Yoni Mozeson
FInding God's hiding places

Midrash Tanchuma Beshalach: The rebellion to be “unchosen.”

The Manna was all about testing the Jewish People.

“And Hashem said to Moshe, “I will rain down bread for you from the sky, and the people shall go out and gather each day that day’s portion so that I can  test them, to see whether they will follow My Torah or not.” (Shemot 16:4)

Yet not long after that miracle you see a role reversal. The Jewish People are “testing” God and doubting whether God was in their midst or not:

The place was named Massah and Merivah, because the Jewish People quarreled and because they tested (their relationship with) God, by questioning, “Is God in our midst or not?”’ (Exodus 17:7)

After so many open miracles it is hard to understand how they could question God’s involvement in their lives? The Midrash seems to be seeking the psychological motivation behind this unusual phenomenon. 

God’s answer to the test

Midrash Tanchuma offers three opinions concerning the complaint of the people. It actually took the form of an ultimatum. If God didn’t accept their conditions of governance, they would rebel.

 God’s response to being tested came in the very next verse.  The unprovoked attack by Amalek –  a people that stand for an inexplicable hatred of Jews throughout Jewish history.

There are three opinions in the Midrash about the exact nature of the complaint against God:

We want to be like everyone else

“Rabbi Yehudah said “If God runs the world with the same principles that govern the Jewish People, we will worship God. But if we are governed by different principles, we will rebel.” 

Perhaps they were rebelling against God’s intense scrutiny. The people  were being miraculously fed, clothed, and protected in their journey through the desert. It was their perception  that other nations were not under as intense a gaze as they were. There was a yearning to be like everyone else. Therefore, the people  declared that if they can live under the same system of divine justice as the rest of the world, they will serve God, otherwise they will rebel. 

Why would an attack from Amalek serve as a fitting response. Perhaps God is sending a message. “Sorry, there is indeed a double standard. The Jewish People were chosen for a unique mission and destiny. Thus the increased scrutiny.

Throughout Jewish history, when Jews assimilated to be like everyone else, there was often increased antisemitism.  Amalek has taken on different disguises, only recognizable by their irrational, genocidal, hatred of the Jews.

Too much drama. Too many curve balls.

Rabbi Nechemia offers another take on the Jewish People’s test of allegiance.

“If He supplies us with food, just as a king does when he is praised and honored by the people upon entering a city.  And if on that basis He satisfies all our needs, we will serve Him, but if He does not do so, we will rebel against Him”

Perhaps the Jews were reacting to their short but tumultuous history. Slavery, plagues, the splitting of the Red Sea. On their first stop in the desert there was no water until there was a miracle. The next stop had springs and date palm trees. However there was no food at the next stop. This was resolved by the great miracle of Manna and quail. At the next stop there was no water again so Moshe hit the rock to miraculously supply water.  

Could it be that the Jewish People were feeling that there is too much drama in life. They want the rest of Jewish history to unfold in a simple and predictable manner – like a king whom you praise because he takes care of you. No curve balls. Nothing unexpected. 

Perhaps the attack from Amalek is God’s way of saying “Sorry for the rude awakening. But your lack of faith is the cause of the drama. It’s okay to ask for water. But don’t scream about how you had better food in Egypt and you want to go back. After all the supernatural miracles that I performed, can’t you muster a little faith?” 

We were taken out of Egypt to develop into a great nation. Unfortunately, nothing builds faith like being saved by vicious enemies. So every time we forget who runs the world we will need another tragic reminder in the form of Amalek.

Anticipating our needs

The Rabbis offer a third opinion:

“If we know in our hearts what we need, and He (God) knows what we are thinking, we will serve Him, but if not, we will not serve Him.”

Perhaps they said to God. “Let’s face it, you’re God. You know what we need without us having to express it. So, how about if You (God) just anticipate our needs and take care of us.” Like a candy machine that gives you your selection by reading your mind.

Once again, the attack of Amalek is God’s way of responding. God does indeed know what is in their hearts. However, feeling Jewish in your heart is not the kind of relationship God is seeking. The ideals of the Torah have to be translated into action. Judaism is not a religion for bystanders. We have to pray to God and study hard in order to seek to understand and build a relationship with God. We have to work on our own character and perform precepts that enhance our relationship with our fellow man and with God. 

The attack by Amalek is real. The fear is real. The gratitude upon being saved and the lessons learned are real. 

Sorry, God wasn’t looking for a nation of mentalists.

The ungrateful son 

The Midrash spells out God’s frustration with the doubts that the people had raised:

“I am living in your midst and I am taking care of everything you may need, and yet you say, “Is the Lord among us or not?” By your lives, I swear that the dog (Amalek) shall come and bite you, and you will cry to Me and then you will know where I am!”

The Midrash sums it up with this parable:

“A man carried his son upon his shoulder, and went out on a journey. The son saw an item he wanted and said, ‘Father, pick up that thing and give it to me’. His father gave it to him. It happened a second time and a third time. They met a certain man and the son asked him, ‘Have you seen my father anywhere?’ Whereupon his father said to his son,’Don’t you know where I am?’ The father cast his son off his shoulder and a dog came and bit him.”

Amalek the marriage counselor of last resort

The attack of Amalek served as a bitter lesson about assuming the role as the Chosen People. They  were soon going to receive the Torah. The prophets often compared this historic event to a wedding. God is the bride and the Jewish People are the groom. Although the groom will prove to be unfaithful, the bride will never abandon the relationship . Unfortunately it will sometimes take the unwelcome intervention of Amalek to restore harmony. 

A lesson that will be lost and found throughout the millennia.

About the Author
(Almost 100 Midrash Video summaries can be found on my youtube playlist: After college and Semicha at Yeshiva University my first pulpit was Ogilvy where I wrote TV commercials for brands like American Express, Huggies and Duracell. My passion is Midrash Tanchuma. I am an Architect of Elegant Marketing Solutions at We are living in (where else) the Nachlaot neighborhood of Jerusalem.
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