David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Balaq – The Failure of Prognosticating Experience

Beyond all other considerations, the purpose of life is to live it. With our advanced brains and complex emotional systems, human beings have the unique ability to both frame and forge previously unimagined adventures, as well as retract from the most mundane. In either case, the first step is for a person to make a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)1 and then to conquer the ability to make a tenacious examination of a scene (Amorites)2. A general survey begins by musing over things in experience in trying to persuade oneself (Sichon)3 and later by heedfully going around and around (Og),4 deliberating over things,5 of an act of repetitively driving in upon particular things so as to visually fix upon them (Bashan).6 This is an act of engaging particular things (מלחמה),7 an act of taking particular things into one’s hand (אדרעי Edre’i).8 Nevertheless, countless opportunities abound when a person establishes a (mental) presence (חנה) within the expanses (plains)9 of one’s yearning to give forth of oneself in taking notice of things (Moab).10 Even though the person’s eagerly rummaging through experience (Balaq),11 a behavior that results from one’s being flooded by experience (Tsippor),12 may rule in deliberation;5 by itself, the yearning to give forth of oneself in taking notice of things (Moab)10 initially retracts from the many opportunities unearthed by Israel. Undeterred, the person seeks out an ability to exhaustively take in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a competent accounting (Bilam),13 a behavior of burning clear through the innumerable opportunities (בן בעור), moving toward an interpretation of experience (פתורה) – that which occurs upon the act of becoming enlightened (river)14 regarding the way of disposing oneself to experience (land).15

Allegorically, Balaq (the person’s eagerly rummaging through experience)11 is sending data acquired by various means, for processing to Bilam (the act of exhaustively taking in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a competent accounting)13 – be they of the acts of seeing clearly (elders)16 as a result of the taking notice of things in yearning to give forth of oneself to experience (Moab)10 or of an act of contemplating experience (Midian)17 or through acts of overseeing aspects of experience (שרים).18 On the peshat, Balaq wants Bilam to curse the people (the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience)19 because it was covering (with many impressions)20 the appearance of the way for a person to dispose oneself in experience (land).15 Balaq utilizes two words for curse. QaBhaBh (קבב) literally means to channel and delve into, but the related root QaBu (קבו) also means “to give understanding” and “to designate” in Akkadian.21 Whereas /aRaR (ארר) literally means “to bring out into the light.”22 In that way, Balaq can become engaged (battle) with it and can drive into it (גרש).23 However, God tells Bilam that he cannot bring the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)19 into the light because it is excessive (ברוך).24 Later Bilam states: “If Balaq shall give to me the fullness of what comes into him (house)25 – many lasting impressions (silver)26 and many fleeting impressions (gold)27 – I shall not be able to transgress the coming in (mouth)28 of God’s bringing forth of existence…” Ultimately, God stipulates that if the ways of applying oneself in experience (men)29 come in, then Bilam can go “in alignment with them (אתם),”30 but he can only do what God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim)31 directs to him.

By remaining in alignment with experience as he moves through it, Bilam is tasked to bring understanding to experience and designate a particular activity with which to engage. However, Bilam begins the journey remaining firm (קום awakening)32 in making an investigation (morning)33 and thus besieges and obstructs (saddles)34 his ability to be in alignment with experience (אתון his donkey).35 Thereupon, God’s guidance being presented in experience is incited against him. Literally meaning “what is sent forth,” the angel (מלאך)36 that meets him on the road represents the designated activity about which he is to become aware. However, despite the fact that his ability to be in alignment with experience (donkey) already sees what is sent forth in experience (angel) of God’s bringing forth of existence and therefore disinclines from any further threshing of experience (דרך the way),37 Bilam strikes it to return it to the act of threshing. Then, in order to make this designated activity easier to see and to minimize Bilam’s options, that which was sent forth (angel) of God’s bringing forth of existence remains imposingly still upon the smoothened path38 of the many things piled up in experience (כרם)39 – cutting off (fence)40 from the other things that were apparent here (מזה),41 and cutting off from the other things that were apparent, there. Going further, it stood imposingly in a narrow place that there was no further ability to thresh through experience (דרך). Nevertheless, to further demonstrate his displeasure, Bilam strikes the being in alignment (donkey) with disparagement (מקל rod).42 Ultimately, Bilam’s eyes are opened and the angel indicates that he needed to be to him as a thing remaining steadfast, taking up an adversarial position (satan)43 because the threshing through (דרך the way) experience had run amok.44

In an attempt to view the many opportunities in experience from different vantage points, Balaq takes Bilam from place to place. They initially meet upon the boundary of the act of intently gazing out on experience (Arnon),45 then to what was approaching closer of the things wedged off (קרית חצות).46,47 There Balaq made offerings of investigation (cattle)33 and consideration (flocks).48 In the time of investigation (morning),33 he causes him to ascend the acts of pushing inward of probing things (במות בעל)49,50 to look upon the edge of the act of being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience (people).19 After they offer acts of scattering about experience (bulls)51 and acts of advancing forward into experience with initiative (rams),52 Bilam muses that perhaps God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) would happen to meet him. However, he goes to the pouring forth of experience (שפי)53 and encounters God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).31 God’s bringing forth of existence places that which barrages directly forward of experience (דבר)54 into his mouth. Upon returning, he states allegorically: “(Regarding) what, shall I give forth a greater understanding (curse),21 (when) God’s initiating experience has not given forth understanding (curse)? And what shall I suggest (rebuke)55 – (when) God’s bringing forth existence has not suggested it (rebuke)? Because I shall see it as a result of seeing (head)56 of the many things narrowed in upon (boulders).57 And I shall get a fix on it as a result of the heaping up of what is compelling (hills)58….Who shall count the dusting of observations59 of investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov)60 and a recounting of what is inundating61 of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)?”1

Next Balaq takes him to the frenzied going back and forth of multiple observations (field of Tsophim),62,63 to the seeing of many branchings of experience (ראש הפסגה).56,64 Here he states allegorically: “…the scatterings65 of deliberation5 are with it…Because there is no aimless feeling about (divination)66 with one’s investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov).60 And there is no arbitrary, piecemeal decision making (sorcery)67 with one’s making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)1…as one who is ablaze with courage (lioness),68 it remains firm.32 And as one who hurls himself into the light (lion),69 it lifts and exalts itself. It shall not hedge into a particular experience (lay down)70 until it embraces what is pounced upon and torn off from experience (טרף).71 And it shall gradually align72 with that which pours forth (blood)73 of the many things thrown about in experience (those slain).”74

Next, Balaq takes him to the seeing (ראש)56 of what is gapingly wide open (פעור)75 that looks upon the many faces (פני) of what is repetitively put forth in experience (הישימן).76 Here the spirit of God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim)31 comes upon him. Allegorically, he says: “How overflowingly good77 are your acts of becoming familiar with things in experience (tents),78 one’s investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov);60 your acts of dwelling upon things,79 one’s making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)1 – like acts of tossing and throwing oneself about experience (streams),80 winding around experience; like acts of drawing in upon things (gardens),81 concerning an act of becoming enlightened (נהר);14 like the acts of becoming familiar with things (aloes),78 stretched out by God’s bringing forth of existence; like acts of hovering and examining things (ceders),82 concerning that which is stirred up in experience (water).83 He shall draw upward that which is stirred up (water) from the things that are tenuously thin and dangling loosely about (buckets).84 And his scattering about so as to insert himself into experience (seed)85 will be with the many things stirred up in experience (water). And his deliberations (king)5 shall be elevated above anxious curiosity.86 And his deliberations (kingdom)5 shall be exalted.”

Finally, Bilam advises Balaq what this people will do to his people in the end of times: “I shall see it but not now, I shall set sights upon it, but it is not close. An act of establishing an impression about experience (star)87 will thresh through experience as a result of one’s investigating what comes around (Yaaqov).60 And a scanning of experience (scepter)88 will stand firm32 as a result of one’s making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).1 And it will split through the impotence of being off to the side,89 of a person’s merely yearning to give forth to experience (Moab).10 And will channel into and undermine90 all of the behaviors of a person’s remaining still and unmoving (Seth).91 So that an act of being mentally absorbed with experience (Edom)92 will be what is driven into.93 And what is driven into will be a thing taken notice of, in being stirred up by it (Sa’ir),94 of what alarms it (enemy).95 And the making of a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)1 will persist with endurance.96 And as a result of one’s investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov), it shall go on, accumulating continuously97 – and then it shall destroy the act of hovering around,98 as a result of what is stirred up in experience (city).”99

Regarding Amalaeq : “The eclipsing of one’s being mindful of the many things crowding in, in feeling licked and wiped out and brittle (Amalaeq)100 are as a result of the seeing56 of the many passions to draw into things found in experience (nations).101 But its end is unto utter destruction.”

Regarding a person’s visually fixing upon many things in experience (Qaenite)102:
“A mighty and perpetual flow of experience103 is what you settle into. And you must put your visually fixing upon many things into the opportunities that dangle suspended in experience (overhanging crag).104 Excepting that, the act of visually fixing upon many things in experience shall be for the purpose of fully burning through experience, until a particular thing is drawn out from experience,105 (then) the being driven forward with intent (Ashur);106 shall put you to rest.”107

Allegorically, the act of exhaustively taking in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a competent accounting (Bilam),13 concludes his assessment of experience as follows: “Woe, he who shall survive his being imposed108 upon by God’s advancing of experience?109 And those that wilt (in the face of life experience)110 are as a result of the power of being pounded upon by experience.111 And they will afflict and overwhelm a person’s ability to be driven forward through experience with intent (Ashur).106 And they will afflict and overwhelm a person’s (merely) passing through experience (Ebher).112 And flush with existence, unto being lost.”

Ultimately, Bilam (the person’s exhaustively taking in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a competent accounting)13 and Balaq (the person’s eagerly rummaging through experience)11 recede from the narrative and the people are in a place of running to and fro (Shittim)113 where they proceed to flail114 toward the many potential endeavors available (daughters)115 as a result of one’s yearning to give forth to experience in taking notice of things (Moab).10 There the acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)19 embrace (eat)116 and laying themselves out (prostrate) to their guidance about experience (Elohim).31 Therefore, the person’s making of a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)1 cleaves to the act of probing (בעל)50 what was gapingly wide open (פעור)75 of experience. As a consequence, God’s bringing forth of existence was inciting itself upon the person’s making of a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).1 As is always true of the Torah, the solutions embedded in allegory are complicated. In this case, it involves acts of seeing (heads)56 in opposition to a person’s balkingly, restively, reluctantly attending to things found in experience (sun).117 It also requires acts of making clear judgments through a person’s utilizing mental persistence (man)118 to muse over (kill)119 its acts of applying oneself in experience (men),29 those that have been cleaved to the act of probing what was gapingly wide open (בעל פעור) of experience.

To this end and in being mentally present,120 an act of being mentally persistent (man)118 brought closer to what was pointing things out for it regarding experience (his brothers)121 an act of contemplation (Midianite woman).17 The text states that “they were crying (at) the opening of the tent of meeting.” This crying attributed to the Israelites (the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience)1 allegorically indicates the degree to which the information and opportunities were welling forth122 and their attempts at becoming familiar with these things being enduringly mentally present (tent of meeting).123 Therefore, it was necessary for another mental faculty to come in and arch over the seemingly endless options available. Enter Pinchus, the person’s turning in consideration of particular things,124 a behavior of advancing forward into experience with initiative getting involved with what is around (Elazar),125 a behavior of repeatedly bringing things to light (Aharon).126 As an act of giving things precise and mindful attention (priest),127 he was taking a spear (רמח) which represents an ability to arch over128 extraneous things within its power (hand).129 Recall that the word QaBhaBh (קבב) to curse, used by Balaq, literally means to channel and delve into, and can also mean “to give understanding” and “to designate.” Here Pinchus goes into the QuBaH (קובה tent), where he thrusts the spear through the man and the woman, specifically into her QaeBhaH (קבה abdomen).21 Hence Pinchus, the person’s turning in consideration of particular things, was able to achieve what Bilam could not by coming into the act of designating something (tent) and by particularly specifying (impaling)130 both the act of being mentally persistent with a particular thing (man)118 and the way of conducting oneself (woman)131 – advancing toward its being designated (abdomen).

Notes:
1 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
2 – Amorite (אמרי /aMaRy) Allegorically: tenacious examination. This root evolved from מר (pouring) a drop (Is40:15) and מור myrrh (sticky and bitter). Most Semitic words of the /aMaR (אמר) root mean sticky, or to stick with. Arabic: constantly urging > command; spirit, soul, mind; pericardium, characteristic; Ugaritic: look at, be seen; order, demand; lamb (matted); Akkadian look at, see, inspect, examine, catch sight of; Syriac: muse, preach, expound, say, speak, renounce (declare away from), tell affirm, assert, intend, chant; predict
3 – Sihhon (סיחן Sihhon) Allegorically: musing over things in trying to persuade oneself. From SuaHh – SyaHh(סוח סיח) to converse, talk, persuasive talk (Jastro). which evolved from שׂיח /שׂוח to muse ( = to consider or to say thoughtfully)
4 – Og (עוג \oG) Allegorically: heedfully going around and around the scene. Related to מעוג
?encircling, drawing inward (Ps35:16); from עגג עוג to draw, make a cake (Jastro) to go in a circle (Gesen). Cognate with עג (Arabic: (go around >) swarm, teem, swirl up, raise; omelet, cloud of dust; raised voice, cry, roar, rage).
5 – king (MeLeKh – מלך) from the verb MaLaKh (מלך) to rule, it evolved from MaLaHh (מלח) to balance > to sail. It is more appropriately translated as to deliberate > to act deliberately. But also means to deliberate, as can be seen in the Akkadian to consider, discuss, advise, look after, mind, and confer
6 – Bashan (בשן BaShaN) Allegorically: repetitively driving in upon something so as to visually fix upon it, yet holding oneself back from engaging. Based on context and (BaShu) Akkadian: (drive in, be close, intimate >) be at hand, available, exist, be on task; be fixed on / attentive; be owned.
7 – to engage in battle (מלחמה MiLHhaMah) Allegorically: an engagement, getting in closely. Derived from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
8 – Edre-iy (אדרעי /eDRe\iY) Allegorically: taking particular things into one’s hand. From DaRa\ (דרע) Syriac: to steer, rule, take any one by the arm); Arabic: (?to arm?) to armor, equip with armor). Probably from ZaRoa\ (זרוע) arm.
9 – plains (ערבות \aR’BhoT) Allegorically and literally: expanses. Mostly based on allegorical context and the fact that one of the forms of \aRaBh (ערב) evolved from RaBh (רב) large > expansive.
10 – Moab (מואב Mo/aBh) Allegorically: one’s yearning to give forth of oneself (in taking notice of things). From the verb Ya/aBh (יאב) to yearn-long to give forth of oneself. See Syriac cognate: to pant after, desire, eagerly, long for. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
11 – Balaq (בלק) Allegorically: the person’s eagerly rummaging through experience. Based on to evacuate, empty (Is24:1), (evacuated) rummaged through, to be made waste (Na2:11). Also according to Klein, the Arabic cognate means “to open vehemently.” Also because B.L. roots generally mean “to get into and mix up.”
12 – Tsipor (צפר – TsiPoR) Allegorically: a flood of things or a being flooded by things. From צפר (TsiPaeR – (to overflow out of) > to evacuate, to bail out from (Jd7:3), which evolved from TsaPhaH (צפה – to overflow). TsiPoR (צפור – bird) literally means “the one that evacuates, flies away.”
13 – Bilam (בלעם) Allegorically: an ability to exhaustively take in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a competent accounting. From BaLa\ (בלע) to swallow, gulp down, devour; also the Arabic cognate with ghayin “reach, attain, amount to, competency, more intense, profound, ripen, mature.” + עם, people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
14 – river (נהר NaHaR) Allegorically: act of becoming enlightened. This root has two unrelated meanings. The word NaHaR (river) evolved from the root MaHaR to go rapidly, quickly. The root meaning “to become enlightened” probably evolved from נהר < נאר RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
16 – elders of (זקני – ZiQNae) allegorically “the acts of clearly visualizing things of the making of a sustained survey of what advances forward in experience” from (זקן – (be clear) beard, old), related to ZuQ (זוק – (Arb- (make clear in the mind) to visualize) and ZaQaQ (זקק – (to make clear / purify) to distill).
17 – (Midian – מדין) Allegorically: contemplation. Based on the roots DuN (דון – to abide with) and דין (DYN – to judge, contemplate). Also Proverbs 19:13 מדיני אשה arguments-contentions of a woman.
18 – The verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל), does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court.
19 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
20 – to cover (כסה KaSaH) means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Consider: throne (KiSae/ – כסא) literally means what is marked up with many impressions > covered. From (KaSaH – כסה) to cover over. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider; K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished).
21 – to curse (קבב QaaBhaH), tent (קבה QuBaH), abdomen (קבה QaeBhaH) are all etymologically related through the root (קבה QaBhaH) which literally means to channel. In Arabic (קאבּ) to dig, dig up, burrow, excavate, hallow out, burst open, imminent. In Akkadian:(קבּו) to command, say, speak, promise, agree, imply, pronounce, decree, name, designate, nominate, promise, give understanding. Note niphal NaQaBh to be designated (Nm1:17)(Ea8:20). Roots that share Q.B. generally mean to channel: QaBhaL (קבל – to accept, receive (channel toward)) and QaBha\ (קבע – to rob (channel away from)), QaBhaTs (קבץ – to gather (channel) together), QaBhaR (קבר to bury, inundate, flood), female (נקבה N’QaeBhaH) which is related to NaQaBh (נקב socket, to penetrate, pierce, bore (channel) into-out) – these evolved from the root QaBh (קוב – (Arb – to dig a (channel) shallow, to hallow out)) which evolved from QaW (קוה – to channel together).
22 – to curse (ארר /aRaR) Allegoriclly: to bring out into the light, point out. Also /aRaR (ארר to point out, bring into question (Mal 2:2)). From the verb /aRaH (ארה to pick out), but literally meaning to bring out into the light, from /oR (אור light). Related roots: /aRaBh (ארב to jump out into the light > ambush; squeezing through of light); /aRaS (ארש to designate a bride, bring out into the light); YaRaH (ירה (throw out into the light) > aim, teach); HaRaH (הרה (bring out into the light) > to conceive).
23 – drive out (גרש GaRaSh) Allegorically: driving into and thus driven out. From GaRaSH (גרש) understood from Hebrew “to divorce” but compare גרש (Akk- to move towards, stride, copulate with); (Arb- (drive into >) grind, crush, grate, bruise); (Syr- to challenge, stir up). Derived from GuR > GRH literally meaning to draw > drive into. From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, seep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
24 – blessed (ברוך BaRuKh) Allegorically: excessive, excellent. From to bless, declare excellent (BaRaKh – ברך) quite literally means “to make excel” or “shower with abundance.” This root literally means “to make a clearing, to go clear through > be excellent, declare excellent.” BaRuKh – although generally translated as blessed, the most accurate translation would be excellent in the sense of exceeding all bounds, both in regard to esteem and material aspects. Variations in meaning of this root: to kneel (make a clearing), to make a clearing of trees (Jastro); B’RaeKhah (בריכה)(cleared of everything) a man- made pool, lake (SmII2:13;4:12); (piel) to greet (SmI13:10); greet, hail, holler at, accost (Pr27:14); to congratulate (CrI18:10); to curse, blaspheme, declare the horribleness of something (KgI21:10,13)(Ps10:3)(Jb1:11;2:5,9)(Talm. B’M 59b); Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening); ShaBhaR (שבר) literally means “to go clear though” hence it means to break, break apart, shatter, smash, crash, to distribute-buy-sell provision (?broken pieces); and for a wave to break. However, its secondarily evolved form SaBhaR (שבר) means to contemplate, look to and hope for. There is an identical noun SheBheR (שבר) meaning “interpretation” or more correctly break down > analysis that indicates the transition between the two
25 – house (בית BaYiT ) Allegorically: what comes in. From the root Bo/ (בוא to come in). Literally it means “the place of coming in.”
26 – silver (כֶּסֶף – KeSePh) evolved from the root K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Over time, silver tarnishes. K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished)
27 – gold (זהב – ZaHaBh) literally means “of fleeting impressions.” From unattested ZaHaH (זהה – exude light), see Syriac cognate ZaHa/ (זהא – shining, glorious, splendid, resplendent) and in Arabic (radiant, shine brightly, be haughty). Also Arabic cognate of ZaHaBh means to take leave, vanish, to take with, lead or conduct, to allow the imagination to wander > think, believe; gold, going, passing, manner, opinion, belief, ideology, orientation
28 – Py (פי) mouth, from the word PeH (פה) which evolved from B’ (ב – in) > BoW/ (בוא – to go / come in)
29 – Men (/aNaShim – אנשים) from the noun /eNoSh (אנוש), evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Therefore the meaning is those applying-imposing themselves in experience.
30 – with (את /aeT) Allegorically-literally: “(be in alignment) with.” From /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come; /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow) and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment). Not to be confused with (את /aeT), the marker of the direct object.
31 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
32 – to get up, arise, stand, be fixed in place, establish QuM (קום). See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Also related: place (מקום MaQoM), QaaM (קם enemy, foe, adversary), Y’QuM (יקום substance, existence), NaQaM (נקם to avenge)
33 – morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation) AND cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigate). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
34 – to saddle, harness, bind up (wounds), cinch, gird (חבש HhaBhaSh) Allegorically: to besiege, obstruct. Based on the Arabic cognate HhaBaS (חבּשׂ) to shut off, obstruct, confine, hold, detain, devote) and the Syriac: HhaBhaSh (חבש) to shut in / up, hem in, confine, besiege, beleaguer; contain, include).
35 – donkey (אתון /aToN) Allegorically: one who walks in alignment, the ability to be in alignment with experience. From /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come; /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow).
36 – angel (מלאך – mal’akh) & task (מלאכה m’lakhah) from the verb La/aKh (לאך) Ugaritic and Syriac – to send a messenger, a message. Related to, but not derived from the Hebrew, HaLaKh (הלך – to go, advance).
37 – way, thresh (דרך – DeReKh). from DaRaKh (דרך) to tread, trample, thresh, walk about, guide and aim.
38 – path (משעול MiSh\oL) Allegorically: leveled, smoothened path > easily tolerated. From the root Sha\aL (שעל) from which the word for fox (שועל smooth one) is also derived. There is no associated verb in Hebrew. Evolved from Shu’a\ (שוע) be smooth, (smoothen) to card, plaster, slip, make / be slippery. Related to Arabic: Sa\ (שע) to be easy to swallow, to go down pleasantly, permit, allow, accept, put up with, tolerate.
39 – vineyard (כרם KeReM) heaping up a lot from experience; from the verb KaRaM (כרם) (surround) > vineyard, (per Jastro > ) to pile up, stock up; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk). From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
40 – fence (גדר GaDaeR) Allegorically: cutting off from. From GaD (גד) to draw across, draw off, draw away from > cut across. Hence GuD (גוד) (to cut across) to split off, draw away from, to form a faction, GaDaD (גדד) (cut off >) form a troop; GaDaL (גדל) (cut across >) weave > build up > great; GaDa\ (גדע) to lop off; GaDaPh (גדף) to draw off, scrape, hollow out, scrape the dregs, drag through; SaGaD (סגד)(cut across oneself) to bow; GaDaSh (גדש) to stack up; NaGaD (נגד) to draw out > tell a story; be drawn across from > opposite.
41 – this (זה Zeh; זאת Zo/T) from the verb ZaHaH (זהה) and literally means “what is visually radiant or apparent.”
42 – rod (מקל MaQaeL) Literally: what is light. Allegorically: disparagement. Derived from QoL (קול voice (channeling)), words from QaLaH mean “to be light” or “to remove from the surface.” QaLaL (קלל make light of, to be swift, to curse > be vile). QaLaH (קלה roast (make light)). In Syriac: קלקל means “to distort, distract, throw into confusion, bring shame upon; to be held in light esteem.”
43 – satan, adversary (שטן SaTaN) Allegorically: a thing remaining steadfast, taking up an adversarial position. Derived from the root T.N. (טן) which in Amharic: solid, firm, resistant, strong; vigor, steadfast, serious, study, survey, examine; Syriac: ardent, zealous, jealous. The Hebrew T.N.N. (טנן) (piel) to compact (in wet sand to soften grains)
44 – to run amok (ירט YaRaT). Also: to run into trouble (Jb16:11)
45 – Arnon (ארנון /aRNoN) Allegorically: repetitively looking out upon experience with a mesmerized gaze. Probably meaning “babbling (brook, stream).” RaNaN (רנן) means “to exalt, shout, sing, praise, rejoice.” However, this appears to evolve into unattested RaNaH (רנה) “to make a continuous, monotonous mesmerizing sound” because from that RaNa/ (רנא) is Syriac: meditate, heed, attend, think, reflect, intend to, devise, while in Arabic: to gaze, look intently at; television.
46 – Qiryat (קרית QiR’YaT) Technically: town, village. Possibly: laid close together, similar to beams (קרה). Allegorically: approaching closer. Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. (קר) essentially mean “to get in very close”: KaRaH (קרה to come upon, happen occur, to lay beams close together, to set up a village); QaRa/ (קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read); QaRaBh (קרב to approach); QaRaM (קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate); QaRaN (קרן horn, what approaches more closely); QaRa\ (קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner); QaRaSh (קרש to contract, gnash, bite into); QaRaS (קרס to stoop, clasp); QaRaTs (קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse); NaQaR (נקר to gouge, chisel); ShaQaR (שקר to gouge > deceive, lie).
47 – Hhutsot (חצות HhuTsoT). This word means cut off > outsides > streets. Allegorically: urgently wedging in or wedged off. From HhaTsaH (חצה) to wedge in > divide > wedge off, from HhuTs (חוץ) (to push through) to rush, urge; from \uTs (עוץ) meaning “to hasten, force, push through,” but it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel;” from /uTs (אוץ hasten).
48 – Tso/N (צאן – flock) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
49 – Bamot (במות) possibly from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
50 – master, lord, husband, owner (בעל Ba\al) Allegorically: an act of probing. The verb Ba\aL (בעל) means to engage in sexual intercourse (Dt21:13;24:1). From there it comes to mean husband > master, owner. Ba’al the Canaanite god of the rain storms means “fructifier.” The verb evolved from Ba\aH (בעה – to probe, search).
51 – bull (פר PaR) Allegorically: to scatter about. The unattested root PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck. A bull or cow are described as PaR(aH) because it is disengaged from the rest of the herd.
52 – ram (איל ayil) Literally: one who rams forward; allegorically: one’s fervently advancing forward with initiative. Originally from the root /aWaL (אול) from which are derived: El (אל) G-d, meaning “one initiating or advancing forward experience;” el (אל) to, toward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward
53 – Shephy (שפי ShePhy) Allegorically: a pouring forth (of experience). From ShaPhaH (שפה) lip > point of pouring forth > incline > hill > smooth > ease > comfort.
54 – DaBhaR (thing- דבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar (מדבר – wilderness, place of flash floods) may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise.
55 – to rebuke (זעם Za\aM) Allegorically: make a suggestion. From Za\aM (זעם) to rebuke, to disgrace; indignation, wrath. Cognate with Arabic: (זעם) to allege / claim s.th, to believe s.o to be s.th, be bossy, take up / claim the leadership)
56 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) and first, beginning of (ראשית Rae\ShyT) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
57 – TsuR (צור) narrow > to narrow in upon; boulder (probably meaning: the thing upon which one narrows their sights (as a landmark)
58 – hill (גבעה – GiBh\aH) Allegorically: what is heaped up, compelling. This root means to heap up, therefore > hill, goblet. In Sabaic, the verb GaBa\ (גבע) means to impose and force, to compel. Related roots of G.B. mean to heap up or hover over. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
59 – dirt, dust, soil (עפר \aphaR) Allegorically: the ability to examine every detail. Related to the Arabic cognate: to cover the face of something with dust, to begrime, dust, sprinkle with dust; and TO GLEAN). Note also \oPh (עוף)(hiphil) to cover with (one’s eyes) (Pr23:5) is related to Ugaritic \gaPhY (עפי) to observe, espy; all possibly related to Arabic \gaPhaR (עפר) to observe, spy. However, it is unclear if this root ultimately evolved from עפה or from /aphaR (אפר ash).
60 – Yaaqov (יעקב) Allegorically: investigating what comes around in experience. From the root \aQaBh (עקב) which essentially means “to twist around.” Across the Semitic languages, this root is used to mean “to constrain, to follow, to come after, to trace, to approach closely, to investigate, to criticize, and to grab the heel (supplant).”
61 – fourth part (רובע RoBha\) derived from RaBha\ (רבע – to lie down, spread out, make square). Allegorically it represents a spreading out in all directions; flooding / inundating hence 40 days and nights of flood, wandering in the wilderness and Moshe’s time with HaShem in the mountain.
62 – SaDeH (שדה) field, is related to the verb SaDaD (שדד – (drag behind) to level / harrow ground) which in turn is related to ShaDaD (שדד – (to drag) > to overpower, plunder, ruin, destroy). The idea of going back and forth can be seen in the related verbs ShaDaKh (שדך – haggle, negotiate, stipulate) and ShaDaPh (שדף – to make swing back and forth, to blast)
63 – Tsophim (צופים) Allegorically: having a scene covered,, making observations The root TsaPhaH (צפה to cover over, to plate) and TsaPhaH (צפה to cover > to guard, watch, look for)
64 – Pisgeh (פסגה) Allegorically: many branching paths (upon which one could go). Realted to PaSaG (פסג)(piel) to wander (Ps48:14); (spread apart) to break through branches (Jastro).
65 – trumpet blast (תרועה T’Ru\aH) Allegorically: scatterings. From haRya\ (הריע – to scatter sound). Rua\ (רוע) evolved from RuaHh (רוח), both mean to spread out across the horizontal plain. Therefore, haRya\ (הריע – to scatter sound), YaRa\ (ירע – to move back and forth (Is15:4)), and all verbs Ra\aX meaning vibrate > shatter (רעע), thunder (רעם), irritate (רעם), tremble (רעד), quiver (רעל) and quake (רעש). Some of these the ayin evolved into ghayin. Ra\aH (רעה) means to shepherd, lead, graze, to put out to feed.
66 – divination, to divine, snake (נחש – NaHhaSh). It evolved from the verb HhuSh (חוש) to sense, feel, experience, and hasten” and in Arabic, “to grope.” The verb NaHhaSh (נחש) in biblical Hebrew means to divine and in modern Hebrew, to guess. With regard to meaning snake, it literally means “one who feels about.”
67 – sorcery (קסם QeSeM) Allegorically: arbitrary, piecemeal decision making. From QaSaM (קסם) to cut into, carve, chip (Jastro); (to go firmly & straight through >) to decide (Jastro); Cognate with Arabic (קשׂם): to split, divide, part, distribute, share, Kismet (arbitrary lot, fate), foreordain, exorcise, take an oath.
68 – lioness (לביא LaBhy/) Allegorically: one who is ablaze with courage. From LaBhaH (לבה heart, courage). See (heartily) encourage (Tal Nd73a), make blow ablaze, fan a fire, kindle (BbKm59b)
69 – lion (ארי /aRy) Allegorically: one who throws himself into the light. From the verb /aRaH (ארה to pick out), but literally meaning to bring out into the light, from /oR (אור light). Related roots: /aRaBh (ארב to jump out into the light > ambush; squeezing through of light); /aRaS (ארש to designate a bride, bring out into the light); YaRaH (ירה (throw out into the light) > aim, teach); HaRaH (הרה (bring out into the light) > to conceive).
70 – to lay down (שכב ShaKhaBh) Allegorically: hedging in. From ShaKhaBh (שכב – to snuggle up, huddle, lie up against, lay down). Evolved from the verb ShuKh (שׁוך – to cordon off), from SuKh (שוך – to hedge in). Related verbs: ShaKhaR (שכר – to become drunk)(= hedged in); HhaShaKh (חשך) to darken, be dark; HhaSaKh (חשך) to withhold; NaShaKh (נשך) to bite, take a bite off; /eSheKh (אשך) testicles)(what is cordoned off / hedged in).
71 – prey (טרף TeRePh) Allegorically: what is pounced upon and torn off from experience. From TaRaPh (טרף) to assault, pounce upon, tear to pieces; which evolved from TaRaH (טרה) to throw, project, cast at, argue, debate (Jastro)
72 – to drink (שתה ShaTaH) literally means to align with (need to align a vessel with one’s mouth so as not to spill; see movie Airplane). Sh + /aTaH > ShaTaH (ש + אתה = שתה), it evolved from the rarely used verb /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come, from which also evolved eT (את – (be aligned) with); /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow) and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment)
73 – blood (דם – DaM) allegorically means “what flows,” evolved from DaWaH (דוה – to flow). Incidentally, not related to DuM (דום – still, silent) which evolved from DaMaH (דמה – to cease, be still) HhaLaL (חלל)(piel) to break up, to dissolve; > HhaL (חל) (Arabic – (throw about > permeate) dissolve, resolve, analyze, release, break up, overwhelm, replace); > ChaL (חל) (Arabic – pierce, transfix, break, violate, pass through, permeate, mix, mingle, pickle).
75 – P’or (פעור P’\uR) Allegorically: what is gapingly wide open. From the verb meaning: to open wide (Is5:14)(Ps119:131)(Jb16:10;29:23). Syriac cognate: open wide, gape open; cleft, chasm.
76 – haY’shimon (הישימן) Allegorically: repetitively put forth and available in experience. From SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
77 – good (טוב ToBh) Allegorically: immersive > overflowing. Evolved from TsaBhaH (צבה to swell), hence to well up > be good. Evolving from there TaBhaHh (טבח) slaughter (welling up of blood); TaBhaL (טבל) to immerse; TaBha\ (טבע) immerse > sink into-drown > make an impression.
78 – tent, aloe (אהל /oHeL) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude)
79 – dwelling place (משכן – MiShKaN) Allegorically: one’s (visually) dwelling upon a scene. From the verb ShaKaN (שכן to dwell), from the root KuN (כון to be fixed in place).
80 – brook (נחל NaHhaL) Allegorically: what swirls around. Related to NaHhaL (נחל) (Arb- (swarm around) bee; (spin around) top, dreidel). Probably from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), which evolved into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth. However, NaHhaL could also be from NaHhaH (נחה) which has a sense of leaning in or inclining toward something. Cognate with NaHhaH (נחה) is the Arabic (נחא – to wend one’s way, go, move, walk, turn toward > follow, imitate; BUT Also (incline >) lean, push aside, remove, yield, withdraw), Also from NaHhaH (נחה) is NaHhaL (נחל (to push toward) inherit) and NaHhaT (נחתּ to take down, put at the disposal of, bring, reach for ((Ugaritic)).
81 – gardens (גנות GaNoT) Allgorically: acts of drawing in upon things. From GaN (גן garden) literally to draw in upon. Hence: GaNaH (גנה)(piel) to overshadow, obscure, put to shame (Jastro); GaNaN (גנן) to defend; GaNaBh (גנב) to steal, obscure, deceive, abduct. GaNaZ (גנז) cover over, save, treasury; carpet. Arabic: Jinn (a spirit that takes possession (draws in upon) of a person). G.N.(גן) Syriac: descend upon, cover, protect, over shadow.
82 – ceder (ארז /eReZ) Allegorically: hover and examine things. From RuZ (רוז) Arabic: to weigh, examine, consider; RaZ (רז) Syriac: to take into secret counsel, conspire. The evolution of this root begins with RaShaH (רשה) to lose liquid, to drip, flow down, ooze fluid; which evolves into RaSaH (רסה) > RaSaS (רסס) to moisten; and then to RaZaH (רזה) which represents a liquid creeping across a surface. Hence: R.Z.R.Z. Amharic – flowed slowly, dripped out; Due to the creeping nature of the liquid, the root evolves into “hovering about” > consider-examine and conspire-counsel.
83 – water (מים – maYiM) Allegorically: (thing of interest) stirred up. From YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up). Related to: HMH (המה) Arabic: disquiet, make uneasy, fill with anxiety, preoccupy, interest, have in mind,; anxiety, intention, endeavor.
84 – bucket (דלי D’Ly) Allegorically: the things that are tenuously thin and dangling loosely about. The roots DaLaH (דלה), DaLaL (דלל), DaLDaeL (דלדל) have meanings of to draw water, hang down, dangle, loosen, be weak, be thin, poor, impoverished. All of these are derived from SaLaH (סלה draw upward, discard) through ZuL (זול disregarded, to be cheap, inexpensive) and unattested ZaLaH (זלה draw upward, pour out) which can be deduced from its derived forms (ZaLaG (flowing (of tears)), ZaLaHh (running fluid, shower, sprinkling), ZaLaPh(to flow, pour out)).
85 – seed (זרע – ZeRa\) meaning to scatter, but practically also suggests implantation > engagement. Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter. And expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
86 – Agag (אגג /aGaG) Allegorically: anxious curiosity. Unattested in Hebrew as a defined root but present in the names Gag, Magog and Agag; consider (Ugr- to moan)(Akk- to be furiously angry); (האג)(Arb – astir, stirred up, rise up, excited, agitated, be very upset, furious, rough); (הוג)(Arb- rashness, thoughtlessness, folly, hasty, folly, violent; cyclone); (גג)(Amh- desire, be anxious, curious, eager, enthusiastic, temptation)
87 – star (כוכב KoKhaBh) Literally: an impression, Allegorically: making-establishing an impression about experience. Originally KaBhKaBh (כבכב) a doubling of KaBh (כב). Related to other roots with K.B. (כב) all meaning “to press down upon” such as KaBhaH (כבה) to extinguish, snuff out; KaBhaL (כבל) to fetter, shackle; KoBha\ (כובע) helmet; KaBhaR (כבר) compress, to press through a sieve, to press through; KaBhaS (כבס wash); KaBhaSh (כבש) to subdue, conquer; footstool, furnace; KaBhaS (כבס) to wash; KaBhaD (כבד) be heavy-intense, honor, take seriously. KaBhaH (כבה) evolved from KaWaH (כוה) (to impress a point, make an impression >) cauterize, burn; which evolved from HhaWaH (חוה) to point out, instruct.
88 – rod, staff, branch > tribe (שבט SheBheT) Allegorically: swinging back and forth, scanning. ShaBhaT (שבט) Akkadian “to beat, sweep away, (sweep back and forth” Syriac (swing easily) to fly loose, float, stream; beat out, hammer, rod, staff, branch, tribe); SaBaT (שׂבּט) Arabic – lank hair; graceful stature. The root ShaBaT evolved from ShaBaTs (שבץ) to embroider / inlay, but also agony (SmII1:9); which evolved from ShaBaSh (to go back and forth)
> to run in all directions, entangle, confound; from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still).
89 – edges (פאתי Pa/aTay) Allegorically: the impotence of being off to the side. From Pae/aH (פאה edge) which evolved from PeH (פה mouth) and evolved into Pa/aR (פאר) meaning “to go to the edge, go over the edge, make an extreme effort with, branch out, set apart, be set apart, to distinguish, adorn, beautify.” Related to Arabic (פהה) to seek shade; impotence, weakness); (פאה) to shift from side to side, give shade, shadow, give, afford, grant, bestow; and Syriac: (פהא) to roam (esp of eyes), roving, inconstant, unstable, distracted.
90 – undermine (קרקר QaRQaR) Allegorically: channel and approach closer into. Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. (קר) essentially mean “to get in very close” from QaWaH to channel: KaRaH (קרה to come upon, happen occur, to lay beams close together, to set up a village); QaRa/ (קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read); QaRaBh (קרב to approach); QaRaM (קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate); QaRaN (קרן horn, what approaches more closely); QaRa\ (קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner); QaRaSh (קרש to contract, gnash, bite into); QaRaS (קרס to stoop, clasp); QaRaTs (קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse); NaQaR (נקר to gouge, chisel); ShaQaR (שקר to gouge > deceive, lie).
91 – Seth (שת ShaeT) Allegorically: one sitting on his buttocks, one set in place. From the word Shaet (שת) buttocks, from the verb ShyT (שית to set in place).
92 – Edom, red (אדומה /aDuMaH) from red (אדום /aDoM) which evolved from DaM (דם blood). Despite being used allegorically as being related to the words for human (אדם /aDaM) and ground (אדמה /adaMaH) and despite almost universal contention, these words have no etymological connection. human (אדם – /aDaM) evolved from DaMAH (דמה – to make comparisons, to think) which evolved from DuM (דום – be still, silent). Also related ground (/aDaMah – אדמה) comes from the root DuM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparitive Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
93 – a possession (ירשה Y’RaeShaH) Allegorically (literally): what is driven into. Its evolution: YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRaSh (ירש – to penetrate-drive in, take possession, to dispossess). Also from YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRa/ (ירא to be penetrated > in awe > afraid).
94 – Seir (שעיר Sae\iyR) barley (שערים from שעורה S’/oRaH), goat (hairy one),demon (שעיר Sa\yR); gate (שער Sha\aR). Allegorically: acts of taking notice of many things in being stirred by them. Except for gate (which possibly is derived from עיר city (place stirred up)), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up).
95 – enemies (אויבים /oYaeBhim) Allegorically: those who cause a crying out (in alarm), those alarming. From YaBhaBh (יבב) to cry out, lament; in Syriac: to make a joyful noise, sound, shout, howl).
96 – bravely, strength, power (חיל HhaYiL) Literally: enduring. From HhoL (חול sand, common (literally meaning “what is thrown about > goes on and on.”)) which evolved into KoL (כל all). Hence: החיל to endure (Jd3:25); חיל (durable goods) wares; endurance (Jd18:2)(SmI2:4;14:52;I16:18)(KgI1:52) enduring (SmII22:33)
97 – and he shall come down, out of. descend (ירד YaRaD) Allegorically: continuously accumulating. This root evolved from RaDaH (רדה) to spread out, hover-remain, and drip – which evolved from RaZaH (רזה) the evolution of which begins with RaShaH (רשה) to lose liquid, to drip, flow down, ooze fluid; which evolves into RaSaH (רסה) > RaSaS (רסס) to moisten; and then to RaZaH (רזה) which represents a liquid creeping across a surface. Hence: R.Z.R.Z. Amharic – flowed slowly, dripped out – which is related to RaDa/ (רדא) Syriac: to proceed, move along, continue, flow on, issue, descend, pursue. The Arabic cognate of YaRaD is WaRaD meaning: to arrive to, come to s.o hands, accrue, revenue; arrive successively.
98 – he who remains (שריד SaRyD) Allegorically: act of hovering around. Derived from RaDaH (רדה) to spread out, hover-remain, and drip – which evolved from RaZaH (רזה) the evolution of which begins with RaShaH (רשה) to lose liquid, to drip, flow down, ooze fluid; which evolves into RaSaH (רסה) > RaSaS (רסס) to moisten; and then to RaZaH (רזה) which represents a liquid creeping across a surface. Hence: R.Z.R.Z. Amharic – flowed slowly, dripped out – which is related to RaDa/ (רדא) Syriac: to proceed, move along, continue, flow on, issue, descend, pursue. The Arabic cognate of YaRaD is WaRaD meaning: to arrive to, come to s.o hands, accrue, revenue; arrive successively.
99 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
100 – Amalaeq (עמלק). \aM (עם) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.LaeQ (לק), comes from the verb LaQaH (לקה) meaning to suffer, be afflicted, smitten, stricken, and eclipsed.
101 – nation (GoY – גוי) and body (G’WiYaH – גויה) both derived from the root GaWaH (גוה) literally meaning “to draw in,” in Arabic גוי means to be passionately stirred (love / grief), passion. In Syriac GaWaH means to take / bring in, admit, innermost
102 – Kenite (קיני QayNy) Allegorically: visually fixing upon many things in experience. It is derived from the verb QuN (קון to fix or be fixed in place). Related to other Q.N. words, all meaning fixed in place, such as the word for nest (קן QaN); arrangement (קינה QyNaH); reed, stalk, staff, beam (קנה QaNeH). cattle ( מקנה miQNeH)(קנין QiNyaN possession); QaNaH (קנה) which literally means to fix something in place, but it is used to mean “to acquire.” to make straight, fix (תקן TaQaN). The allegorical meaning can be seen from another derived verb QaNa/ (קנא) (to be visually fixated on >) jealous, zealous.
103 – strong, mighty (איתן /ayTaN) Allegorically: well aligned, perpetual flow, which evolved from the rarely used verb /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come, from which also evolved eT (את – (be aligned) with); and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment)ץ The word also means: unrelenting (Pr13:15); “stampede” of a sheep-fold; synergistic, allied, well organized (Jr5:15)(Jr49:19)
104 – crag, rock (סלע SeLa\) Allegorically: what dangles in experience. The root evolved from SaLaH (סלה) to draw up / away, to discard (Ps119:118), (piel) to discard, overthrow (Lm1:15) which evolved from SaLaH-ShaLaH (שלה). The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate; (שלג – SheLeG) snow (lit: what is suspended in the air).
105 – what (מה MaH) Allegorically: a particular thing is drawn out from experience. From MaHaH (מהה – diffuse, dissolve, dilute, spread out). It probably relates to the drawing away of a diluted particles in water.
106 – Ashur (אשור /aShuR) There are two unrelated Semitic roots spelled /aShaR (אשר). One, meaning “to go directly,” evolved from ShuWR (שור – to see, get a fix on). The other, meaning “to confirm, be supportive of, validate and congratulate” evolved from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent). When naming Asher, the peshat uses the latter meaning, while the allegory utilizes the former. Allegorically Ashur means “a person’s intently driving into experience, from the Hebrew, “to go or drive directly with intention;”
107 – take captive (שבה ShaBhaH) Literally: to settle back a captive. Which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still), ShaBhaT (שבת to settle down, rest, cease).
108 – From SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
109 – El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
110 – ships (ציים TsiYyiM, צים TsiYM) Allegorically: those who wilt. The word for “ship” is related to Arabic (דּ^וה)(ضوى) (squeeze together) to join, follow, rally, flock) which also explains ציים wild beasts (Is13:21). It is also related to Arabic (ס^וי)(صوى) to dry up, wither, wilt). In Hebrew, there are TsaWaH (צוה to be dry) from MaTsaH (מצה) to wring out > squeeze together.
111 – Kittim (כתים) Allegorically: being pounded. From KaTaT (כתת – to pound, smash together). All KaTa* verbs essentially mean to press-impress-compress; such as KaTaBh (כתב – to write), KaTaL (כתל wall; Arabic – to press into, compact, mass),KaTaR (כתר – huddle, croud in on), KaTaPh (כתף – shoulder joint), KaTaSh (כתש – crush, compress)
112 – EBheR (עבר) From the root \aBhaR (עבר), to pass through or over.
113 – Shittim (שטים ShiTiM) from the verb ShuT-ShaTaT (שוט שטט) to run to and fro (Jr5:1;49:3)(Am8:12)(Zc4:10)
114 – ZaNAH (זנה – (to flail) > prostitute), which evolved into ZaNaBh (זנב – (flail) > tail) and distribution > sustenance (maZoN – מזון) and ear (אוזן – /oZeN) literally meaning “what turns back and forth > flails” initially referring to the movements of a non human ear such as a dog.
115 – daughters, towns (בנות BaNoT) Allegorically: acts of endeavoring into the scene. From daughters (בנות) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
116 – eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
117 – sun (SheMeSh – שמש) Allegorically: unwavering, fortitude, baulking, restively, reluctantly attending to things (from the Arabic cognate). The root evolved from ShuM (שום) which essentially means “to stay put.” Hence ShaMaR (שמר – guard, watch), ShaMa\ (שמע – be attentive, listen), ShaMaSh (שמש – to serve, attend to, wait upon) and SuM (שום – to put, place).
118 – man / husband (איש – /eeSh). Originally meaning husband, meaning one who persists, it evolved to mean man. It is related to /aeSh (אש – fire) meaning persistent existence. Allegorically, it means (mental) persistence.
119 – to kill (הרג – HaRaG) allegorically meaning “to muse over something.” Tirliteral roots with R.G.(רג) generally meaning “to go back and forth.” רגג to swoon after; הרג to kill (make go back and forth), in Syriac and Arabic to muse over, blur the mind; רגל walk about, spy out, to slander; שרג to slip back and forth, entangle; שׂרג to swing back and forth, slip; רגב clod, make clods; quiver, be afraid; רגף to shake, stir; רגם to throw at, pelt at, Akk- shout at, persecute raise claim against, accuse; Ugr – to communicate, say, tell, announce, inform, answer; Amh- to curse, wish evil upon; Arb- to stone, curse, revile; shooting stars, meteorites; רגע to swing back and forth, roll; רגש to surge together, rage; רגז to deviate from side to side, wander about, get lost; ארג to weave
120 – Behold, see here (הנה HiNaeH). Allegorically: in being mentally present. It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)).
121 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
122 – to cry, weep, vent and trickle (בכה BaKhaH) evolved from NaBhaKh (נבך) (welling up) spring, source (Jb38:16). BaKhaH (בכה) also evolved into BaKhaR (בכר) to bud (well up) to be born first
123 – tent of meeting (אהל מועד /oHeL Mo\aeD) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar of being enduringly (mentally) present. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude).” The following roots all mean: “to endure in place or time.”testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD);
124 – Pinhas (פינחס) one’s turning toward particular things for closer consideration; from PaNaH (פנה – to turn toward) + HhuS (חוס) with \aL (על) means to show concern / shower consideration upon, which evolved from ChuSh (חוש) essentially: to spend time with or persist with someone or something by experiencing, sensing, feeling or considering.
125 – El’azar (אלעזר) one’s advancing forward with initiative, becoming involved with the things that are around; from El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.” + \aZaR (עזר) surround, around. Syriac: entangle, involve, swaddle.
126 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
127 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10).
128 – spear (רמח RaMaHh) Allegorically: an ability to arch over. Which evolved from RaMaH (רמה) to arch, throw (Ex15:1)(?SmI2:1)(Jr4:29) arching (Ez6:13;17:22) arch (Ez16:24) to throw (CrI12:18)
129 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /UD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
130 – to impale (דקר DaQaR) Allegorically: particularly specifying. From the root DaQ (דק to pound, beat, powder, particulate, particular, punctilious, examine carefully).
131 – wife > woman (/eeShaH – אשה) It is believe that the words forth husband-man (/eeSh – איש) and wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) are not related etymologically. Perhaps, wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) is related to its plural (NaShiM – נשים). This word is related to NaSa/ (נשה) which like NaSa/ (נשא) means to lift up and carry along. Thus wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) could mean “one who lifts up and carries.” Allegorically, based on this and context, it means “one’s conducting oneself through experience.”

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

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Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

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About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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