Reading one of my blogs can be rather perplexing. The first paragraph may seem clear enough, but by the time you have reached paragraph three – having consumed a myriad of re-definitions of names and words with their associated etymologies – your mind may feel a bit jumbled. Similarly in Pharaoh’s first dream, he sees cows that are beautiful of appearance and sculpted of flesh, but they are followed by cows that are poor of appearance and gaunt. In his second dream, he sees ears of grain plump and good, followed by those that are thin and blasted by the wind. In both dreams, those of poor appearance, coming after, consume the former. These dreams are descriptions of how your mind might feel by the third paragraph of my blog. At first everything is clear and you feel confident (בשר)1 that you understand all that you have read, but by the third paragraph, all those re-definitions and etymologies have become so jumbled within your mind that you no longer feel confident of your initial understanding.
The word for cow, PaRaH (פרה), is related to words like P’Ri (פרי – fruit), PuR (פור – lot) and PaRPaR (פרפר – butterfly). All of these words essentially mean “what is scattered or what scatters about.” In the dream, the cows represent scattered information. The word for ear of grain, ShiBoLet (שבלת) is related to its homonym meaning a flowing stream and the verb ShaBhaL (שבל – to follow a path). They represent streams of data. Just as they are ascending on one stalk (QaNaH /eChaD – קנה אחד), allegorically, they are acquired (QaNaH – קנה) through an act of mental sharpness (אחד – /eChaD).2 In the dreams, all of this information is initially well sculpted (B’Ry/aH – בריאה)3 and therefore easily understood, but by the second round, the clarity is diminished – poor and thinned.
Pharaoh represents a person’s attending to many things in chaotically going in many directions. Of course, this is a folk etymology, utilized by the Torah, based on the myriad of definitions for this root PaRa\ (פרע)4 in various Semitic languages. As the king of Mitsraim, he further represents a person’s deliberating (מלך – MaLaKh)5 over experience, narrowing in (focusing) upon the many things in experience that are narrowing in (מצרים – Mitsraim) upon him.6 Pharaoh’s dreams are attempts to make sense of experience and to deliberate over the data found there. This is further supported by the fact that the word to dream (HhaLaM – חלם), in Arabic, also means to reflect upon and muse over. But he is unable to interpret and make sense of them. In the dream, he stands upon the Nile (Y’/oR – יאור). Like light (אור) that radiates in many directions, the Nile delta is a metaphor for the radiating out of too much information. Part of the problem is that PaRa\ (פרע) also means “to refuse to accept, to be in denial of, and ignore” (Prov 1:25). As an archetype, Pharaoh is simply not equipped to get the job done. On the other hand, who is more discerning and wise than Yoseph, “a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of G-d’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to G-d’s Guidance found in experience?”7
Pharaoh represents the aspect of our minds that chaotically acquires information from experience, whereas Yoseph is the organizer of that information – sifting through it – so that Yaaqov8 (a person’s investigating what comes around) can fully process it mentally. Pharaoh puts Yoseph over his house, representing what comes in (בוא > בית) of him from experience. He says “only regarding the throne (KiSae/ – כסא) shall I be greater than you,” indicating that he will be covered over (KaSaH – כסה) by life’s many impressions so that they might be considered (KaSaS – כסס), later.9 Pharaoh removes his signet-ring (טבעת – TaBa\at) from upon his hand and puts it upon the hand of Yoseph, transferring the impression’s (טבע – TaBa\) of the one to the other. Pharaoh calls Yoseph Tsaphnat Pa\Nae’aCh (צפנת פענח) “the one storing up and pondering over what is scattered about and settled down upon.”10 And Yoseph is given a wife, Asnat the daughter of Poti-Pera\, the priest of On; whose name means “the act of sifting through things, characterized by a bursting forth in many directions in attending to many things in chaotically going in many directions, a means of giving protracted, precise and mindful attention to a substantial amount of information.”11 In pursuit of his task, Yoseph gathers up grain (BaR – בר) representing what is sifted of experience (BaRaR – ברר), to the point that it cannot be recounted.
As interpreted by Yoseph, the seven years of fullness and satisfaction come to an end and so begin the seven years of hunger, Ra\aBh (רעב). This root evolved from Ra\aH (רעה) meaning poor, bad, weak and fragile. In Arabic, the most immediate evolved form, spelled with an ayin, Ra\aBh (רעב) does not mean “to be hungry” but rather “to be afraid, scared, alarmed, and terrified.” From there, the ayin evolved into a ghayin, so that Ra\gaBh (רעב) means to want, wish, crave, covet, and appetite in Arabic and to be hungry in Ugaritic. Allegorically, the seven years of being satisfied with experience transition into the seven years of being alarmed by it. An analysis of the previous lines of text gives an explanation of why. Just prior to this transition, the text relates the birth of Yoseph’s children. The folk etymology of M’NaSheH (מנשה), his first born, bases his name on the verb NaShaH (נשה – to forget). This verb also means to lend and borrow in Hebrew. The Arabic cognate (NaSa/ – נשׂא) additionally means to grant credit; as well as to put off, postpone, defer and procrastinate. Much later in the Torah, we learn that M’nasheh’s son is named MaKhiR (מכיר – to become acquainted). Therefore, the allegorical meaning of M’nasheh is “one’s slipping through what is taken notice of of G-d’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time.”12 On the other hand, Ephraim means “one’s disposing oneself to an overwhelming amount of G-d’s Guidance, scattering about experience.”13 In sifting through the enormity of impressions acquired from experience, Yoseph symbolizes our initially giving each thing a passing notice. In deferring most of the data for later, in postponing the difficult work, in procrastinating, we feel fine. Eventually, the difficult work of mentally processing all of the information found in experience arrives and so too, the feelings of alarm and terror.
The text now turns to Yaaqov and his remaining sons representing a person’s investigating comes around and its associated behaviors. Yaaqov sees that there is SheBheR (שבר – provision) in Mitsraim. Since the letters sin and shin are not distinguished in the Torah text and because many of the words that differ between these two letters are etymologically related, the allegorical reading of the text often will replace one for the other. In this case, there is a verb SaBhaR (שבר) meaning to probe in Arabic and to contemplate in Hebrew that fits the context nicely. As archetypes, our Pharaoh has acquired the data from experience in a chaotic way, our Yoseph has sifted through the data, and our Yaaqov wishes to investigate it further by probing it and contemplating it. However, there is a problem, Yaaqov is reluctant to send forth Binyamin. The root YaMiN (ימין) is often misunderstood to mean “right side.” However, derived from the root /aMaN (אמן – ever present, true, believable), it actually means the ever present side or dominant side.14 Therefore, allegorically Binyamin (בנימין) represents a person’s being ever mindfully present.
When Yoseph’s brothers, representing the mental faculties pointing things out to him regarding experience,15 come in from Canaan, he accuses them of being spies (m’RaGLim – מרגלים). According to Gesenius, this word means not only to spy, but also one who delivers false reports. Because Binyamin, the being ever mindfully present, was not sent forth with them, Yoseph believes that the information that they bring forth about experience is unreliable. They try to convince him that they are KaeNim (כנים) meaning fixed in place, stable, reliable and honest. But Yoseph knows that they lack mental sharpness and restraint (an ability to withdraw from irrelevant information). He proposes to test them, commanding them: “Send forth one (אחד, mental sharpness)2 from among you that he will retrieve your brother (your ability to point things out).” Additionally, Yoseph repeatedly refers to their brother as haQaToN (הקטן), the small one. Since this word comes from QoT (קוט – to shrivel up and be disgusted), which in turn comes from QuTs (קוץ – to show aversion to)16 he is wanting them to limit the scope of their probing of experience by retracting away from those things that are not relevant.
After Shimon is bound, they are given grain (BaR – בר, what is sifted), and their silver (KeSePh – כסף), and provision for their journey. They lift up their distribution (SheBheR – שבר, probing) upon their donkeys and go, eventually coming into Yaaqov, their father. Except allegorically, since they all represent mental processes, they don’t really go anywhere. Allegorically, grain is what is sifted, silver represents many impressions,17 distribution represents what is probed, donkeys (חמור – HhaMoR) represent acts of being conscientiously and scrupulously attentive to details (חומרה – Hhumrah), and the verbal form for the word for journey (DeReKh -דרך) means to thresh over something. While threshing through all of this data, the person’s mental sharpness (the one – אחד) goes into his sack to give his being scrupulously attentive to details some cuttings (details), but he sees his silver (many impressions) which is in the mouth / opening of his sack. There are actually two different words being used here for sack. The first, Saq (שק) literally means channel and represents the channeling of information. The second, /aMTaHhaT (אמתחת) literally means “what is ever present, underneath.” However, since the first component of the word /aM (אם) can also mean what is substantial and the second component TaHhaT (תחת) can mean “at one’s disposal,”18 what they are actually lamenting is that in addition to many impressions, they also have a substantial amount of information at their disposal. Were they not just told by Yoseph to limit the amount of data? Therefore, their heart goes out and they are agitated about what G-d’s Guidance found in experience (Elohim) has done to them.19
Despite their pleas, Yaaqov remains reluctant to send Binyamin (the being ever mindfully present) with them. After seeing the bundles of their silver (צררות כספיהם), representing their being narrowed in and bound up (צרר) by their many impressions, he says “me, you have bereaved (of children).” The word ShaKaL (שכל – to bereave, deprive) evolved from the root KaLaH (כלה) meaning to contain and restrain.
When the time comes to return so as to probe (שבר) a little more of what can be contained from experience (אוכל – food, < כלה), Y’hudah guarantees to be responsible for the lad (נער – Na\aR). Allegorically, Y’hudah means “a person’s becoming startled in acknowledging G-d’s bringing forth of existence.”20 The word for young man or lad, (Na\aR – נער) literally means one who is stirred up and represents “a person’s becoming mentally stirred with a particular thing in experience.” So essentially, Y’hudah is offering to limit the observation of things to those things that are startling and mentally stirring. Their father (now referred to as Yisrael) adds to this proposal, suggesting that they bring an offering. The items instruct them how to limit their observations to what is relevant: balm (צרי – narrowing in upon), honey (דבש – flowing directly), spices (נכאת – what is struck directly), ladanum (לוט – enclosing around / adhering to something), pistacios (בטנים – delving into something (Arb), and almonds (שקדים – being intently watchful). Such that when they do return to Yoseph, they are referred to as men (/aNaShim – אנשים) allegorically meaning “acts of applying oneself in experience.”21
When they return to Mitsraim, Yoseph is very excited to see his brother Binyamin because this is an indication that they are now ever presently mindful of the information that they are processing. A meal is prepared for all so that they may have bread (לחם – LeHheM)22 representing an engagement of experience, at noontime (TsoHaRayim – צהרים). Related to the words Tsohar (צוהר – window) and YiTsHaR (יצהר -oil), this word for noon means “the time of perfect clarity.” As a result of this increased mindfulness and clarity, twice the text indicates that they are now in alignment with G-d’s Guidance. First, when they explain to the man over the house of Yoseph how they came to have the silver that should have been paid to him previously, he says “Do not fear, your G-d and the G-d of your father’s gave to you a treasure into your sacks.” The second time, when Yoseph says to Binyamin, “G-d shall grace you my son.” Since the word Elohim (אלהים) is an expansion of the verb LaWaH (לוה) to guide and escort, allegorically it represents G-d’s Guidance found in experience. Since Binyamin, the being ever mindfully present with experience, is the reason for this alignment with G-d’s guidance, he receives a five fold portion due to his increased capacity.
However, after drinking, they became drunk with him. The word ShaTaH (שתה – to drink)23 literally means to align with. The literal meaning of ShaKhaR (שכר – to become drunk) is to become hedged in.24 Allegorically, they aligned with experience and were not able to handle it, becoming hedged in by the abudance of information found in experience. Yoseph then commands את אשר על ביתו “(the person) that was upon his house.” Although the word /aSheR (אשר), meaning “that,” is a pronoun, it usually introduces a restrictive clause. In this sentence, it is used as the main object pronoun. The allegory of Torah is entirely based on word play. The Hebrew word for “that” (אשר – /aSheR) actually means (it being confirmed) “that” from a verb meaning “to confirm, provide with a basis or foundation.” However, there is another verb /aShaR (אשר) meaning to drive directly with intention in Hebrew, to drive strenuously in Sabaic, to review and take stock in Akkadian, and to be lively and exuberant in Arabic. The ability to drive strenuously into experience with intention and take stock of what exists is precisely what Yoseph needs to counter their becoming hedged in.
So Yoseph tells him (the driving directly forward and taking stock of what exists) to put more silver (impressions) into their sacks (their being mindful of what is at their disposal). More importantly, he was instructed to put a goblet (גביע – G’Bhia\) of silver and the silver of his distribution (probing) into the one of the younger. In Sabaic, the associated verb GaBa\ (גבע) means to impose and force, to compel. So the taking stock of experience put the most compelling of many impressions into the one that limits what he brings in from experience, from the one that retracts away from those things that are not relevant. The text indicates that the search of experience began by saying: הבוקר אור “the morning was light.” From the associated verbs, it means “the investigation emanated outward.”
However, they immediately stray from their task. The word city (עיר – \iR) literally means “what is stirred up or the stirred up state or situation.” It represents what in experience is stirred up and therefore worthy of engagement. But the text says that “they left the city,” thus abandoning what was stirred up, worthy of their engagement. Furthermore, in the sentence: ואיך נגנב מבית אדניך כסף וזהב “And how would we steal from the house of your lord silver or gold?” they are admitting that they strayed. In that the word for gold (זהב – ZhaBh) literally means “fleeting impressions.”25 The allegorical translation is: “And how would we obscure (hide) from what comes in of your contemplation (of experience)25 many lasting impression and many fleeting impressions?” Thus indicating they they were unable to stick with the relevant impressions, that which was most compelling. Upon seeing that they had missed what was most compelling, they loaded up their donkeys (loaded up with more details) and returned to the city, to what was stirred of experience worthy of engagement.
In acknowledging their error, it is appropriate that Y’hudah, one’s becoming startled in acknowledging G-d’s bringing forth of experience, take the lead. When he asks: מה מצטדק “how can we justify ourselves,” he is also asking “how can we correct ourselves?” For Elohim, G-d’s Guidance found in experience, has pointed out their iniquity (עון – \aWoN), their twisting about, their doing wrong, their performing poorly. Y’hudah offers for all of them to be slaves (עבדים – \aBhaDim), to be acts of devoting attention to experience.27 But, of course, Yoseph is not interested. What would be the point of utilizing spies (m’RaGLim – מרגלים), those that provide false reports about experience, as ways of devoting attention to experience. As we should be, he is only interested in Binyamin – utilizing ever present mindfulness as the only means of devoting attention to experience.
1 – confident (בשר – BaSaR). The word almost always means flesh, but literally “what is driven into with confidence,” probably alluding to removing meat from a bone. The Arabic cognate means “to peel, scrape / shave off, grate, shred, come in contact, sexual intercourse, apply oneself.” Also note probable mis-translation of (Ec2:3) תרתי בלבי למשוך ביין את בשרי Conventionally translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my flesh. But more correctly translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my confidence.
2 – mental sharpness (/eHhaD – אחד) evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
3 – well sculpted (B’Ry/aH – בריאה). The word BaRa/ ברא is commonly known to mean to create. However, it also means to carve (a physical sign) (Ezek21:24) and to carve up (people in battle) (Ezek23:47). Therefore, the idea of create comes from to carve > sculpt. Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening).
4 – Pharaoh (פרעה) one’s chaotically attempting to attend to too many things in experience. From (Ex5:4)(CrII28:19) from PaRa\ (פרע) to cause to disengage, cause disorder, chaos and Arabic > to be free, available, collect one’s thoughts, devote and apply oneself, and do one’s best. In Arabic PaRa\ evolved into PaRa\g
5 – King (MeLeKh – מלך) from the verb MaLaKh (מלך) to rule, it evolved from MaLaHh (מלח) to balance > to sail. It is more appropriately translated as to deliberate > to act deliberately. But also means to deliberate, as can be seen in the Akkadian to consider, discuss, advise, look after, mind, and confer
6 – Mitsraim (מצרים). This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s viusally narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “distractedly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh
7 – Yoseph (יוסף) In naming Yoseph, the text says that G-d’s guidance (Elohim) was remembering (being clear minded), attentive to and opening the womb of Rachel and gathering in (/aSaPh = אסף) [her] censure-taunt-sharply jabbing. The word ReHheM (רחם – womb), from the root RaWaHh (רוח – wide) means facilitating expansiveness for someone or something. These are the supplemental behaviors that allow roaming about to be an effective way of gathering in information. Therefore, allegorically Yoseph means “a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of G-d’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to G-d’s guidance found in experience.”
8 – Yaaqov (יעקב) from the root \aQaBh (עקב) which essentially means “to twist around.” Across the Semitic languages, this root is used to mean “to constrain, to follow, to come after, to trace, to approach closely, to investigate, to criticize, and to grab the heel (supplant)
9 – throne (KiSae/ – כסא) literally means what is marked up with many impressions > covered. From (KaSaH – כסה) to cover over. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider. See also KeSePh (כסף) note 15
10 – Tsaphnat Pa\Nae’aCh (צפנת פענח) “the one storing up and pondering over what is scattered about and settled down upon.” TsaPhaH (צפה) means to observe, and evolved to TsaPhaN (צפן) to brood, ponder, reflect, muse in Arabic. TsaPhaN (צפן) also means to store up / hide in Hebrew. Pua\ (פוע) means to blow out air > pant, resuscitate. מפעפע
to spread out (Talmud – MCh97a). NuaCh (נוח) means to settle down upon.
11 – Asnat the daughter of Poti-Pera\, the priest of On (אסנת בת פוטי פרע כהן אן) meaning “the act of sifting through things (סנן – to refine, filter, strain (Jastro)), characterized by a bursting forth in many directions (PuT – פוט unattested, but evolved into PaTaR (פטר to burst forth)) in chaotically attempting to attend to many things (see פרע – Pharaoh), a means of giving protracted, precise and mindful attention (כהן – KaHaN, related to noun KaWaNaH כונה mindful intention) to a substantial amount (און – /oN) of information.”
12 – M’nasheh is “one’s slipping through what is taken notice of G-d’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time.” From כי נשני אלהים את כל עמלי ואת כל בית אבי “Because Elohim (G-d’s Guidance) caused me to forget (defer) all that I occupy myself with (in experience) and all that comes in (בוא RaTsaH (רצה to dispose, show favor) > /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition) BUT (RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצץ to run upon / crush) > /aRTs (ארץ earth)) to all that overwhelms me (עוני from ענה which means to afflict, overwhelm, rape, humiliate etc).
14 – Binyamin (בנימין) – further note about YaMyN (ימין) meaning ever present / dominant side. A righty puts Tefillin on the left arm (non-dominant) while a lefty puts his Tefillin on his right arm.
15 – brother – (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
16 – QaToN (קטן – small) from QuT (קוט – to shrivel up, be disgusted) evolved from QuTs(קוץ) to feel aversion. This is further alluded to in the parshah from the repetition of the word: ויהי מקץ [w’y’hi miQaets – and it was at the end of (cutting back of)] (Gen 41:1) and וייקץ [w’yiQaTs – and his was awakening (possibly from to be shriveled – disheveled upon awakening or stretching-retracting)] (Gen 41:4)
17 – silver (כֶּסֶף – KeSePh) evolved from the root K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Over time, silver tarnishes. K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished)
18 – /aMTaHhaT (אמתחת) literally means “what is ever present, underneath.” However, since the first component of the word /aM (אם) can also mean what is substantial and the second component TaHhaT (תחת) can mean “at one’s disposal.” /aM (אם) is from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence) and /aeM (אם – mother, the one ever present) and /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe).
19 – Most derive Eloah (אלוה) / Elohim (אלהים) from אל. But the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
20 – When Y’hudah was born, his mother Leah named him saying הפעם אודה את יהוה “This time, I shall praise HaShem (G-d’s bringing forth of existence).” Therefore, we generally understand Y’hudah to mean Ya or G-d’s bringing forth of existence is praised. However, the word /oDeH (אודה – I shall praise), which comes from the root YaDaH (ידה – to point out) has neutral, positive and negative connotations. In a neutral context, it means to acknowledge. While in a negative context, YaDaH (ידה) means to blame or acknowledge guilt. Additionally, even though Pa\aM (פעם) means once or this time, its verb means “to startle / be startled.” So in the context of his feeling overwhelmed by all of the instruction coming in from experience, Y’hudah means “his becoming startled in acknowledging G-d’s bringing forth of existence.” It is for this reason that Y’hudah’s first three children are named annoyed-irritated (ער – \aeR), complaining-reluctant (אונן – /oNaN) and indifferent-apathetic (שלה – ShaeLaH)
21 – Men (/aNaShim – אנשים) from the noun /eNoSh (אנוש), evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Therefore the meaning is those applying-imposing themselves in experience
22 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle
23 – ShaTaH (שתה – to drink) literally means to align with (need to align a vessel with one’s mouth so as not to spill; see movie Airplane). Sh + /aTaH > ShaTaH (ש + אתה = שתה), it evolved from the rarely used verb /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come, from which also evolved eT (את – (be aligned) with); /ayTaN (איתן – well aligned, perpetual flow) and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment)
24 – ShaKhaR (שכר – to become drunk) is to become hedged in. Evolved from the verb ShuKh (שוך – to cordon off), from SuKh (שוך – to hedge in).
25 – gold (זהב – ZaHaBh) literally means “of fleeting impressions.” From unattested ZaHaH (זהה – exude light), see Syriac cognate ZaHa/ (זהא – shining, glorious, splendid, resplendent) and in Arabic (radiant, shine brightly, be haughty). Also Arabic cognate of ZaHaBh means to take leave, vanish, to take with, lead or conduct, to allow the imagination to wander > think, believe; gold, going, passing, manner, opinion, belief, ideology, orientation
26 – Adon (/aDoN – אדון), lord, comes from the verb DuN (דון) to abide (in contemplation) which comes from DuM (דום – to be still, silent). Furthermore, from DuN (דון) to abide (in contemplation) comes DYN (דין) to judge
27 – slaves / servants (עבדים – \aBhaDim) from the verb \eBheD (עבד). Originally meaning slave, the verb evolved to mean to work, serve, worship and devote
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G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson
Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.