodest, overdo, to be extravagant > (ShaRaPh) be highborn, noble, look down upon, oversee, supervision
22 – eyes of (עיני \aYNaiy) Allegorically: eyeings-observations of. From עין to eye, keep an eye on, observe (SmI18:9)
23 – skin (עור – \uR) what can be exposed of it; related to \aRaH (ערה (bring out into the light > expose) uncover (shield) (Is22:6); to make naked (Is32:11); to lay bare (Is3:17)(Tz2:14)(Ps141:8)
24 – flesh, confident (בשר – BaSaR). The word almost always means flesh, but literally “what is driven into with confidence,” probably alluding to removing meat from a bone. The Arabic cognate means “to peel, scrape / shave off, grate, shred, come in contact, sexual intercourse, apply oneself.” Also note probable mis-translation of (Ec2:3) תרתי בלבי למשוך ביין את בשרי Conventionally translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my flesh. But more correctly translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my confidence.
25 – dung, waste (פרש – PeReSh), “what can be spread out and made clear of it” from PaRaSh (פרש – to separate, spread out, expose, clarify)
26 – wood of (עץ \aets) Allegorically: an act of striving-difficult-elusive. From tree, wood (עץ – \aeTs) derived from the root \uTs (עוץ) which derived from /uTs (אוץ hasten). Literally meaning “to hasten, force, push through” it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel.” Allegorically, it is used to mean “one’s striving, one’s urges or things that are difficult or elusive – the later from the Arabic cognate and context.
27 – ceder (ארז /eReZ) Allegorically: hover and examine things. From RuZ (רוז) Arabic: to weigh, examine, consider; RaZ (רז) Syriac: to take into secret counsel, conspire. The evolution of this root begins with RaShaH (רשה) to lose liquid, to drip, flow down, ooze fluid; which evolves into RaSaH (רסה) > RaSaS (רסס) to moisten; and then to RaZaH (רזה) which represents a liquid creeping across a surface. Hence: R.Z.R.Z. Amharic – flowed slowly, dripped out; Due to the creeping nature of the liquid, the root evolves into “hovering about” > consider-examine and conspire-counsel.
28 – hyssop (אזוב /aeZoBh) Allegorically: sweeping through. Cognate with: /aZaB (אזב) Arabic: to flow, run; drain, gutter, eaves trough, dumpy, pudgy, stocky. From unattested ZaBhaBh (זבב) to swat-sweep away > ZabhuBh (זבוב (swept away) > fly). Cognate with: DhaB (דבּ) Arabic: to drive / chase away, defend; flies). From ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow).
29 – scarlet yarn (תולעת שני – Tola\aT ShaNy) “what can be chewed over repeatedly” from ToLa\ (תולע – worm), related to YaLa\ (ילע) from La\a\ (לעע – to cause to swallow, swallow down (Ob1:16) (Jb6:3)), but literally meaning to jaw > chew voraciously). The origin of ShaNy (שני) in this context is obscure, however it may be related to ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen, hone, do repeatedly, double up) from Sh + /aNaH (ש+אנה to impose oneself).
30 – wash (כבס KaBhaS) literally means: to push down-press into. Related to other roots with K.B. (כב) all meaning “to press down upon” such as KaBhaH (כבה) to extinguish, snuff out; KaBhaL (כבל) to fetter, shackle; KoBha\ (כובע) helmet; KaBhaR (כבר) compress, to press through a sieve, to press through; KaBhaSh (כבש) to subdue, conquer; footstool, furnace; KaBhaS (כבס) to wash; KaBhaD (כבד) be heavy-intense, honor, take seriously.
31 – clothing (בגד BeGeD) Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From the (probably unrelated) root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
32 – water (מים – maYiM) Allegorically: (thing of interest) stirred up. From YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up). Related to: HMH (המה) Arabic: disquiet, make uneasy, fill with anxiety, preoccupy, interest, have in mind,; anxiety, intention, endeavor.
33 – camp (מחנה MaHhaNeH) Allegorically: the mentally attending to what is ordinary, common and prosaic. From camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
34 – impure, unclean (טמא TaMae/) The evolution of this root begins with TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast). From there, TaM (טם) means “flood, inundate, overwhelming” in Arabic; “stop up, block, closely packed, solid, dense, opaque, repress, restrain; repressed, coerced” in Syriac; plaited in Akkadian; and TaMaM (טמם) is “filled / crowded to capacity” in Amharic. Essentially, these roots mean squeezed in > overstuffed > overwhelmed.
35 – evening (ערב – \aRaBh) derived from \aRaH (ערה – to pour) > \aRaBh (ערב – to mix, confuse), evening being a time of mixing of day and night. From \aRaBh > \gaRaBh (ערב).
36 – ash (אפר /aePheR) Allegorically: what covers the face > superficial dusting of details. Although, potentially, this root could come from PaRaH (פרה scatter) the following evidence suggests that it comes from /aPhaH (אפה to cover the face > bake): /aPhaR (אפר) Akkadian: covering the face / head, putting on a helmet; have a halo / radiance; /aPhaeR (אַפֵר) bandage, mask (KgI20:38,40); אפיריון canopy (Ss3:9).
37 – congregation (עדה \aedaH) Allegorically: an act of being enduringly mentally present. Related to testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
38 – charge, custody, guarding (משמרת miShMeRet); Allegorically: an act of observation. From ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to guard, observe; from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
39 – water of sprinkling (מי נדה May NiDaH) Allegorically: the many things drawn off (from experience) of espying.
From May (מי water, fluid, liquid) which possibly evolved from /uM (אום) substance (what is physically ever present) which evolved into from MaHaH (מהה) literally meaning “to do as water (מי) does” it is used to mean “to dissolve, dilute, make threadbare, fray.” Therefore what is “drawn off.” AND sprinkling (נדה NiDaH) meaning “what flows forth” and is also used to refer to a woman’s menstruating. It evolved from DaWaH (דוה) which is often used to mean sickness or illness, but literally means to flow. Its Arabic cognate means “wilt, wither, fade, wear away, disappear.” A related Arabic root, DaHaY (דהי) means “to come over someone, overtake, hit, befall, strike; artful, clever, cunning, wily.” Jastro indicates that DaWaH (דוה) means both: “to grieve, feel affliction” and “to espy, look out for,”
40 – reach, touch, thrust, plague (נגע NaGa\) Allegorically: one who thrusts. This root either evolved from NaGaHh (נגח thrust, gore) or NaGaH (נגה strike) which evolved from NaKaH (נכה strike, hit upon) and into NaGaN (נגן strike > play an instrument); NaGaHh (נגח thrust, gore) and NaGaPh (נגף strike, plague).
41 – die (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
42 – YoM (יום – day), from HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.” AND seven (שבע Sheva/). Although with a shin, this word appears to have been derived from the similar root with a letter sin, SaBha\ understood as satiated, it derives from either NaBha\ (נבע – to swell or well up) or Ba\aH (בעה – to bubble up, boil). Perhaps it means the number seven because it fulfills a period of one week, although this too is not completely clear. Metaphorically, from context and this etymology it means “being satiated by what bubbles up” or just “a bubbling up of something.
43 – three (שלש – ShaLoSh) actually means suspend, dangle. This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust. AND YoM (יום – day), from HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.”
44 – tabernacle, mishkan (משכן – MiShKaN) Allegorically: one’s (visually) dwelling upon a scene. From the verb ShaKaN (שכן to dwell), from the root KuN (כון to be fixed in place).
45 – this (זה Zeh; זאת Zo/T) from the verb ZaHaH (זהה) and literally means “what is visually radiant or apparent.”
46 – Torah (תורה) from YaRaH (ירה) to throw into the light > teach > aim > penetrate; from /aRaH (ארה) to pick out into the light.
47 – vessel, instruments of (כלי K’LaY) Allegorically: containings of. From the verb KaLaH (כלה) to contain.
48 – SaDeH (שדה) field, is related to the verb SaDaD (שדד – (drag behind) to level / harrow ground) which in turn is related to ShaDaD (שדד – (to drag) > to overpower, plunder, ruin, destroy). The idea of going back and forth can be seen in the related verbs ShaDaKh (שדך – haggle, negotiate, stipulate) and ShaDaPh (שדף – to make swing back and forth, to blast)
49 – ?slain, pierced, tossed about (חלל HhaLaL) Allegorically: one thrown or tossed about. Commonly understood as “one slain through piercing” in Gesenius and Klein. However, חללי רעב (of hunger) Lm 4:9; Also note Is 22:2. Related to: HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), evolving into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth. HhaLaL(חלל)(piel) cast away, throw about; > HhaLaL (חלל)(piel) to break up, to dissolve; > HhaL (חל) (Arabic – (throw about > permeate) dissolve, resolve, analyze, release, break up, overwhelm, replace); > ChaL (חל) (Arabic – pierce, transfix, break, violate, pass through, permeate, mix, mingle, pickle).
50 – sword (חרב CheReBh) the verb means to be hot, heat, dry > hence to forge a sword, but also make desolate, devastate (Jd16:24)(KgII19:17)(Is42:15) and to be devastated (emotionally) (Jr2:12), therefore allegorically: ravaging in experience.
51 – bone (עצם \eTseM) from the verb meaning (squeeze tight) to compress (Is29:10;33:15), but also meaning might or essence of
52 – tomb, place of burial, to bury (קבר QaBhaR, QeBheR) literally means “to channel.” Jastro notes that the root also means to inundate and flood. Furthermore, QaBhaTs (קבץ – to gather (channel) together), QaBhaL (קבל – to accept, receive (channel toward)) and QaBha\ (קבע – to rob (channel away from)), female (נקבה N’QaeBhaH) which is related to NaQaBh (נקב socket, to penetrate, pierce, bore (channel) into-out) – these evolved from the root QaBh (קוב – (Arb – to dig a (channel) shallow, to hallow out)) which evolved from QaW (קוה – to channel together).
53 – dirt, dust, soil (עפר \aphaR) Allegorically: the ability to examine every detail. Related to the Arabic cognate: to cover the face of something with dust, to begrime, dust, sprinkle with dust; and TO GLEAN). Note also \oPh (עוף)(hiphil) to cover with (one’s eyes) (Pr23:5) is related to Ugaritic \gaPhY (עפי) to observe, espy; all possibly related to Arabic \gaPhaR (עפר) to observe, spy. However, it is unclear if this root ultimately evolved from עפה or from /aphaR (אפר ash).
54 – man / husband (איש – /eeSh). Originally meaning husband, meaning one who persists, it evolved to mean man. It is related to /aeSh (אש – fire) meaning persistent existence. Allegorically, it means (mental) persistence.
55 – ritually pure (טהר TaHaR) Allegorically: mentally clear and available. Evolved from TsaHaR (צהר). The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the related words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon.
56 – miDBaR (מדבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise. Another thing to consider is that Akkadian has a cognate for midbar the associated verbs duppuru “to go away” and tuppuru “to drive away.” (William L. Moran (Harvard Univ.) – FB discussion, Semitic Etymology group). In Akkadian, it means Steppe, a plain devoid of tall plant life. So perhaps it means “barreled over.”
57 – (צן Tsin) Allegorically: a place of holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable. From Arabic cognates: Ss/N (צאן) to protect, guard, safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste; ThyN (ד’ן) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider presume; think s.o capable of doing s.th, opinion, belief, doubts; suspicion.
58 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
59 – QaDaeSh (sanctify) Allegorically: dedicated to move forward. Related to Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Allegorically: what is brought forward. Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
60 – Miriam (מרים MiRYaM) is a well respected and is lauded in the Torah, the book of Micah, and the Talmud. In the past decades, there has been a resurgence of enthusiasm for her in feminist circles – a community that I proudly support. However, based on etymology and context, her name is to be derived from the root MaRaR (מרר) which in Akkadian means “to chase away” and “to eject and throw out” in Ugaritic. Allegorically, Miriam means “a person’s rejecting what is stirred up in experience.”
61 – seed (זרע – ZeRa\) meaning to scatter, but practically also suggests implantation > engagement. Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter. And expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
62 – fig (תאנה T’/aeNaH) Allegorically: an act of asserting-imposing oneself. Evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Probably based on a variety of strangler fig trees that wrap themselves around other trees, strangling them and using them as scaffolding.
63 – vine (גפן GePheN) Allegorically: what tightly wraps around, what is captivating. Related to: GuPh (גוף) Syriac: to take in a net, hunt, shut, fasten, captivate; GaPhaPh (גפף) to embrace, enclose (Jastro). GaFaN (גפן) Arabic: eyelid, bowl, grapevine; Syriac: to dig.
64 – pomegranate (רמון RiMoN) Allegorically: acts of skillfully taking something on. The root is an expansion of RaMaH (רמה) be high > arch over, archings. But related RyMaH (רימה) (arch over > deceive). In Akkadian: RaMaN (רמן) to convert to one’s own, to appropriate to oneself; self.
65 – intensity, heaviness, glory (כבוד KaBhoD). From the verb KaBhaD (כבד – be heavy, honor, respect, take seriously).
66 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplified: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
67 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
68 – to fall (נפל NaPhaL) Derived from the root PaLaL (פלל to pray, to consider, to judge) but the essential meaning is “to go back and forth.” Nevertheless, the niphal form of this verb means “to stagger and fall” in Ezekiel 28:23. This is the root, from which NaPhaL evolved as meaning “to fall.” Very often, before one falls, they lose their balance and seem to shift back and forth.
69 – face, lit: faces (פנים PaNim) literally meaning faces because a person has many presentations in one’s face), from the root PaNaH (פנה – to face > turn). Allegorically meaning: many faces > aspects > presentations.
70 – crag, rock (סלע SeLa\) Allegorically: what dangles in experience. The root evolved from SaLaH (סלה) to draw up / away, to discard (Ps119:118), (piel) to discard, overthrow (Lm1:15) which evolved from SaLaH-ShaLaH (שלה). The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate; (שלג – SheLeG) snow (lit: what is suspended in the air).
71 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /UD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
72 – to content, dispute, strive (ריב RyBh) Allegorically: posture (literal meaning). From RaBh (רב) to be big, make bigger.
73 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
74 – /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe) means to trust in something’s being ever present. It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which literally means “ever present existence.” It also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence) and mother (/aeM – אם) which literally means “who or what that is ever present.” /aMaN (אמן) evolved into YaMyN (ימין) meaning ever present or dominant side.
75 – king (MeLeKh – מלך) from the verb MaLaKh (מלך) to rule, it evolved from MaLaHh (מלח) to balance > to sail. It is more appropriately translated as to deliberate > to act deliberately. But also means to deliberate, as can be seen in the Akkadian to consider, discuss, advise, look after, mind, and confer
76 – vineyard (כרם KeReM) heaping up a lot from experience; from the verb KaRaM (כרם) (surround) > vineyard, (per Jastro > ) to pile up, stock up; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk). From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
77 – ShaTaH (שתה – to drink) literally means to align with (need to align a vessel with one’s mouth so as not to spill; see movie Airplane). Sh + /aTaH > ShaTaH (ש + אתה = שתה), it evolved from the rarely used verb /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come, from which also evolved eT (את – (be aligned) with); /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow) and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment)
78 – well (B’/aeR – באר). Derived from the word BoWR (בור) pit = clearing. The verbal form Ba/aeR (באר) means to clarify, declare clearly and elucidate.
79 – Hor, the mountain (הור ההר HoR haHaR) Allegorically: what was brought into view (Hor) as a result of the act of bringing things into view. It is entirely unclear what HoR (הור) means. It is likely related to the following: mountain (הר HaR) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective. It comes from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb).
80 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
81 – descend (ירד YaRaD) Allegorically: continuously accumulating. This root evolved from RaDaH (רדה) to spread out, hover-remain, and drip – which evolved from RaZaH (רזה) the evolution of which begins with RaShaH (רשה) to lose liquid, to drip, flow down, ooze fluid; which evolves into RaSaH (רסה) > RaSaS (רסס) to moisten; and then to RaZaH (רזה) which represents a liquid creeping across a surface. Hence: R.Z.R.Z. Amharic – flowed slowly, dripped out – which is related to RaDa/ (רדא) Syriac: to proceed, move along, continue, flow on, issue, descend, pursue. The Arabic cognate of YaRaD is WaRaD meaning: to arrive to, come to s.o hands, accrue, revenue; arrive successively.
82 – Canaanite – from the root KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. A comparison with related roots such as KaNaS (כנס to enter), KaNaPh (כנף wing, (what is drawn in)), KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon. So Canaan allegorically means one’s being subdued by the many things drawing in from experience from context.
83 – Arad (ערד \aRaaD) Allegorically: driving in without restraint. Probably from RuD (רוד) to run about without restraint (Hs12:1). Related to ערוד swift ass (Jb39:5)
84 – Negev (נגב NeGeBh) Allegorically: to hover over and pick, choose, select, distinguish (from the Arabic). Akk: to pile up; In Aramaic and Hebrew to be dry (probably because the NeGeB is dry); in Arabic – highborn, high minded > noble; (hover over) > to pick, choose, select, distinguish. Related roots of G.B. mean to heap up or hover over. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
85 – way, thresh (דרך – DeReKh). from DaRaKh (דרך) to tread, trample, thresh, walk about, guide and aim.
86 – Atarim (אתרים /aTaaRiM) Allegorically: many things coming forth in experienced, forcefully aligned. The Arabic cognate: pass along, transmit, act upon, influence, produce an affect, have a predilection for; follow in s.o tracks, selfish, impression, tradition. The root evolved from /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come, from which also evolved eT (את – (be aligned) with); /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow) and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment).
87 – (חרמה HhoRMaH) Allegorically: dedicated for confiscation. The roots HhaRaM (חרם) with a secondary (evolved) form of ChaRaM (חרם) evolved from the hiphil of RuM (רום to lift up), HaRyM (הרים) meaning to lift up > remove. In Arabic which still distinguishes between the two forms HhaRaM (חרם) means “take away, deny, exclude, prohibit, declare sacred” while ChaRaM (חרם) means “to carry away / off destroy, annihilate, come to an end, peter out.” The Akkadian means :to cut off, to separate.” To complicate matters more, there is another ChaRaM (חרם) that evolved from ChaRaH (חרה to poke, prod, poke through and perforate) where ChaRaM (חרם) means “net.”
88 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
89 – sea of reeds (ים סוף – Yam SuPh) YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up). The Arabic cognate of SuPh (סוף) means “to look out expectantly and longingly, to look forward to.”
90 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
91 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined > escort). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
92 – dried, light (קלקל Q’LoQaeL) Allegorically: held in light esteem. Derived from QoL (קול voice (channeling)), words from QaLaH mean “to be light” or “to remove from the surface.” QaLaL (קלל make light of, to be swift, to curse > be vile). QaLaH (קלה roast (make light)). In Syriac: קלקל means “to distort, distract, throw into confusion, bring shame upon; to be held in light esteem.”
93 – snake (נחש NaHhaSh) Allegorically: feeling about. From the verb NaHhaSh (נחש) meaning snake, derived from the verb HhuSh (חוש) to sense, feel, experience, and hasten and in Arabic, to grope. The verb NaHhaSh (נחש) in biblical Hebrew means to divine and in modern Hebrew, to guess. Additionally: NaHhoSheT (נחשת) means cooper (probably literally means) what was hastened-coaxed out. Additional proof is available, but itself allegorically based.
94 – to pray (התפלל hitPaLaeL) Allegorically: to go back in forth in consideration. Derived from the root PaLaL (פלל to pray, to consider, to judge) but the essential meaning is “to go back and forth.” whose niphal form means “to stagger and fall” in Ezekiel 28:23. This is the root, from which to fall (נפל NaPhaL) evolved.
95 – Ovoet (אובות /oBhoT) Allegorically: acts of willingly giving forth of oneself, taking notice of things. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.” An /oBh (אוב) is a type of spirit – perhaps from yielding to the spirit that channels through another.
96 – Iyae haa\abharim (עיי העברים \iYaey haa\aBhaRim) Allegorically: acts of twisting about as a result of things passing through. \iYaey (עיי) from \aWaH (עוה – to twist, twist away) AND (העברים haa\aBhaRim) from \aBhaR (עבר) to pass through, cross over.
97 – Moab (מואב Mo/aBh) Allegorically: one’s yearning to give forth of oneself (in taking notice of things). From the verb Ya/aBh (יאב) to yearn-long to give forth of oneself. See Syriac cognate: to pant after, desire, eagerly, long for. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
98 – MiZRaHh (east) (מזרח) Allegorically: place-act of shining forth-throwing oneself forth. From ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out). Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter. And expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate). Related noun: /eZRaHh (אזרח) citizen (one scattered about).
99 – sun (SheMeSh – שמש) Allegorically: unwavering, fortitude, baulking (from the Arabic cognate). The root evolved from ShuM (שום) which essentially means “to stay put.” Hence ShaMaR (שמר – guard, watch), ShaMa\ (שמע – be attentive, listen), ShaMaSh (שמש – to serve, attend to, wait upon) and SuM (שום – to put, place).
100 – brook (נחל NaHhaL) Allegorically: what swirls around. Related to NaHhaL (נחל) (Arb- (swarm around) bee; (spin around) top, dreidel). Probably from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), which evolved into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth. However, NaHhaL could also be from NaHhaH (נחה) which has a sense of leaning in or inclining toward something. Cognate with NaHhaH (נחה) is the Arabic (נחא – to wend one’s way, go, move, walk, turn toward > follow, imitate; BUT Also (incline >) lean, push aside, remove, yield, withdraw), Also from NaHhaH (נחה) is NaHhaL (נחל (to push toward) inherit) and NaHhaT (נחתּ to take down, put at the disposal of, bring, reach for ((Ugaritic)).
101 – ZeReD (זרד) From ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant). From ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out). Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter. And expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
102 – Arnon (ארנון /aRNoN) Allegorically: repetitively looking out upon experience with a mesmerized gaze. Probably meaning “babbling (brook, stream).” RaNaN (רנן) means “to exalt, shout, sing, praise, rejoice.” However, this appears to evolve into unattested RaNaH (רנה) “to make a continuous, monotonous mesmerizing sound” because from that RaNa/ (רנא) is Syriac: meditate, heed, attend, think, reflect, intend to, devise, while in Arabic: to gaze, look intently at; television.
103 – MaTaNaH (מתנה) Allegorically: draw out in time > procrastination. Derived from M.T. roots that have the essential meaning of “to draw out or extend something out in space or time” the related roots MuT (מות to die, be completely drawn out-away), MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out).
104 – Nahhaliel (נחליאל NaHhaLy/aeL) Allegorically: the leanings of advancing forward with initiative. Related to NaHhaL (נחל) (Arb- (swarm around) bee; (spin around) top, dreidel). Probably from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), which evolved into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth. However, NaHhaL could also be from NaHhaH (נחה) which has a sense of leaning in or inclining toward something. Cognate with NaHhaH (נחה) is the Arabic (נחא – to wend one’s way, go, move, walk, turn toward > follow, imitate; BUT Also (incline >) lean, push aside, remove, yield, withdraw), Also from NaHhaH (נחה) is NaHhaL (נחל (to push toward) inherit) and NaHhaT (נחתּ to take down, put at the disposal of, bring, reach for ((Ugaritic)). AND from El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
105 – Bamot (במות) possibly from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
106 – valley, ravine (w/ trees), gorge (narrower) (גיא Gaey/) Allegorically: arching, drawing, leaning inward, bulging over. From GaHaH (גהה) to swell, bulge, hang over, ? draw in / over (Jastro)
107 – Pisgeh (פסגה) Allegoricaaly: many branching paths (upon which one could go). Realted to PaSaG (פסג)(piel) to wander (Ps48:14); (spread apart) to break through branches (Jastro).
108 – haY’shimon (הישימן) Allegorically: repetitively put forth and available in experience. From SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
109 – Amorite (אמרי /aMaRy) Allegorically: tenacious examination. This root evolved from מר (pouring) a drop (Is40:15) and מור myrrh (sticky and bitter). Most Semitic words of the /aMaR (אמר) root mean sticky, or to stick with. Arabic: constantly urging > command; spirit, soul, mind; pericardium, characteristic; Ugaritic: look at, be seen; order, demand; lamb (matted); Akkadian look at, see, inspect, examine, catch sight of; Syriac: muse, preach, expound, say, speak, renounce (declare away from), tell affirm, assert, intend, chant; predict
110 – Sihhon (סיחן Sihhon) Allegorically: musing over things in trying to persuade oneself. From SuaHh – SyaHh(סוח סיח) to converse, talk, persuasive talk (Jastro). which evolved from שׂיח /שׂוח to muse ( = to consider or to say thoughtfully)
111 – (river) Yabok (יבק YaBoQ) Probably meaning “deep holes.” Allegorically: searching deeply. Related: BaQaH (בקה)(to go deeply into) to search, investigate, to become familiar with. BaQa/ (בקא) which in Syriac: to try, search, prove, examine, inquire into.
112 – Hheshbon (חשבון HheShBoN) Allegorically: repetitive calculated consideration. From HhaShaBh (חשב) to consider, regard, have feelings for, think, calculate, devise, think up, invent.
113 – towns (בנות BaNoT) Allegorically: acts of endeavoring into the scene. From daughters (בנות) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
114 – Yazaer (יעזר YaZaeR) Allegorically: getting involved with the things that are all around. From \aZaR (עזר) surround, around. Syriac: entangle, involve, swaddle.
115 – Bashan (בשן BaShaN) Allegorically: repetitively driving in upon something so as to visually fix upon it, yet holding oneself back from engaging. Based on context and (BaShu) Akkadian: (drive in, be close, intimate >) be at hand, available, exist, be on task; be fixed on / attentive; be owned.
116 – Og (עוג \oG) Allegorically: heedfully going around and around the scene. Related to מעוג?encircling, drawing inward (Ps35:16); from עגג עוג to draw, make a cake (Jastro) to go in a circle (Gesen). Cognate with עג (Arabic: (go around >) swarm, teem, swirl up, raise; omelet, cloud of dust; raised voice, cry, roar, rage).
117 – to engage in battle (מלחמה MiLHhaMah) Allegorically: an engagement, getting in closely. Derived from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
118 – Edre-iy (אדרעי /eDRe\iY) Allegorically: taking particular things into one’s hand. From DaRa\ (דרע) Syriac: to steer, rule, take any one by the arm); Arabic: (?to arm?) to armor, equip with armor). Probably from ZaRoa\ (זרוע) arm.

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About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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