Paqid Yirmeyahu
historical, logical, archeological, scientific Tanakh Halakhah

In Situ (Historic-scientific context=reality): Pᵊqud•eiꞋ

(“monitorings / musterings of…”)

Follow the Mi•shᵊkanꞋ that’s following that cloud!

Israel followed the Mi•shᵊkanꞋ, that followed the Ark, that followed the cloud of smoke & fire

Before cynics baselessly claim scientific basis for dismissing the •nânꞋ (cloud) of smoke & fire in the wilderness of Sin•aiꞋ as a fairytale, they must take into account the timing of the Yᵊtzi•âhꞋ, which is unignorably coincident with the greatest volcanic eruption in recorded history: Santorini-Thera, 885 km (550 mi.) NNW of Egypt. Complicating the picture, events that are 14C-dated (e.g., by geological and volcanological scientists; the High Chronology) correspond to Egyptian records that are dated approximately 175 years later by archeologists (the Low Chronology). Thus, the 14C-dating – and tree-ring dating – of the eruption of Santorini-Thera points to ca. B.C.E. 1628, which is the same set of events as the archeological dating of the Egyptian 18 Dynasty – the time of the Yᵊtzi•âhꞋ ca. B.C.E. 1453!I

Archeological Dating vs Scientific Dating

No, archeology is not yet a science. It is still an art, carried out by Arts (Humanities) majors. This situation is changing (see the Archeological Sciences Doctoral program at The Weizmann Institute).

One of the dating methodologies errs by (or both err a total of) 175 years, but the events, at least roughly, coincide. Either both occurred ca. B.C.E. 1628 or both occurred ca. B.C.E. 1453, depending on which dating eventually proves more correct. So the question really is: Was the Santorini eruption in ca. B.C.E. 1453? Or did Pharaoh TuthMoses, his daughter, future Queen-Pharaoh Khât-shepꞋset, and Moses (Sen-en-mut?) live, and the Yᵊtzi•âhꞋ occur, ca. B.C.E. 1628?

Aside from the effects of the •nânꞋ (cloud) of smoke & fire in explaining many aspects of the 10 Plagues (days of darkness, polluting of rivers, tsunamis up to 150m high alternately draining and flooding the “sea of marsh-reeds”), the Santorini-Thera eruption sent plumes of glowing smoke clouds 30-35 km into the stratosphere, where the prevailing northwesterly winds blew the •nânꞋ (cloud) of smoke & fire toward the Nile Delta and Sin•aiꞋ. Even before the arrival of the •nânꞋ (cloud) of smoke & fire, it would likely have been visible in the northern sky, bending to the southeast – appearing, to observers in the Sin•aiꞋ, to point toward Yi•sᵊr•â•eilꞋ – except when the wind changed.

At least since the Yᵊtzi•âhꞋ, the •nânꞋ (cloud) of smoke & fire was the sign of י-​-ה, the Kᵊvōd י-​-ה or Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ (the Neighboring), guiding Yi•sᵊr•â•eilꞋ in the wilderness of Sin•aiꞋ. It was likely fire carefully preserved from this •nânꞋ that was regarded as the Eish QōꞋdësh (Holy Fire) used exclusively on the Altars.

Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ: from the heavens & located in Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ; RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ: in the individual

Associating the •nânꞋ (cloud) of smoke & fire with the Kᵊvōd י-​-ה and Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ corroborated and reinforced their ancient view of the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ as “in the heavens”; in contradistinction from the ancient view of the RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ (Spirit of Holiness) that dwelled within the individual Bën or Bat Yi•sᵊr•â•eilꞋ. Correspondingly, it was the Kᵊvōd י-​-ה, the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ, that was located not within the individual, but within the Mi•shᵊkanꞋ, and later the First Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ (House of the Holy-Place) in Yᵊru•shâ•laꞋyim.

The Kᵊvōd י-​-ה / Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ departs from the First Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ

When the Kᵊvōd י-​-ה / Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ departed from the First Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ as noted in both Ta•na”khꞋ and Ta•lᵊmudꞋ, only the RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ, within the individual remained. Over time, the RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ became identified with the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ.

The Hellenization of the Second Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ

The Hellenization of the Second Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ into “the Temple” by the Ko•heinꞋ RëshꞋa (DSS “Wicked Priest”) in B.C.E. 175, prompted Yi•sᵊr•â•eilꞋ to see a distinction between the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ “from the heavens,” which could not dwell in the now-Hellenized “Temple” in Yᵊru•shâ•laꞋyim, in contradistinction to the RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ within the individual.

“The Realm of the heavens has come” to Israel (RibꞋi Yᵊho•shuꞋa, 1st century C.E.)

Recognition that the Hellenist-Tzᵊdoq•imꞋ (“Sadducees”) profaned “Temple” could not be the shâ•khanꞋ (neighboring place) of the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ (Neighboring), while continuing to experience the RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ within on a personal level, resulted in a convergence of the two. The result is that the shâ•khanꞋ of the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ had “come from the Kingdom of the heavens” to converge with the RuꞋakh ha-Qō•deshꞋ – within the heart of every TōrꞋâh keeper of Yi•sᵊr•â•eilꞋ.

Follow the building? Or the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ?

This raises a critical question: when the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ departed the building, going separate ways, which should we subsequently follow for guidance, the Kᵊvōd י-​-ה / Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ or the building?

Today, we can understand the prophecy of Yi•rᵊmᵊyâhꞋu (31.30-33) that every individual TōrꞋâh keeper would have the bᵊrit of TōrꞋâh in their heart – lowering the final curtain on all intermediary teachers. Henceforth, you shall know; no longer be taught. No longer is there to be a priest-like cleric class ruling over Israel.

So, today, do you follow the cloud of fiery smoke, the Shᵊkhin•âhꞋ, or will you build yet another Temple vulnerable to physical vagaries of nature and enemies. The Creator-Singularity is י-​-ה. Not even His universe will fit in such a box.

Next: the House of Prayer for all kindreds

Corroborating this, the prophesied next building on Har ha-BaꞋyit is a Beit Tᵊphil•âhꞋ (“House of Prayer”; Yᵊsha•yâhꞋu 56.7), and for all kindreds – not a Third Beit Mi•qᵊdâshꞋ.

Details and more on this and every pâ•râsh•âhꞋ in the clickable Beit K’nesset icon, in the left (navigation) panel of our digital village at

About the Author
Paqid Yirmᵊyahu (Ben-​David), Orthodox Jew & 16th Paqid of the Nᵊtzarim, dedicated to the historical, logical, archeological, scientific interpretations of Tanakh; B.Sc.B.A. (UF) and Master's work in computer science (artificial intelligence and knowledge based networks, UCF); former intelligence analyst (USAF); made aliya with his wife, Karen, (Law of Re­turn '85), served in the IDF (despite being age-exempt) and Israel Police Reserves, belonged to Or­thodox Yemenite syna­gogue 10 yrs in Ra'anana where they live today. In addition to the sole Netzarim website (, his commentaries have been published in magazines and newspapers from the Orlando Sentinel and Toronto Mensa to The Jerusalem Post, Times of Israel and Ynet. He has also authored many books available in the Netzarim website or Amazon; including: Who Are The Netzarim?, Atonement Under the Biblical 'New Covenant', The Netzarim Reconstruction of Hebrew Matityahu (NHM), The 1993 Covenant (of Daniel 9.27), Pishtah Kheihah (The Flickering-out Remnant, Yᵊshayahu 42.3) and The Mirrored Sphinxes (revealing Moses' Egyptian Pharaonic secret knowledge & symbolism for prayer and relating to the Divinity).
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