Curaçao is a small island (around 170 square miles) located off the north coast of Venezuela. Culturally diverse, with influences from Europe and West Africa, Curaçao is home to approximately 190,000 residents. UNESCO has recognized its capital city, Willemstad, as a World Heritage Site, and the brightly colored buildings are one of the country’s most recognizable features. Tourism is a key industry, and the island capitalizes on the concept of Dushi, which means sweet, nice, or good.
Walking along the streets of Willemstad, visitors can find a Jewish influence all around them. At one time, Sephardic Jews made up half of the white population of Curacao, and today their presence is felt at every level of society. For example, the owner of the famed Senior Curacao Liqueur comes from one of the old families, and many of the present businesses and buildings are owned by the descendants of crypto-Jews, those who practiced their religion secretly following the Inquisition. One of the most popular sights is the Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue, which is the oldest, continually used, synagogue in the Western Hemisphere. But the Jewish influence on this beautiful small island goes much deeper than those walls.
A brief timeline of Curacao’s Jewish history
Curacao’s Jewish roots originated in Spain when the country was still half Christian, half Moorish. Living among those two religions were Sephardic Jews. In 1492, the Sephardic population experienced a major attack beginning with The Edict of Expulsion. Along with the Moorish people, the Jews either had to leave Spain or convert to Christianity. The majority decided to flee the country to a place where they felt safe to practice their religion. Those who stayed behind converted to Christianity, but in many cases, this was just for appearances — in between the safe walls of their home, the “Conversos” still secretly practiced their religion until the Holy Inquisition in Spain, which again targeted the Jews. To escape prosecution, many Conversos decided to cross the border and settle in Portugal, which at that time was still soft on Jews. At the end of the 16th century, the pressure on the Conversos in Portugal became too strong and again they had to seek a new place to call home. During the 15th and 16th centuries, many Jews left Spain and Portugal to live in Amsterdam, where freedom of religion was highly valued. This was their first tie to the island, as Curaçao would later become a Dutch colony. The colonization of the island led the first Jew, Samuel Cohen, to set foot on the island.
The first Jews on the island.
It was July 29, 1634, when Samuel Cohen, a translator on board a Dutch ship, came to Curaçao as part of the country’s mission to seize the island from the Spaniards. The Dutch then used Curaçao as their naval base to attack Spanish fleets. After the Peace of Westphalia/Peace of Münster, the island was no longer of use to them and the Dutch contemplated leaving. But first, the West Indian Company (WIC) decided to check if there was interest among Dutch citizens to build a life on the island. The primary selling point they used was its agricultural business opportunities. It was in 1651 that the Portuguese Jew Joao d’Yllan accepted the offer being made by WIC. He promised to bring 50 settlers with him, but he only brought 12, and most of them were Jews. Joao had experience with agriculture, but he did not succeed as a farmer. Later, a larger group of Jews from the same congregation, led by Isaac da Costa, came to the island to start an agriculture business. He failed to succeed and so they all moved to the city. With their connections and expertise, they started importing goods from Amsterdam and other harbor cities to sell on the island.
The rise of the community
As the Jewish community in Curaçao continued to grow, so did their wealth. To this day, many well-established stores in the city (and outside) are of Jewish descendants. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Jews started branching out into other industries. The Sephardic families Jesurun, Naar, and Maduro released their silver penny and started with the production and circulation of their paper currency. The Jewish firm Maduro & Sons were responsible for the demolition of the city walls of Willemstad. In exchange, they received part of the land that would be exposed after the demolishment. They were also successful in the shipping industry. S.E.L Maduro & Sons, a very well-known Jewish company, was responsible for building the first oil tanker that traveled from Maracaibo (Venezuela) to Curaçao. One of the notable influences of the Spanish/Portuguese-Jewish community in Curaçao can be found in the local language. Papiamentu — a mix of Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and African languages — contains dozens of words of Hebrew origin. As for the name of the island, Curaçao, it is believed to be a derivative of the Portuguese word coração, meaning heart.
The Senior family was once part of a group of Conversos in Spain that eventually fled to the Netherlands and Brazil. Several sons of Mordechai Senior, who was born in Amsterdam in 1620, emigrated to Curaçao. Edgar Senior was one of the descendants of this family. Like many families on the island, they had an influential role. Together with his partner Haim Mendes Chumaceiro, Edgar Senior ran a pharmacy in the city called Botika Excelsior. This is where he first started producing the Senior Curaçao Liqueur, one of the country’s most famous exports.
The marks the Jewish community left on Curaçao and continues to do so, are visible in every corner of the island. You can find it in the street names, the language, the buildings, and industries like finance, shipping, the production of the world-famous Curaçao liqueur and much more. A Curaçao without the Jewish community is pretty much unthinkable.
Mikve Israel Emanuel Synagogue, the Jewish Museum, and mikveh.
Mikvé Israel-Emanuel (MIE) Synagogue — often referred to as the Snoa, another term for a synagogue — is the oldest surviving synagogue and Jewish congregation in the Americas.
Founded in Curaçao in 1651, the congregation’s original name translates to “The Hope of Israel.” The synagogue itself began construction in 1729, was completed in 1732 and has been in continuous use ever since. The synagogue is tucked into a quiet street in the Punda neighborhood of Willemstad, the historic capital city of Curaçao. Though it has an inconspicuous exterior, once you step inside, you’ll find rows of pews, towering chandeliers, and a shining mahogany bimah. I was moved by the words emblazoned in Hebrew above the archway into and out of the synagogue courtyard, “Blessed may you be in your entrance” and “Blessed may you be in your departure.” Amen. On the right-hand side of the black-and-white-tiled courtyard is the historic synagogue building, where every Shabbat and Jewish holiday has been celebrated since 1732.
As you walk around the synagogue, your feet sink softly into the floor of sand (it has about 8 inches of sand covering the entire floor imported from Suriname), a legacy of the past when congregants would muffle the sounds of their praying, for security reasons. The other two reasons involve connections to the desert, of the Jews wandering for 40 years following the exodus from Egypt; the sand also symbolizes the promise God made to Abraham to multiply his seed “as the sands of the seashore.” I am glad they kept it that way, giving it a unique charm. Today, there are just four synagogues that carry on the distinctly Dutch-Portuguese tradition of sand-covered floors. The others are in Kingston, Jamaica; Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands; and Paramaribo, Suriname (which, while technically being in South America, is considered a Caribbean territory) and in the Portuguese Synagogue of Amsterdam. MIE boasts 18 Torah scrolls that are more than 300 years old. Several dates back to the 1400s, which means that they must have come with the Sephardim who fled Spain in 1492 after the Edict of Expulsion.
Take a look at the pipe organ, a beautiful and powerful 150-year-old instrument that was a gift from the Netherlands government. Dress for warm weather, as the shul has no air conditioning, only fans, and pick a breezy row to keep cool. Rene Maduro proudly told our group of Jewish journalists about the synagogue’s history, which includes the almost-obligatory classic schism over religious observances. Mikve Israel was originally an Orthodox synagogue, while a breakaway group built the rival Reform Temple Emanuel in 1864. Over time, a compromise was reached and the congregations reunited in 1964 to form the Reconstructionist Congregation Mikve Israel-Emanuel, in the original 1732 building. The members, while dwindling in numbers, are devoted to honoring their ancestors, their temple, and their religion. Every Friday night and Saturday morning, there is an egalitarian Reconstructionist service in English and Hebrew, filled with the sounds of the grand pipe organ that was first built in 1866 and restored shortly after the congregation’s 350th anniversary. A local from the Adventist church plays it on the Sabbath so the congregants do not have to violate that aspect of Halacha. Though the number of Jews on the island is decreasing — Maduro estimates just 250 Jews between Mikve Israel-Emanuel and the Ashkenazi Orthodox Shaarei Tsedek — those who remain are committed to Jewish life. There are a Hebrew school and an active BBYO chapter. Extended families routinely share Shabbat dinners. All take pride in the long history of their beloved Snoa.
Rabbi Georgette Kennebrae is the spiritual leader of Mikve Israel-Emanuel in Curaçao. Rabbi Georgette Kennebrae was born in Japan and had lived in numerous countries, including Turkey and France. Rabbi Kennebrae graduated from the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College in 2017 and is a Wexner Graduate Fellow Alum (Class 26) and a Schusterman Fellow. She previously served as the rabbi of West End Synagogue in Manhattan and works towards building healthier, full energy, through both social activism and pastoral care. In August 2022, a Musical Farewell Concert Honored Hazzan Avery Tracht who served as the synagogue’s spiritual leader since 2005.
It is surprising to hear the Mikvé Israel community is not speaking in Dutch or Portuguese, but Papiamentu, the native language of Curacao. For most Jews, including those born and raised here, this is their first language.
As with other synagogues in the Caribbean, Mikvé Israel-Emanuel has become a venue for destination weddings, bar mitzvahs, and bat mitzvahs, but mainly for wealthy families from the United States. The synagogue hosts about a dozen bar mitzvahs or bat mitzvahs annually, but it’s the cruise ship visitors who supply the most substantial boost to Curacao’s economy. In 2021, cruise ships brought more than 146231 people to Curaçao and many of them went to see the synagogue, paying a $10 U.S. fee to see its treasures. By sharing their beloved synagogue with visitors, Curaçao’s Jews offer a doorway to history, a place to reflect, and a calm sanctuary in a busy world. It’s a humble site. Just enter, stand still for a moment, and smell, hear, and see history all around you. The Jewish Cultural Historical Museum contains information on the island’s Jewish community and history as well as artifacts such as old Torah scrolls and spice boxes, the oldest being a Torah scroll smuggled out of Spain in the late 1300s. The museum occupies a two-story building. It is quite small, easy to navigate, and houses a lot of interesting artifacts. One of my favorite exhibits tells the stories of the nannies of Jewish children. Known as “Yayas” in the local Creole language, Papiamentu, the Yayas were black slaves or former slaves who looked after the children of wealthy Jewish households.
The museum displays circumcision chairs from the 1700s. The 300-year–old Jewish ritual bath or mikveh at the museum entrance, now defunct, is an amazing piece of history in and of itself. This museum contains many historical documents, original clothing, World War II memorabilia, and even a section dedicated to Anne Frank, the Dutch-Jewish girl famous for her diary kept during the Holocaust. Another piece to notice is a huge silver battered platter. Unlike the Ashkenazi or Eastern Europeans, the custom of stepping on the glass during a wedding, the Sephardim of Curacao through the glass into the platter, and the marks remain forever. The museum contains exhibits that refer back to the Dutch heritage and the original roots of the community dating back to the Spanish Inquisition and expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal, with interesting family trees and photos. There is even a letter from George Washington. In case you don’t make it to the Jewish cemetery, they have some of the headstones here (replicas) which are quite unusual and beautiful. The museum may be small in comparison to most, but the quality of the exhibit is truly exceptional. A work of love is the best way to describe this wonderful and permanent treasure trove.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Ashkenazi Jews, predominantly from Central Europe, began arriving in Curaçao. Like their brethren in the United States, they took up work in jobs such as peddling goods before becoming shop owners just as prominent as their Sephardic neighbors. The Ashkenazi immigrants established a social center and sports club and dedicated their congregational building called Shaarei Tzedek in 1959 in Willemstad’s Scharloo neighborhood.
In the 1980s, the congregation sold the building to move to a more suburban location, although it’s a new building, which features a stunning glass dome, was not completed and dedicated until 2006. Rabbi Ariel Yeshurun, originally from Israel, with his wife Ruhama led the shul for 11 years before leaving to assume a pulpit in North Miami Beach, Florida. Shaarei Tsedek continues to follow Ashkenazi Orthodox customs, though Sephardi Jews attend services, too.
The community welcomed Chabad Rabbi Refoel Silver and his wife, Chani (who grew up in New York and Paris respectively), and their daughter, Chaya. Rabbi Silver and his wife run the synagogue with much enthusiasm and vigor and the community has embraced them dearly. They serve Shaarei Tzedek and cater to the needs of the entire Jewish population of Curaçao: Sephardic, Ashkenazic, the unaffiliated, tourists, and everyone in between. The Silvers are already doing an amazing job of growing Jewish life on the island and fostering religious growth among the residents and tourists. For example, the Silvers have greeted over 70 Jews for Rosh Hashanah services and dinner, fasted and commemorated Yom Kippur with the Jewish community, and hosted the island’s first-ever “Sushi and Scotch” Sukkot party. Many new programs have been initiated by Chani Silver, including the first challah bake for about 20 Jewish women on the island, a “Mommy & Me,” weekly lunch-and-learns, classes for both men and women, and the first event of Chabad’s newly established Women’s Circle. The growth is due in part to “tourism that has expanded in recent years,” reports Rabbi Silver, especially in the past year with more direct flights being added and the construction of an additional pier for cruise ships. So the influx of Jewish tourists arrives in big numbers from all across the world”. He added, “We are trying to reach every single Jew, from the families who have been here for hundreds of years to the tourists who wander in, not knowing much about their Judaism. We are here for every one of them.”
A visit to Curacao’s two Jewish cemeteries further illuminates the island’s past. Beth Haim Jewish Cemetery, established in the 17th century, is not only the oldest Jewish cemetery in Curacao but is believed to be the oldest in the Western Hemisphere. The cemetery can only be visited by car and is next to the refinery built by the Shell corporation. The first Jews founded Beth Haim (“House of Life”) in 1659 soon after arriving. The name refers to the Jewish belief in the immortality of the soul. The holy terrain is home to 2,500 above-ground historic tombstones, many of which have been adorned with beautiful sculptures. The inscriptions on the gravestones are in Portuguese, Hebrew, Spanish, English, Dutch, and French and there is also one in Yiddish. There are no inscriptions in Judeo-Spanish, a language spoken by Sephardic Jews.
Unfortunately, the oil refinery that was built nearby has deteriorated many of the old stones. The last burials held in this cemetery were in the 1950s. At the far end of the cemetery are two white, nondescript buildings. One of them has two stories and is for the priestly Cohens who, for reasons of purity, are not allowed to have contact with the dead. Instead, they were able to climb to the second floor and watch the somber funeral proceedings through a large window. The other building was designated to accommodate an old Sephardic tradition. The coffin of the deceased, surrounded by seven candles, was laid on a bier in the center of the building and circled seven times by mourners reciting psalms before the coffin was placed in the ground. A prominent recurring symbol on the gravestones is a hand with an ax that chops down a tree in its prime; the tree represents the life of the deceased. When a baby died (which one out of three did), the ax fells a flower and the grief is almost palpable across the centuries. Sometimes a person’s profession is remembered – like ships for merchants – and other times the dead person’s name is connected to his Biblical namesake. Replicas of some of the elaborate tombstones can be seen at the entrance to the Curacao Jewish Museum located adjacent to Mikve Israel-Emanuel Synagogue in Punda.
There are dozens of tombstones with skulls and crossbones in the Jewish cemetery, for instance, but they have nothing to do with pirates. “The skull and crossbones [may have] its origin in our past, when our ancestors became Christians following the Inquisition,” as Emlyn, our tour guide, explained. The newer, “modern” Jewish cemetery from 1880 called Beit Haim Berg Altena has above-ground neo-Classical tombstones over the graves and is much closer to Willemstad. Originally much smaller than it is today, Reform Congregation Temple Emanuel purchased and consecrated “Beit Haim Berg Altena” for its use after the split from the then-Orthodox Mikvé Israel in 1864. Some 20 years later, Congregation Mikvé Israel purchased a large piece of land adjacent to the cemetery and started burying members there as well. The boundary walls physically separating the Mikvé Israel and Emanuel plots were demolished between the two Sephardic congregations in 1964.
Another cultural landmark with Jewish roots is the Country House Landhuis Bloemhof, which is located on one of the smaller plantations of the island. The archives of the property have been well preserved and show that it was first sold in 1735. Exhibitions, lectures, and creative workshops are ongoing in this inspiring ambiance surrounded by antique furniture. The building used to be a synagogue and an empty cistern on site is believed to have served as a mikvah (Jewish ritual bath).
A drive through the Scharloo area of Willemstad, the capital, provides other glimpses into the Sephardic past. The multi-colored, wedding-cake-like mansions were owned by many wealthy Jews and white Protestants. In the 18th century, Curaçao was a bustling port, and shipyard owners were making good money. What to do with all that new wealth? They decided to build mansions on the land next to the harbor, so they could row to the nearby town center.
The neighborhood became a center for Curaçao’s Ashkenazi Jewish community. Ashkenazi Jews originally came from Eastern Europe and migrated to the Caribbean finding great success as merchants. In the 19th century, these merchants began to compete to see who would own the most ornate and fabulous mansion.
The green mansion pictured above, for example, was built in 1916. It is called “The Bride’s Cake”. The building now houses the National Archives of Curaçao. A curvy yellow mansion now houses the Maritime Museum, and a mint greenhouse became a hotel. The cost of maintaining the palatial residences became prohibitive in the last century and they were abandoned by their owners, who moved to suburbia. Today many have been restored and serve as offices for international companies and banks. This neighborhood of Scharloo is a place for vibrant, historic architecture.
For more information:
To plan a trip to Curacao, contact the Curacao Tourist Board or log on to https://www.curacao.com/en/
The author took part in a press trip sponsored by the Curacao Tourist Board.