Rosh HaShanah is followed by Aseret Yemei Teshuvah—Ten Days of Repentance—the days between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. Teshuvah-penitence, which is the main mitzvah (precept) of the Ten Days of Repentance, also has three themes: charota—regret for the past (past), vidui—confession (present), and kabalat l’osid—resolution for the future (future). Once again, we are bringing together past, present, and future.

Yom Kippur that concludes Aseret Yemei Teshuvah also has teshuvah-repentance as its main theme. We repent for the past misdeeds. Teshuvah, therefore, mainly relates to the past. Yom Kippur literally means the Day of Atonement. Indeed, the main purpose of the day is to atone the Jewish People. Atonement happens on Yom Kippur in the present time. But it comes with the judgment for the coming year, for which we all are inscribed and sealed in the Book of Life—this is related to the future. This is why the service of Yom Kippur is concluded with a cheerful exclamation, Next Year in Jerusalem! As we see, Yom Kippur also brings together past, present, and future.

The Kabbalah teaches that the four days between Yom Kippur and Sukkot correspond to the four letters of Tetragrammaton, YHWH (or YHVH). As the Sages teach, this Name means Hayah (He was), Hoveh (He is), and Yihieh (He will be). Once again, this period brings together past, present, and future.

And now we come to Sukkot, Feast of Tabernacles.  Sukkot is all about time. In Biblical times, on Sukkot, the number of oxen brought for daily sacrifice in the Holy Temple, Bet HaMikdash, changed every day. As mentioned above, change is the essence of time. This is the reason why every day of Sukkot we say full Hallel. On Sukkot, we dwell in a sukka-booth (tabernacle) in remembrance of our travels in the Sinai desert after the Exodus from Egypt. Looking at the s’khakh (makeshift roof made of organic materials such as bamboo sticks or tree-branches) of the sukkah, we remember how God protected children of Israel in such booths in the desert. We also remember ananei hakavod—the clouds of glory that protected children of Israel from the desert sun. All that reminds us of our nation’s past. However, one can only sit in the sukkah-booth in the present time. S’khakh is etymologically related to the word iskah derived from the Aramaic root denoting seeing. Iscah (the spelling in Hebrew is the same as iskah) was of the names of Sarah, the prophetess, signifying her extraordinary prophetic powers. She had even greater prophetic power than Abraham, which why God told Abraham, “Listen to your wife Sarah!” By gazing at the skhakh of the sukkah, we draw the spirit of prophecy, the ability to predict the future. Generally, the Talmud states that Simchat Beit HaSho’evah, the water libation ceremony conducted in Biblical times every night of Sukkot was the source of prophetic power in Israel. Hence, we again have a combination of past, present, and future.

The holiday of Sukkot concludes with Simchat Torah. On this Holiday we do three things: we finish the annual cycle of reading the Torah, by reading its last portion, Vezot HaBrachah (this is related to the past year); we start the new annual cycle of reading the Torah, by reading its first portion, Bereshit (this relates to the coming year—the future); and we dance with Torah scrolls—one can only dance in the present. Once again, this Festival brings together past, present, and future.

May this coming year bring health, happiness, and peace. And may we all be written and sealed in the Book of Life for a good and sweet year—L’Shanah Tovah!

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