David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Ki Taetsae Striving to Go out so as to Engage Life

A life well lived is a life full of striving, of facing challenges, both external and internal. External challenges appear mightier than our perceived abilities; while internal challenges appear to undermine our true strengths. How a person approaches either type of challenge strongly influences the outcome of one’s life, both in the short term and the long. There are times when we strive (תצא)1 to engage experience (למלחמה)2 despite its feeling alarming to us (אויב enemy),3 because there is an aspect of it that is nevertheless enticing (חשק).4 Whether or not it persists in its overwhelming nature (צפרניה)5 or it removes the imposition associated with its settling in (הסירה את שמלת שביה),6,7 you probe it (בעלתה).8 If you do not grab upon it with desire and delight, then you will send it forth regarded as its natural state (לנפשה).9 You will not be able to benefit (התעמר) from it, because you have subdued it (עניתה)10 by not not engaging it enthusiastically.

The Son of a Hated Wife:
If there are two ways of conducting oneself through experience-opportunities (wives),11 yet one is loved and the other hated. If the first to yield an activity (son)12 is the hated one, when it comes time to apply your energies (הנחיל), you may not show a preference for the one that you love. You must double your efforts (פי שנים) for the one that came first, because as a result of it, you shall see how capable you are (ראשית און).

Rebellious Son:
If there is to you a rebellious and embittering behavior (son)12 that you are unable to discipline. For it will not hearken to the taking notice of it (father)13 nor the being mindful of it (mother).14 Then bring it to the ability to clearly see its manner of disturbance (elders of its city)15,16 and to the taking notice of its intransigence (gate of its place).17,18 Because it is degrading (זולל)19 and unyieldingly intractable (סובא),20 all of the potential ways of applying and imposing oneself (men)21 must pelt it with the facts that stick out prominently (stones)22 so that it is killed off.

A Man Put to Death:
If there is to you a means of being mentally persistent (man)23 that consistently veers off task (חטא)24 that is deserving of being killed off. And you do kill it off such that you suspend it by striving with it (tree).25 You shall not allow any overtures (נבלתו corpse)26 of it to remain. Because to allow it to remain dangling (תלוי) would be an act of making light (קללת)27 of God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).28 You may not make inaccessible (טמא)29 your ability to be mentally absorbed with experience (ground)30 for it is the means by which God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you (Elohim), gives forth to you an inheritance of experience (נחלה).

Don’t Allow Your Brother’s Animals to Wander off
Don’t allow the wandering off of your ability to visually fix upon (שור)31 what instructs and points the way for you regarding experience (brother),32 nor the longing for it (שיו).33 If you are unable to acknowledge that which instructs and points the way for you regarding experience then you will apply your ability to remain focused (שור) to whatever forces its way in of the things coming into you from experience (תוך ביתך),34,35 until the ability to remain focused is sought out by what instructs and points the way for you regarding experience. You shall perform reliably for the sake of its being conscientiously attentive to details (חמור),36 for the sake of its enclosing around things from experience (שמלה),6 and for all that is disregarded (אבדה)37 of what instructs and points the way for you regarding experience. You should not allow the being conscientiously attentive to details associated with what instructs and points the way for you regarding experience (donkey of your brother) or the being focused (שור) associated with it to waver while threshing through experience (דרך).38

Wearing Gender Specific Clothing:
All that can be obtained from experience in being a strong person (כלי גבר)39,40 should not be upon you, in your conducting yourself through experience (woman)11 – and a person who is strong should not layer on (לבש)41 all of what can be enclosed around when conducting oneself through experience (clothing of a woman)6,11 – because persisting with all of what advances forward in experience (doing these)42,43 is a distortion44 of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you (Elohim).28

Bird’s Nest:
If an act of visually fixating upon an abundance of overwhelming things (bird’s nest)45,5 shall be encountered as you thresh through experience (דרך)38 with anything elusive (tree),25 or upon the disposing of oneself (land)46 – the many things blossoming (chicks)47 or things bursting forth (eggs)48 – and the act of being mindful (mother)14 is sprawling out over the many things blossoming or the things bursting forth. Don’t give priority to the being mindful (mother) over the activities (children)12 – send forth the being mindful and take up the activities.

Parapets and Mixed-Species:
When you build up new things coming in from experience (house),35 set limits (parapet)49 for your desires and eagerness (roof).50 Do not put forth too many ways of pouring forth (bloods)51 with what comes in of you (house). Because one who vacillates (נופל)52 shall surely fall from it. Additionally, you shall not scatter about (sow)53 for the purpose of inserting yourself into the experience that you have accumulated and piled up upon you (vineyard)54 – cramping yourself with too much to do, confining yourself and barring yourself from doing any of them (כלאים).55 Lest the probability that you shall bring forward56 the exhaustion.57

Plowing with or Wearing Mixed Kinds – Tsitsit:
You shall not engage (plow into)58 a situation with sights set firmly (שור ox)31 and with doubt (חמור donkey),36 together. You shall not layer together (wear)41 sha’atnaez (שעטנז): the acts of lingering over a situation (Sha\a שע smoothening, carding);59 coiling around and engaging a situation (TaWaH טוה spinning); and staggering regarding a situation (NaeZ נז staggering, twinning)60 – contracting (wool)61 and spreading out (flax),62 together. Instead, you shall set into motion intricate struggles (גדלים)63 for yourself concerning the inundation (ארבע)64 of the things drawing in (wings)65 of what makes an impression (covers)66 upon you.

A Wife whose Virginity is Doubted
Suppose you take up a way of conducting oneself through experience (wife).11 Not only do you hate it, but you make many attempts to circumvent it (עלילת דברים),67 apply yourself poorly to it (שם רע)68 and accuse it of not having things-activities to be pushed into (virginity).69 However, if you looked at it closer you would see the act of taking notice associated with the becoming mentally stirred with things (father of the lass)13,70 and the being mindful of it (her mother)14 bringing out the things-activities to be pushed into (בתולים)69 to the acts of clearly seeing what things are stirred up in experience (elders of the city),15,16 moving toward the taking notice of things (gate).17 Once this occurs, the acts of clearly seeing what things are stirred up in experience (elders of the city)15,16 will impose upon him (your being mentally persistent – man) what is beckoning of many lasting impressions (100 pieces of silver)71,72 to be given to the act of taking notice associated with the becoming mentally stirred with things (father of the lass).13,70 Nevertheless, if it were true that they did not find things-activities to be pushed into (virginity),69 then they will bring out the person’s becoming mentally stirred with things found in experience (lass)70 to the opening up of what comes in of its taking notice of things (opening of the house of her father).35,13 Then the acts of applying oneself to what is stirred up in experience associated with it (men of her city)21,16 will pelt it up with the many things prominently sticking out in experience (stones)22 such that it will be completely drawn out into experience (die).73

Adultery:
If a person’s being mentally persistent (איש)23 shall hedge in (שכב)74 ever presently with an act of conducting oneself through experience (אשה)11 – an experience probed as a result of an act of probing (בעולת בעל)8 – then the acts of applying the two of them (שניהם)75 shall be completely drawn out and made manifest (die).73

Three Cases of Rape:
If a person’s being mentally persistent (איש)23 shall find an act of becoming mentally stirred with things (lass),70 one that must be pushed into (virgin),69 one of something’s being brought out into the light (engaged),76 within a stirred up situation (city)16 and it hedges (שכב)74 in ever present with it, then you will take the applying of both of them (שניהם)75 to the act of taking notice of that situation stirred up (gate of that city).17,16 And you will pelt them with things in experience sticking out prominently (stones)23 such that they will be completely drawn out and made manifest (die)73 – the act of becoming mentally stirred with things70 upon an act of pondering-driving directly forward (על דבר)77 in that it did not vehemently channel forth (צעקה)78 within the situation stirred up (city)16 – and the act of being mentally persistent23 upon an act of pondering-driving directly forward (על דבר)77 in that it overwhelmed the act of setting out with initiative (wife)79 associated with its perceiving things (רעהו).80

On the other hand, if the act of being mentally persistent (man)23 shall firmly take hold upon the act of becoming mentally stirred with things (lass)70 while in a state of frantically going back and forth (in a field)81 then the act of being mentally persistent (man)23 will be completely drawn out and manifest (die),73 but to the act of becoming mentally stirred with things (lass),70 you shall not do an act of pondering (דבר)77 – there does not exist to it an act of veering about experience of being completely drawn out (חטא מות).24,73 Because in a place of going back and forth in a frenzy,81 he came upon it. The act of becoming mentally stirred up with things,70 the one of something’s being brought out into the light,76 vehemently channeled forth78 and there did not exist an act of lingering (מושיע)82 with regard to it.

Given that an act of being mentally persistent (man)23 shall find an act of becoming mentally stirred with things (lass),70 one that must be pushed into (virgin),69 that is not one of something’s being brought out into the light (engaged)76 and he firmly seizes it and hedges (שכב)74 in ever presently with it. Then the act of being mentally persistent (man)23 will give forth for the sake of the act of taking notice of things associated with the act of becoming mentally stirred with things (father of the lass):13,70 acts of taking hold of many lasting impressions (fifty pieces of silver).83,72

Chapter 23:
An act of being mentally persistent (man)23 shall not take away the act of setting out with initiative associated with its taking notice of things (wife of his father),79,13 such that he shall not reveal a withdrawing of his taking notice of things (the wing of his father).65,13

A person who is wounded-beaten down and cut off of the ability to pour forth into experience (שפכה penis)84 shall not come into the act of channeling in (קהל)85 of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H).

A person who feels twisted and bound up (Mamzer)86 shall not enter into the act of channeling in (קהל)85 God’s bringing forth of existence.

A person who is dimmed by the being mindful of what crowds in from experience (Amonite)87 – and a person who merely yearns for things in taking notice of in experience (Moabite)88 – shall not come into (sing.) the act of channeling in (קהל)85 God’s bringing forth of existence. Due to the fact that they did not advance you into an act of getting in very close so as to engage experience (bread)89 or into things stirred up (water).90 And that it hired upon you the act of exhaustively taking in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a full accounting (Bilam),91 a behavior of burning clear through experience (בן בעור), to your denigration and belittlement.

You shall not abhor an act of being mentally absorbed with experience (Edomite)92 because it is a faculty pointing things out to you regarding experience (brother).32 You shall not abhor an act of narrowing in upon something found in experience (Mitsri)93 because you were one drawing inward into experience (sojourner)94 through its way of disposing of oneself (land).46

Maintaining a Ritually Pure Camp
When mentally attending (encamping)95 to things in experience that are alarming you (enemy)3 guard yourself from feebly driving forward into experience (דבר רע).77 If there shall be with you a way of being mentally persistent (man)23 that is not mentally clear (טהור),96 as a result of an occasion of being (mentally) exhausted (מקרה לילה),97 it must be relegated to being placed outside of the act of mentally attending to experience (camp).95 However, with a turn of bravery (ערב)98 it shall move itself back and forth (wash)99 with what is stirred up in experience (water)90 and with the coming in of fortitude (sun)100 it shall come into what is forcefully pushing in (center)34 of the act of mentally attending to experience (camp).95 When you are outside of mentally attending to experience (camp),95 there shall be to you a means of extending out and powerfully reaching (יד).101 And above your flailings (זנב),102 there shall be to you an act of fastening upon something so as to ram in firmly (יתד).103 And it will be in your settling in – wedged off from experience (חוץ outside)104 – that you will search and make an investigation of the experience through it. And then you will make impressions (cover over)105 being aligned with (את)106 your strivings to go out into experience (צאתך what comes out of you).1

Slaves and Prostitutes:
You shall not shut down (close in upon)107 the act of devoting attention to experience (slave),108 by instead being in contemplation of it (his lord).109 It (devoting attention) shall settle in with your getting closer (קרב within)110 into what is confronting in experience (מקום)18 that it shall select in being mentally sharp (אחד)111 as a result of your taking notice of something in being stirred up by it (gates),17 you shall not try to suppress it. Additionally, there shall not exist a commitment to advance forward into experience (קדשה)112 with either the activities (בני)12 or the endeaverings (בנות)113 associated with one’s making a survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).114

Taking Monetary Interest:
With regard to the mental faculty pointing things out and instructing you regarding experience (brother),32 you shall not hedge in115 lasting impressions (silver),72 what can be embraced from experience (אוכל food),116 or anything that drives directly forward in experience (דבר thing).77 However, with regard to something about which you are minimally acquainted (foreigner),117 you may hedge in. For the sake that God’s bringing forth of experience (Y-H-W-H), God’s Guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim),28 shall make you excel with all of the sending forth of your hand regarding the act of disposing oneself to experience (land)46 that when you are applying yourself (אתה),118 you are coming in, in order to drive into it and take possession of it.

Making a Vow – Commitment:
Given that you shall make a vow to dedicate119 yourself regarding God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s Guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim),28 you must fulfill it. Because in being ever presently with you, unless you refrain from dedicating yourself, God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s Guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim), shall assuredly seek it out and it will be with you an act of veering off (חטא).24 Anything that comes out as a result of your making an effort to flow forth in experience (your lips),120 you must stay put with and perform.

Given that you shall come into what is piled up (vineyard)54 as a result of your perceiving things (רעך friend).80 Then you will embrace the intricacies (grapes)121 in accord with your spirit, to the point of your becoming satiated. And preclude from giving forth a restraining of yourself (כליך container).39

Given that you shall come into what is firmly confronting (grain)122 of your perceiving things (רעך friend).80 Then you will pluck off what is being engaged (מלילת)123 through the power of your reach (hand).101 But as a result of a dulled eye (sickle),124 you shall not sift over what is firmly confronting of your perceiving things.

Unfortunately, due to a limit on the number of words per blog, I cannot adequately review Chapters 24 and 25. Nevertheless, here is a quick review regarding Miriam and Amalaeq:

Miriam:
Be on guard against becoming shook up as a result of feeling narrowed in, defeated and over-whelmed (נגע הצרעת).125,126 In order to stay put mightily and in order to perform in accord with all that the acts of giving something precise and mindful attention (priest),127 the many acts of mentally clinging to a scene and thus generating an awareness of many startling things (Levites),128 are showing you. Keep clear in mind (זכור) that which God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s Guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim), did with regard to one’s rejecting what is stirred up in experience (Miriam),129 in the threshing through experience (דרך),38 in your striving to go out1 from the act of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in of experience (Mitsraim).130

Amalaeq:
Keep clear in mind what the eclipsing brittleness of the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (Amalaeq)131 did to you when threshing through experience (on the way),38 in your striving to go out1 from the acts of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim).130 That it approached you when threshing through experience and flailed itself upon you (זנב)102 – all of the feelings of weariness, being worn out and feeble (הנחשלים) coming after you. And so, regarding your ability to apply yourself (אתה),118 you were tired and exhausted and were no longer in awe of God’s Guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).28

Notes:
1 – to go-come out (יצא YaTsa/) Allegorically: to strive to go out AND excrement(צאת Tsae/T) Allegorically: what comes out of you. This root is related to the verb NiTsaH (נצה) to strive / struggle. Unfortunately, the root from which it evolved is unattested. It should be either YaTsaH (יצה) or NaTsa/ (נצא) to flee (Jr48:9) or a variation of NaTsaTs (נצץ) sprout, blossom, grow, to sparkle (Ek1:7)
2 – to engage in battle (מלחמה MiLHhaMah) Allegorically: an engagement, getting in closely. Derived from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
3 – enemies (אויבים /oYaeBhim) Allegorically: those who cause a crying out (in alarm), those alarming. From YaBhaBh (יבב) to cry out, lament; in Syriac: to make a joyful noise, sound, shout, howl).
4 – to long to be with, to desire, to attach (חשק HhaShaQ) evolved from ShaQaQ (שקק) to charge, run (Is33:4)(Yl2:9)(Pr28:15)
5 – her nails (צפרניה TsiPaRNeyHa) Allegorically: its overwhelming nature AND a flood of things or a being flooded by things. From צפר (TsiPaeR – (to overflow out of) > to evacuate, to bail out from (Jd7:3), which evolved from TsaPhaH (צפה – to overflow). TsiPoR (צפור – bird) literally means “the one that evacuates, flies away.”
6 – garment (שמלת – SiMLaH) evolved from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). The Arabic cognate: cloak, turban, enclose, engulf, contain, comprise, comprehend, imply, implicate, pervade, prevail
7 – take captive (שבה ShaBhaH) Literally: to settle back a captive. Which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still), ShaBhaT (שבת to settle down, rest, cease).
8 – The verb Ba\aL (בעל) means to engage in sexual intercourse (Dt21:13;24:1). From there it comes to mean husband > master, owner. Ba’al the Canaanite god of the rain storms means “fructifier.” The verb evolved from Ba\aH (בעה – to probe, search).
9 – spirit, soul (נפש NePheSh) Allegorically: one’s spirit or one’s way of being; an untamed spirit. The word evolved from NaPhaH (נפה to fan, winnow), which itself evolved from PeH (פה mouth (implying a moving back and forth of air)). Like NaPhaHh (נפח to blow), NaPhaSh (נפש) means to breathe in Syriac, Akkadian and Arabic, while in Hebrew the passive means “to be refreshed.” Because breathing involves chest expansion, in Akkadian it also means “be / become / make wide, spread, be abundant,” while a non-cognate but related root in Arabic means “puff up, swell out, ruffle, comb, card, tease wool.” For this reason, the root PuSh (פוש spread out) evolved by dropping the nun. The Ugaritic and Arabic cognates also mean: “force, appetite, desire.” In Hebrew NePheSh is also used to refer to a dead body, not just a living spirit.
10 – to afflict, overwhelm, humiliate, rape, oppress (ענה \aNaH). This root evolved from /aNaH (אנה to impose oneself). This root is unrelated to (ענה \aNaH, to turn) which is with the letter ghayin.
11 – wife (/eeShaH – אשה) It is believe that the words forth husband-man (/eeSh – איש) and wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) are not related etymologically. Perhaps, wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) is related to its plural (NaShiM – נשים). This word is related to NaSa/ (נשה) which like NaSa/ (נשא) means to lift up and carry along. Thus wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) could mean “one who lifts up and carries.” Allegorically, based on this and context, it means “one’s conducting oneself through experience.”
12 – son (בן BeN) (sons בנים BaNiM) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior or activity.
13 – father /aBh (אב) derives from /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
14 – mother (/aeM – אם) Allegorically: being mentally present. It literally means “who or what that is ever present” It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence); /aYaM (אים) foreboding literally means “an ever present feeling,” and m’/uMaH (מאומה) something literally means “a thing of that is ever present” and /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe).
15 – elders of (זקני ZiQNaey) allegorically “the acts of clearly visualizing things of the making of a sustained survey of what advances forward in experience” from (זקן – (be clear) beard, old), related to ZuQ (זוק – (Arb- (make clear in the mind) to visualize) and ZaQaQ (זקק – (to make clear / purify) to distill).
16 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
17 – gate (שער Sha\aR) – also Seir (שעיר Sae\iyR) barley (שערים from שעורה S’/oRaH), goat (hairy one),demon (שעיר Sa\yR). Allegorically: acts of taking notice of many things in being stirred by them. Except for gate (which possibly is derived from עיר city (place stirred up)), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up).
18 – place, establishment (מקום MaQoM) Allegorically: what is firm, established, establishment, what arises, what confronts, unrelentingly firm, intransigence. From the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Note QaM (קם) enemy, foe, adversary (one who stands firmly before, standing up to).
19 – (זולל) Allegorically: degrading. (degrade oneself) vile, glutton (Dt21:20)(Jr15:19)(Pr23:21)(Pr28:7)(Lm1:11)ף gluttonous of eating meat (Pr23:20). Related to ZuL (זול disregarded, to be cheap, inexpensive)
20 – drunkard (סובא) Allegorically: unyieldingly intractable. This root evolved from the unattested SuBh (סוב (to put back) be retired) from which also is derived Sa/aBh (סאב (put back) unfit, defiled, impure, unclean). SuBh (סוב (to put back) be retired) evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). The relationship between SaBa/ (סבא grandfather) and So/eaBh (סואב drunkard) is that the are booth no longer engaged in arduous activity.
21 – Men (/aNaShim – אנשים) from the noun /eNoSh (אנוש), evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Therefore the meaning is those applying-imposing themselves in experience.
22 – stone (/eBheN – אבן), from the root BuN (בון – to be or project between), literally means “what sticks out prominently.”
23 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
24 – sin (חטא ChaeT/) Allegorically: an act of veering off or about experience. From HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). See also HhiTaH (חטה) wheat = what leans, inclines; and ChiTae\ (חטא) to re-aim, rectify from veering off-going astray
25 – tree, wood of (עץ \aets) Allegorically: an act of striving-difficult-elusive. From tree, wood (עץ – \aeTs) derived from the root \uTs (עוץ) which derived from /uTs (אוץ hasten). Literally meaning “to hasten, force, push through” it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel.” Allegorically, it is used to mean “one’s striving, one’s urges or things that are difficult or elusive – the later from the Arabic cognate and context.
26 – carcass (נבלה NiBhLaH) Allegorically: what makes a forceful, bellowing overture. The word for carcass comes from BaLaH (בלה) to force into and mix together, crumble; which evolves into NaBhaL (נבל) to fall down, wither (Is34:4)(Ek47:12)(Ps1:3) to crumble (Jb14:18). However, from a different root, the word Naebhel (נבל) means both a leather bottle and a musical instrument with bellows. The root literally means to push or send something outward. In Sabaic, the root means to dispatch, send someone on a mission, and to make overtures.
27 – curse (קללה Q’LaLaH) Allegorically: held in light esteem. Derived from QoL (קול voice (channeling)), words from QaLaH mean “to be light” or “to remove from the surface.” QaLaL (קלל make light of, to be swift, to curse > be vile). QaLaH (קלה roast (make light)); dried, light (קלקל Q’LoQaeL). In Syriac: קלקל means “to distort, distract, throw into confusion, bring shame upon; to be held in light esteem.”
28 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
29 – impure, unclean (טמא TaMae/) The evolution of this root begins with TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast). From there, TaM (טם) means “flood, inundate, overwhelming” in Arabic; “stop up, block, closely packed, solid, dense, opaque, repress, restrain; repressed, coerced” in Syriac; plaited in Akkadian; and TaMaM (טמם) is “filled / crowded to capacity” in Amharic. Essentially, these roots mean squeezed in > overstuffed > overwhelmed.
30 – ground (אדמה /aDaMah) comes from the root DooM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparitive Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
31 – oxen (שור, related to the verb > being of fixed sights) and donkey (חמר, an ability to conscientiously load up details, related to the verb meaning to load up and to be stringent), flocks (צאן, consideration of experience; from an Arabic cognate) and servants (עבד, an ability to devote attention, from the verb meaning to devote) and maid servants (שפחות, an ability to spread out-pour forth into experience, from the verb to pour)
32 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
33 – youngling (שה – SeH) from the verb ShaHaH (שהה – to stay, remain, stand still, dwell, tarry, pause). The Arabic cognate means: “desire, wish, covet, crave, long, arouse greed, whet the appetite; sensual, sensuous, libidinous, lustful, uninhibited.”
34 – in the middle of, midst, center of (תוך – ToKh) comes from the verb TaWaKh (תוך – to push or force inward).
35 – house (בית – BayiT) from Bo/ (בוא – to come in). Technically, it means “place of coming in” but based in context the allegory uses it as “the coming in of something from experience” or “what comes in from experience.”
36 – HhaMoR (donkey – חמור) acts of conscientiously loading up details, fastidiousness, resentment, doubt, grudge. From HhaMaR (חמר – to heap up, load), but also related to the Talmudic word HhuMRaH (חמרה – a stringent, fastidiousness and attention to details). In Arabic ChaMaR (חמר) means: for a feeling / thought / doubt to permeate, pervade s.o; mix, blend; to harbor resentment, bear a grudge; conspire, plot, scheme.
37 – lost (אבד /aBaD) Allegorically: something disregarded. It comes from the verb BaDaD (בדד) meaning “to extract something and make separate.” The roots derived from BaDaH (בדה) evolved from BaZaH (בזה to plunder), but literally meaning to dig into and throw out > rifle through. Therefore, BaDaH (בדה invent, fabricate, concoct) literally means “to throw out an idea,” and the related BaD (בד fabrications, boastings). BaDaL (בדל piece, a thing separated > to separate); Likewise BaD (בד) also means “piece” and therefore branch (a piece torn off), but also from the related BaDaD (בדד), alone.
38 – way, thresh (דרך – DeReKh). from DaRaKh (דרך) to tread, trample, thresh, walk about, guide and aim.
39 – K’Li (כלי) – container, tool, utensil, weapon; from KaLaH (כלה) to contain, restrain, hold back
40 – men (גבר – GeBheR)Allegorically: one of prevailing strength. From the verb of the same root: to prevail over.
41 – to wear, layer clothing (לבש – LaBhaSh) A comparison of related words indicate that this root means to layer out and stratify things such as , LaBhaBh (to layer a cake – לבב), ShaLaBh (to join layers, rungs of a ladder – שלב), HhaLaBh (milk, what layers out – חלב) and L’BhoNah (frankincense, what layers out – לבונה)
42 – the root \aSaH (עשה). It literally means “to persist at,” but it is used to mean to wander and patrol (at night)(Arabic & Ugaritic), to do and perform, and to grope and grab at something (piel). Furthermore, the related words \uSh (make haste – עוש) and \aShaN (be volatile, flare up – עשן) suggest an impulsive quality as well
43 – these (אלה /aeLeH), literally means “what is advancing forward” or “what is of advancing forward.” It is related to El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward.”
44 – detestable, abhorent (תועבה To\aeBhaH) Allegorically: something distorted. Derived from (עבה \aBhaH) to swell; hence Syriac (עבּא) thick, swollen, dense > crass, uncultivated; swollen face / eyes / body ~ as a wound. Arabic: (עבל \aBaL) plump, well-rounded, chubby, fat, granite. Additionally: related Ta\aBh (תעב) (from \aBhaH (עבה) that which is swollen > deformed, distortion, monstrosity, gross, crass, uncultivated) > something that a person sees or becomes aware of that is disturbing / troublesome / considered disgusting. Abhorrent).
45 – nest (קן QaN) Allegorically: be fixed in place > an act of (visually) fixing upon. Related to other Q.N. words, all meaning fixed in place, such as the words for arrangement (קינה QyNaH); reed, stalk, staff, beam (קנה QaNeH); to buy, acquire (קנה QoNeH); cattle ( מקנה miQNeH)(קנין QiNyaN possession); to make straight, fix (תקן TaQaN). The allegorical meaning can be seen from another derived verb QaNa/ (קנא) (to be visually fixated on >) jealous, zealous.
46 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
47 – chicks (אפרחים /ePhRoHhiM) Allegorically: things blossoming. From the root PaRaHh (פרח to blossom, sprout) > offspring.
48 – eggs (ביצים BaeyTsiM) Allegorically: what bursts forth. From BuTs (בוץ) to swell and split open, bubble, burst forth, shine,
49 – parapet (מעקה Ma\aQeH) Allegorically: a setting of limits. Related to עקה constraining, oppression (Ps55:4); מועקה (huphal) that which causes to constrain (Ps66:11) and the Arabic cognate:עאק to hinder, impede, prevent, restrain.
50 – roof (גג GaG) Allegorically: desires and eagerness. Unattested in Hebrew as a defined root but present in the names Gag, Magog and Agag (anxious curiosity). Consider (Ugr- to moan)(Akk- to be furiously angry); (האג)(Arb – astir, stirred up, rise up, excited, agitated, be very upset, furious, rough); (הוג)(Arb- rashness, thoughtlessness, folly, hasty, folly, violent; cyclone); (גג)(Amh- desire, be anxious, curious, eager, enthusiastic, temptation)
51 – blood (דם – DaM) allegorically means “what flows,” evolved from DaWaH (דוה – to flow). Incidentally, not related to DuM (דום – still, silent) which evolved from DaMaH (דמה – to cease, be still) engagement. Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter; which expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
54 – vineyard (כרם KeReM) heaping up a lot from experience; from the verb KaRaM (כרם) (surround) > vineyard, (per Jastro > ) to pile up, stock up; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk). From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
55 – two species, ?doubly cramped (כלאים KiL’/aYiM) Allegorically: constraining, restraining. From KaLa/ (כלא) to be encircled, barred in, blocked, bounded, clogged, confining, cramped, fettered, restrained; which evolved from from KaLaH (כלה) to contain, restrain, hold back
56 – to bring forward (קדש QaDaSh) > Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
57 – exhaustion, fullness (מלאה M’Lae/aH) from the stative verb MaLae/ (מלא) to be full which comes from the unattested MaLaH (מלה) from MuL (מול – (fray, make threadbare) to make an edge). By eliding the letter mem: La/aH (לאה)(exhausted) to tire, weary (Jr12:5) to labor in vain (Gn19:11) exhaust, to be exasperated (Jb4:1)
58 – to plow (חרש HhaRaSh) Allegorically: to plow in, scratch the surface. Probably from Hh-R roots (חור חרה חרר) all essentially meaning (to prod) to poke through, make a hole, puncture. From these evolved HhaRaSh (חרש) to plow, cut in, engrave; which in Akkadian is HhaRaS (חרשׂ) to itch, scratch, scabies.
59 – smoothening, carding (Sha\a שע) of sha’atnaez (שעטנז). Allegorically: the acts of lingering over a situation – which comes from the etymologically unrelated root: Sha\aH (שעה)(dwell upon) to look out longingly, linger
(Is32:3), to look, linger (SmII22:42)
60 – twinning (נז NaeZ) of sha’atnaez (שעטנז). Allegorically: staggering regarding a situation – from NaZaZ (נזז) to shake, be unsteady, stagger (Jastro)
61 – wool (צמר TseMeR) Allegorically: compressed, squeezed. The root evolved from TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast) > TsaMaH (צמה) squeezing, compressing > snares, veil. Which evolved further to: TsaMa/ (צמא (wrung out, squeezed) > thristy); TsaMaHh (צמח (squeeze through) > sprout); TsaMaD (צמד (squeeze together) > fasten, join, attach, couple, cleave); TsaMaQ (צמק (wrung out) > raisins); TsaMaT (צמת to crush, destroy); TsaMTsaeM (צמצם to compress > retract); \aTsaM (עצם compress, dense, compact, bone, self).
62 – flax (פשתים PiShTiM) Allegorically: what spreads out. From the root PuSh (פוש spread out) which evolved into similar roots: PaSaH(פשׂה) to spread out (disease); PaShaHh (פשח tear by spreading); PaShaQ (פשק) to split apart/ open (legs) (Ek16:25) (lips) (Pr13:3); PaSha\ (פשע) to spread out > overstep > trespass; PaShaT(פשט) to spread out (one’s body) > strip clothes, spread out in attack > raid; PaShaR (פשר) to spread out > interpret; HhaPhaSh (חפש) spread out > be free; ShaPhaSh (שפש) circulate; TaPhaSh (תפש) spread out upon > grab, wield, take a city.
63 – tassles, tsitsit (גדלים G’DiLiM) Allegorically: intricate struggles. From GaDaL (גדל) from GaD (גד) to cut across. Hence its etymology: to cut across > braid / weave / twist, make intricate / elaborate > to pile up / grow larger; can be seen in the Syriac: to twist, plait, interweave, compose words artfully, make intricate plans; and Arabic: to stretch a rope > to braid / plait, (interwoven argument >) to debate, bicker, contest, and dispute.
64 – four (ארבע /aRBa\) derived from RaBha\ (רבע – to lie down, spread out, make square). Allegorically it represents a spreading out in all directions; flooding / inundating hence 40 days and nights of flood, wandering in the wilderness and Moshe’s time with HaShem in the mountain.
65 – wings (כנף KaNaPh) Allegorically: what is drawn in, what draws in. Many K.N. (כנ) roots mean “to draw in” – KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. KaNaS (כנס to enter), , KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon.
66 – covering > clothes (כסות K’SuT) Allegorically: impressions. From KaSaH (כסה to cover) meaning “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Consider: throne (KiSae/ – כסא) literally means what is marked up with many impressions > covered. From (KaSaH – כסה) to cover over. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider; K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished).
67 – a meandering about of words (עלילת דברים \aLiLoT) a circumventing of the many things driving directly forward in experience. From \aLaL (עלל to meander, perform, busy oneself) which comes from the root \aLaH (עלה to rise, ascend > go around-about), from which is also \oLaL (עולל to glean). However, the word Ma\aL (מעל to circumvent) is also related. AND DaBhaR (thing- דבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar (מדבר – wilderness, place of flash floods) may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise.
68 – name (שם – ShaeM) from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
69 – proof of virginity (בתולים B’TuLiM) Allegorically: things-activities to be pushed into. Derived from a rarely used root BuT (בות) (force into) which in Arabic means “cut off, sever, complete, finish, achieve, carry out, fix, settle, decide, determine; final decision.” Furthermore, BuT (בות) evolved into BaTaR (בתר) (force into) to cut, slice into, part (Gn15:10); BaTaQ (בתק)(piel) to thrust through (Ek16:40); BaTaSh (בתש) make incisions, beg, urge; BaTuLaH (בתולה) (literally: one forced into) virgin, maiden, virginity.
70 – adolescent – lad, lass (Na\aR – נער) evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken), allegorically means the act of becoming mentally stirred by particular things in experience mostly based on allegorical context.
71 – hundreds (מאות – Ma/ot) from Mae/aH (מאה – hundred) which evolved from MaHaH (מהה – diffuse, dissolve, dilute). An Arabic word derived from its cognate: WaMa/ (ומא – to motion, signal, beckon, point, point out, indicate, make a gesture), seems to fit allegorical context consistently. It probable relates to the drawing away of a diluted particles in water, beckoning to follow.
72 – silver (כֶּסֶף – KeSePh) evolved from the root K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Over time, silver tarnishes. K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished)
73 – die (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
74 – to lay down (with) (שכב ShaKhaBh) Allegorically: hedging in of-with. From ShaKhaBh (שכב – to snuggle up, huddle, lie up against, lay down). Evolved from the verb ShuKh (שׁוך – to cordon off), from SuKh (שוך – to hedge in). Related verbs: ShaKhaR (שכר – to become drunk)(= hedged in); HhaShaKh (חשך) to darken, be dark; HhaSaKh (חשך) to withhold; NaShaKh (נשך) to bite, take a bite off; /eSheKh (אשך) testicles )(what is cordoned off / hedged in).
75 – two of them (שניהם Sh’NayHeM) Allegorically: acts of applying the two of them. From two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN), year (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים); copy (משנה MiShNeH). Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
76 – engaged (מארשה M’\oRaSaH) Allegorically: something’s being brought out into the light, designated for marriage. Derived from /aRaH (ארה to pluck out into the light) > /aRaS (ארש to designate for marriage, engage).
77 – matter, thing (דבר DaBhaR) Allegorically: act of or what drives directly forward, ?pondering. In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar (מדבר – wilderness, place of flash floods) may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise.
78 – to cry out (צעק Tsa\aQ) Allegorically: vehemently channel forth. This root evolved from TsuQ (צוק to distress). However, the essential meaning of this root is: to dig in, burrow in, project in (SmI14:5). Additionally, it has a third meaning of: (to dig into) to beseech, pray (Is26:16). TsuQ (צוק) evolved from QaWaH (קוה to channel into). Arabic cognate of (צעק Tsa\aQ): to strike someone down (w/ lightening), stun, stupefy, make unconscious, dumb-founded
79 – /aeSheT (אשת), “wife of” comes from /eeShah (אשה). However, based on a false etymology, its allegory comes from the verb ShaTaT (שתת) meaning “to set up / out to do something, to start something or lay the foundation for.”
80 – friend (רע – Ra’a\) from the verb Ra\aH (רעה – to welcome, to receive) which evolved from Ra/aH (ראה – (be penetrated) to see, perceive) from YaRa\ (ירא – (be penetrated) > be in awe, be afraid) from YaRaH (ירה – to aim > penetrate). Note also רע (perception) thought (Ps139:2) and רעא (Syr- think, be minded, be of opinion, reason, purpose).
81 – SaDeH (שדה) field, is related to the verb SaDaD (שדד – (drag behind) to level / harrow ground) which in turn is related to ShaDaD (שדד – (to drag) > to overpower, plunder, ruin, destroy). The idea of going back and forth can be seen in the related verbs ShaDaKh (שדך – haggle, negotiate, stipulate) and ShaDaPh (שדף – to make swing back and forth, to blast)
82 – savior, salvation (מושיע MoShy’a\) Allegorically: an act of lingering. The hiphil form of YaSha\ (ישע) which evolved from Shu’a\ (שוע) to look, cry for help; salvation, support; which evolved from Sha\aH (שעה)(dwell upon) to look out longingly, linger (Is32:3), to look, linger (SmII22:42)
83 – five (fingers) > fifty (חמש – ChaMaeSh) handed = armed (חמושים – ChaMuShim) which actually means “grasping or groping” from MuSh (מוש – to grasp, grope)
84 – penis (שפכה ShaPh’KhaH) Allegorically: the ability to pour forth into experience. From the verb ShaPhaKh (שפך) to pour forth.
85 – congregation, convocation, calling together (קהל) Allegorically: the act of channeling in. This verb evolved from QoL (קול – voice, channeling of sound) which evolved from QaWaH (קוה to channel into).
86 – Mamzer (ממזר MaMZeR) Allegorically: a person who feels twisted and bound up – trapped. From MaZaR (מזר) to twist, wrap and bind up. MaZoR (מזוֹר) wrapping up, binding up (Jr30:13), trap (binding up) (Ov1:7). מזר scattering, ? enveloping, whipping winds (Jb37:9). A mamzer is a person who is socially trapped.
87 – Amonite (עמוני \aMoNy) Allegorically: person who is dimmed by the being mindful of what crowds in from experience. It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
88 – Moabite (מואבי Mo/aBhy) Allegorically: one’s (merely) yearning to give forth of oneself (in taking notice of things). From the verb Ya/aBh (יאב) to yearn-long to give forth of oneself. See Syriac cognate: to pant after, desire, eagerly, long for. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
89 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle
90 – water (מים – maYiM) from YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up)
91 – Bilam (בלעם) Allegorically: an ability to exhaustively take in the being mindful of the many things crowding in of experience so as to give a competent accounting. From BaLa\ (בלע) to swallow, gulp down, devour; also the Arabic cognate with ghayin “reach, attain, amount to, competency, more intense, profound, ripen, mature.” + עם, people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
92 – Edomite (אדומי /aDoMy) Allegorically: one’s being mentally absorbed with experience. The land and its people is probably from the redness of the ground, red (אדומה /aDuMaH) from red (אדום /aDoM) which evolved from DaM (דם blood). Despite being used allegorically as being related to the words for human (אדם /aDaM) and ground (אדמה /adaMaH) and despite almost universal contention, these words have no etymological connection. human (אדם – /aDaM) evolved from DaMAH (דמה – to make comparisons, to think) which evolved from DuM (דום – be still, silent). Also related ground (/aDaMah – אדמה) comes from the root DuM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparative Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
93 – Egyptian, Mitsri (מצרי MiTsRy) Allegorically: an act of narrowing in upon something found in experience The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing (צר) in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon.
94 – sojourner, convert (גר – GaeR) from the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
95 – to camp (חנה – HhaNaH) and a camp (מחנה MaHhaNeH): essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence-mentally attending to” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
96 – ritually pure (טהר TaHaR) Allegorically: mentally clear and available. Evolved from TsaHaR (צהר). The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the related words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon.
97 – night (לילה – LaiLaH) etymologically probably from a doubling of either La/aH (לאה – to be exhausted, to labor exhaustively) or LaHaH (להה – (exhausted) to languish, be tired)
98 – evening (ערב – \aRaBh) derived from \aRaH (ערה – to pour) > \aRaBh (ערב – to mix, confuse), evening being a time of mixing of day and night. From \aRaBh > \gaRaBh (ערב). However, in this case allegorically: bravery, as related to Raven (\oRaeBh – עורב) which evolved from רב (R-B = to be large) and means to be a guarantor or security. Raven (\oRaeBh – עורב) comes from this root. Hence the need for a scarecrow.
99 – to wash (רחץ RaHhaTs) Allegorically: to move back and forth. Roots with R.Hh. (רח) essentially mean “to move back and forth on the horizontal plain > wide. RaWaHh (רוח – wide) > RuWaHh (רוח) wind > breath > spirit. RaHhaM (רחם) womb, compassion, intestines – means facilitating width-expansiveness for someone or something; RaHhaBh (רחב) wide; RaHhaPh (רחף) to move back and forth, hover; RaHhaL (רחל) Arabic – to roam, wander about, set out from a place, without direction; ewe (one who wanders off when pregnant); RaHhaQ (רחק) to be-go far; RaHhaSh (רחש) to move, stir, flutter (heart); frying pan; Akk- to move, to set in motion; /aRaHh (ארח) to travel > YaRaeHh (ירח) (traveler) > moon. MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out
100 – sun (SheMeSh – שמש) Allegorically: unwavering, fortitude, baulking (from the Arabic cognate). The root evolved from ShuM (שום) which essentially means “to stay put.” Hence ShaMaR (שמר – guard, watch), ShaMa\ (שמע – be attentive, listen), ShaMaSh (שמש – to serve, attend to, wait upon) and SuM (שום – to put, place).
101 – extension (from the camp), hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /uD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
102 – tail, gear, to flail (זנב ZaNaBh) Allegorically (and literally): what flails about. From ZuN (זון) which evolved into ZaNAH (זנה – (to flail) > prostitute), which evolved into ZaNaBh (זנב – (flail) > tail) and /oZeN (אזן – (flail) > non human ear) and sustenance (maZoN – מזון) literally means “what is thrown about > distributed.”
103 – stake-spike, pins (יתד YaTaeD) Allegorically: act of firmly driving in, an act of fastening upon something so as to ram in firmly. Arabic cognate: W.T.D. (ותּדּ) to drive / ram in firmly; fix, fasten, secure; peg, pin, stake, pole.
104 – outside (חוץ HhuTs). This word means cut off > outsides > streets. Allegorically: wedged off from-urgently wedging in. From HhaTsaH (חצה) to wedge in > divide > wedge off, from HhuTs (חוץ) (to push through) to rush, urge; from \uTs (עוץ) meaning “to hasten, force, push through,” but it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel;” from /uTs (אוץ hasten).
105 – to cover over (כסה KiSaH) literally means to mark up with many impressions. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider; throne (KiSae/ – כסא covered with marks). See also KeSePh (כסף) silver (marked up).
106 – the marker of the direct object or (aligned) with (את /aeT). The later, from /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come; related to: /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow) and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment). (את /aeT) meaning marker of direct object has a different etymology, from what persists, the persistent existence of (את /aeT). Technically this word usually has no translation. It is the marker of the direct object. The distinction between a definite object and an indefinite object is that the former “persist in reality.” It evolved from (אש fire, persistent existence) – from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)).
107 – to close in upon. Hiphil of (סגר SaGaR). From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce;
108 – slave, servant (עבד – \eBheD) from the verb \aBhaD (עבד). Allegorically: devoting attention. Originally meaning slave, the verb evolved to mean to work, serve, worship and devote. It evolved from /aBhaD (אבד), thus meaning “one lost (to slavery).”
109 – lord, Adon (/aDoN – אדון) Allegorically: acts of contemplation. From the verb DuN (דון) to abide (in contemplation) which comes from DuM (דום – to be still, silent). Furthermore, from DuN (דון) to abide (in contemplation) comes DYN (דין) to judge.
110 – in the midst of, (innards) (קרב QeReBh); one close to him, relative (קרבו – Q’RoBho) Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. (קר) essentially mean “to get in very close”: KaRaH (קרה to come upon, happen occur); QaRa/ (קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read); QaRaBh (קרב to approach); QaRaM (קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate); QaRaN (קרן horn, what approaches more closely); QaRa\ (קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner); QaRaSh (קרש to contract, gnash, bite into); QaRaS (קרס to stoop, clasp); QaRaTs (קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse); NaQaR (נקר to gouge, chisel); ShaQaR (שקר to gouge > deceive, lie).
111 – one (/eHhaD – אחד) Allegorically: mental sharpness. This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
112 – temple prostitute (קדש QaDaeSh or קדשה QaDaeShaH) Allegorically: one dedicated to advance forward. From to bring forward (קדש QaDaSh) > Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use).
113 – daughters (בנות) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
114 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
115 – to take interest (השיך HiShyKh); interest (נשך – NeSheKh) from the verb NaShaKh (נשך – to bite, take a bite off) which evolved from SuKh (שוך – to hedge into).
116 – food (אוכל – /oKhaeL); eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
117 – foreigner (נכר – NaeKhaR) literally means “one of vague acquaintance.” The verb of the same root means: to acquaint, to recognize, to be unfamiliar and to make an error in recognition, misjudge.
118 – You, I (אתה את אתם אתן /aTaH /aT /aTeM /aTeN)(אני /aNy) Allegorically: You or I, in applying-imposing oneself in experience. Derived from the verb /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose and apply oneself. Many other Semitic cognates preserve the elided letter nun.
119 – vow (נדר NeDeR) Allegorically: an act of extreme devotion, one of devoting oneself exclusively (ignoring all else). This root evolved from NaZaR (נזר) to turn away from, separate from.
120 – lips (שפתים SaPhaTiM) Allegorically: the pouring forth of them. From SaPhaH (שפה to pour, lip).
121 – vines of grapes (ענבים \aNaBhim) Allegorically: intricacies, convoluted entanglements. Related to \aNaBh (ענב)(twist) to intertwine, fasten with a loop (Jastro), possibly from \aNaH (ענה) to turn away, possibly from \aWaN (עון)(to twist away) iniquity, possibly from עוה to twist.
122 – standing grain (קמה QaMaH); place, establishment (מקום MaQoM) Allegorically: what is firm, established, establishment, what arises, what confronts, unrelentingly firm, intransigence. From the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Note QaM (קם) enemy, foe, adversary (one who stands firmly before, standing up to).
123 – ear of corn (מלילת M’LiLoT) Allegorically: what is being engaged. The three related meanings for the root MaLaL (מלל) are “to join, tap or engage together;” “to rub scrape and move to and fro (Klein);” and “to speak, engage in conversation.”
124 – sickle (חרמש HheRMaeSh) Allegorically: creeping or dulled eye. The word for sickle literally means “what is arched or curved” from RaMaH (רמה). However, The word is an expansion of the related RaMaSh (רמש) which literally means “arching over” but comes to mean “to cover, be dark, sedate as follows: (רמש)(Syr – to become evening / dark) > רמס ((Syr- sedate, placid, composed in mind & thought); רמשׂ (Arb – cover, efface, wipe out bury, immerse), רמש ((Arb – blink, wink, coating over the eyes); רמשׂ (arch, cover) to wriggle (Lv11:46), to creep.
125 – reach, touch, thrust, plague (נגע NaGa\) Allegorically: one who thrusts. This root either evolved from NaGaHh (נגח thrust, gore) or NaGaH (נגה strike) which evolved from NaKaH (נכה strike, hit upon) and into NaGaN (נגן strike > play an instrument); NaGaHh (נגח thrust, gore) and NaGaPh (נגף strike, plague).
126 – leprous (צרעת – TsaRa\aT) Sabaic cognate: to damage, defeat, humiliate, bring s.o to submission; related to TsuR (צור – narrow in)
127 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10).
128 – Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
129 – Miriam (מרים MiRYaM) is a well respected and is lauded in the Torah, the book of Micah, and the Talmud. In the past decades, there has been a resurgence of enthusiasm for her in feminist circles – a community that I proudly support. However, based on etymology and context, her name is to be derived from the root MaRaR (מרר) which in Akkadian means “to chase away” and “to eject and throw out” in Ugaritic. Allegorically, Miriam means “a person’s rejecting what is stirred up in experience.”
130 – Mitsraim (מצרים). Allegorically, one’s feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in. This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s viusally narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh (chaos).
131 – Amalaeq (עמלק). \aM (עם) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.LaeQ (לק), comes from the verb LaQaH (לקה) meaning to suffer, be afflicted, smitten, stricken, and eclipsed.

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Hans Wehr. Ed by J Milton Cowan (1979) Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, NY: Published in the United States by Spoken Languages Services, Inc with permission of Otto Harrassowitz

Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, eds., A Concise Dictionary ofAkkadian, 2nd corrected printing (Santag Arbeiten und Untersuchungen Zur Keilschriftkunde, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000)

Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.

Judaic Classics by David Kantrowitz version 3.4, 1991 – 2009. Institute for computers in Jewish Life. Davka Corp and /or Judaica Press Inc.

About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
Related Topics
Related Posts
Comments