A timeline of Portugal’s Sephardic Citizenship Program

In 2015, Portugal embarked on a groundbreaking initiative, the Sephardic Citizenship Program, aiming to heal centuries-old wounds by offering citizenship to the descendants of Sephardic Jews expelled during the 15th and 16th centuries. This initiative not only sought to acknowledge the historical injustices faced by Sephardic Jews but also to celebrate and reintegrate their rich cultural heritage into Portuguese society. Over the years, this program has evolved, reflecting Portugal’s commitment to historical reconciliation, societal enrichment, and the complexities of modern governance.

The Inception of Reconciliation: 2015

The launch of the Sephardic Citizenship Program was a pivotal step by the Portuguese government to acknowledge and rectify the historical expulsion of Sephardic Jews. Aimed at strengthening the bonds between Portugal and the Sephardic community, this program was a gesture of goodwill and recognition of the Sephardic Jews’ contributions to the country’s history and cultural diversity.

A Surge of Global Interest: 2016-2017

In the initial years following the program’s introduction, there was a notable surge in interest from Sephardic descendants worldwide. The process of proving Sephardic ancestry through genealogical evidence became a path for many to reconnect with their Portuguese heritage. This period marked an increased awareness and appreciation of Portugal’s historical ties to the Sephardic community.

Expanding Recognition: 2018

By 2018, the program had gained substantial traction, with thousands of applications filed, reflecting the global Sephardic community’s desire to reconnect with their ancestral homeland. Portugal streamlined the application process this year, emphasizing efficiency and accessibility, and further solidified its commitment to welcoming the descendants of Sephardic Jews. This was also when most applications came from countries like Brazil, Turkey, and Israel, many of whom sought an EU passport.

Legislative Scrutiny and Public Debate: 2019

The program’s success brought it under legislative scrutiny and sparked public debate within Portugal. Discussions centered around the implications for national identity and immigration policy, highlighting the delicate balance between embracing historical communities and ensuring the program’s sustainability.

Challenges and Interventions: The Impact of COVID-19 on the Sephardic Citizenship Program

During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the Portuguese government proposed a significant amendment to the Sephardic Citizenship Program, aiming to impose stricter eligibility criteria for descendants of Sephardic Jews seeking Portuguese citizenship. This move sparked widespread concern and prompted interventions from Israeli officials and Jewish communities, highlighting the program’s significance and the potential repercussions of such changes. Despite initial intentions to toughen the law, the collective pressure and criticism led to the retention of the existing legislation, emphasizing the influential role of international advocacy and community engagement in preserving heritage-based citizenship rights.

Towards Digital Efficiency: 2021

The pandemic underscored the need for digital transformation, which Portugal embraced in 2021 by digitizing the application process. This shift not only improved efficiency but also made the program more accessible to applicants globally, showcasing Portugal’s adaptability and commitment to inclusion.

Safeguarding Integrity: Stricter Measures Introduced: 2022

As the Sephardic Citizenship Program’s popularity surged, Portugal introduced stricter documentation requirements and sophisticated verification methods in 2022 to combat fraudulent applications and ensure the program’s integrity. Applicants were now required to provide more comprehensive evidence of Sephardic ancestry and demonstrate a tangible connection to Portugal, such as through cultural engagement or community involvement. This approach aimed to deepen applicants’ ties to the country and preserve the program’s credibility, ensuring it remained a respectful and meaningful way for Sephardic Jews to reconnect with their ancestral homeland.

Navigating Legal Challenges and Public Discourse: 2023

In 2023, the program faced legal challenges and intense public discourse. Critics called for tighter controls to prevent abuse, while supporters emphasized its role in correcting historical wrongs. Portugal responded by strengthening the application review process, ensuring that only genuine descendants could benefit.

A New Chapter of Integration: Residency Requirements in 2024

The landscape of legal residency requirements in Portugal has witnessed a pivotal evolution in 2024. The Portuguese Parliament has approved a new version of the article (article 2) in the Portuguese Nationality Law regarding Sephardic descendants. This amendment mandates that individuals must reside in Portugal for three years before applying for nationality. This change aims to deepen applicants’ ties to Portugal, underscoring the importance of integration and active participation in Portuguese society. However, this law is pending regulation by the government—a process expected to take months—and will only take effect subsequently. Until such regulations are in place and the law comes into effect, the original article will remain applicable as it has been.

The Legacy and Future of the Program

As the program approaches a decade since its inception, it stands as a testament to Portugal’s ongoing commitment to cultural reconciliation and societal enrichment. The evolution of the Sephardic Citizenship Program reflects Portugal’s broader approach to citizenship and immigration, balancing respect for historical ties with the needs of contemporary governance.


The Portuguese Sephardic Citizenship Program is a policy initiative that resolves to correct historical wrongs by offering citizenship to descendants of Sephardic Jews. This move has faced both openness and criticism, with concerns ranging from its implementation to the potential for exploitation. Recent proposals have introduced a residency requirement, which aims to better tie applicants to their Portuguese roots but also adds difficulty for many. Importantly, all applications submitted after September 2022 are likely to face rejection due to the retroactive implementation of this law, once again throwing the future of the program into question.


Why Did Portugal Start the Sephardic Citizenship Program?

Initiated to reconcile with the past, Portugal aims to acknowledge injustices and reintegrate Sephardic Jews into society.

How Has the Sephardic Citizenship Application Process Evolved?

Streamlining and digitization have improved accessibility and efficiency, adapting to global needs and ensuring integrity.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Sephardic Citizenship Program

Despite challenges, Portugal’s program showed resilience, continuing applications and embracing digital processes.

Why Introduce Stricter Documentation for Sephardic Citizenship?

To combat fraud and ensure integrity, Portugal now requires thorough documentation, verifying genuine Sephardic descent.

Residency Requirement for Sephardic Citizenship in 2024

The new law aims to deepen connections with Portugal, mandating a three-year residency for applicants seeking citizenship.

What’s the Future of the Portuguese Sephardic Citizenship Program?

As it evolves, the program maintains its commitment to diversity, inclusion, and reconciling historical ties with modern needs.

About the Author
I am originally from a small town in the US. I am currently an intern in a Tel-Aviv law firm, specializing in immigration and citizenship services. My role involves closely monitoring legislative changes that impact Israelis seeking foreign citizenship or residency. Leveraging my unique cross-cultural background, I offer detailed insights and analysis through blog posts, aiming to guide and inform readers about the complexities of immigration law and its evolving nature.