In 1901, when Dr. Alois Alzheimer started talking to his patient Mrs. Auguste Deter, a 50-year-old patient, he immediately realized that there was something wrong with her. Her responses to his questions were not only repetitive and wrong, but she quickly seemed to forget them. Sadly, she was aware of her helplessness, which caused her considerable distress.
Dr. Alzheimer decided to place her in an isolation room, but later she started showing clear symptoms of dementia: loss of memory, delusions, sleeping problems. She would even scream for hours in the middle of the night. He called her disease the “Disease of Forgetfulness.” We now know that Alzheimer’s is a progressive, degenerative disorder in which the cells in the brain become damaged, causing the symptoms described above.
In 1902, Dr. Alzheimer left the “Irrenschloss” (Castle of the Insane) as the institution was informally known and moved from Frankfurt to Munich. However, he made frequent calls to Frankfurt to learn the health status of his former patient. On April 9, 1906, he was told that Mrs. Auguste Deter had died. He requested that her medical records and brain be immediately sent to him.
When he examined her brain, he found in it senile plaques and tangles that are the hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. In 1906, he described his findings to the South-West German Society of Alienists, among them the loss of brain mass and the degeneration of critical areas of the brain.
Although Alzheimer’s disease has no cure, certain measures related mainly to lifestyle can delay its onset in many patients. Delaying by a few years the onset of symptoms can greatly reduce the number of people suffering from this disease who may eventually benefit from newer treatments.
Alzheimer’s disease appears generally in people over 65. However, there is a variety called early-onset dementia (the one suffered by Mrs. Auguste Deter) that can occur in people between 30 and 65. Alzheimer’s, together with diabetes, heart disease, and arthritis, are complex diseases that can be caused by a variety of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors.
We can control some risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease, although we cannot control all of them. Age and genetic makeup cannot be changed. However, there are other risk factors –mainly associated with our lifestyle- for Alzheimer’s that we can influence.
By addressing those factors, about 35 percent of cases of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia could be delayed or prevented.
Among the actions we can take is to keep our cholesterol, blood sugar level and blood pressure under control, since it has been shown that when they are not between normal levels it increases the risk of Alzheimer’s. Although these strategies have proven to be helpful for many people, they will not necessarily stave off Alzheimer’s, since they depend on each person’s individual genetic makeup and lifestyle.
Importance of changing lifestyle habits
A growing body of research has proven that changing long-standing lifestyle habits can significantly reduce the risks of developing Alzheimer’s or delay its onset. Swedish and Finnish researchers studied more than a thousand people whose ages were between 60 and 77, and found that those who changed their lifestyle were able to have their dementia diagnosis delayed by two years and also reduce the prevalence of the disease by 25 percent.
One of the most important strategies to prevent Alzheimer’s is to get physically and mentally active. Several studies have shown that physical activity is one of the most effective measures for Alzheimer’s protection. Also important are all the actions tending to exercise our brains. Learning new activities and languages, reading, and doing puzzles are useful ways to stimulate our brain.
In a study with older adults, those who received as few as 10 sessions of mental stimulation significantly improved their cognitive functioning in daily activities, and the effects lasted even 10 years later. Closely associated with this activity is maintaining an active social life and network of friends. The more socially connected we are the better is our memory and our cognitive skills.
Importance of a good diet
Also among the basic strategies to combat Alzheimer is having a healthy diet with plenty of vegetables, beans, whole grains, fish and olive oil, all elements present in the Mediterranean diet. In addition, we should eliminate smoking, drink moderate amounts of alcohol and, when possible, eat food without preservatives, dyes, antibiotics and hormones, most of which are particularly present in processed foods.
A healthy diet and an active lifestyle are the best ways of having a healthy brain. We should also try to have a regular sleep schedule and eliminate stress in our lives, which can be done through the practice of meditation. Protecting hearing and treating hearing loss is also important since it allows better social interaction. These measures will not necessarily prevent Alzheimer’s, but they will go a long way to delaying its pernicious effects.
Dr. César Chelala is an international public health consultant, and winner of several journalism awards.