David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Pinchas – Turning to Things for Consideration

Before a person can decide upon which of the many opportunities to engage, they first must assess what is available in experience. It is easy to flail about1, making frequent endeavors into experience while yearning to give forth of oneself in taking notice of many things (daughters of Moab)2,3. It is easy to get ensnared by the acts of probing a gaping chasm of abounding options (Ba’al Peor).4,5 Under such conditions, who can resist disposing oneself to the many different things that can be pruned off from experience in an attempt to hold things up for comparison (Zimri ben Salu).6,7 The problem occurs when contemplation (Midian)8 leads to one’s being bombarded by so many impressions that the person shrinks away from experience in ultimate failure (Kozbi).9 Fortunately, a viable alternative is to turn to particular things in consideration of them (Pinchus);10 for it is this process that leads to a complete, clear understanding (ברית שלום)11,12 of particular opportunities in experience. By repeatedly bringing things into view (Aharon),13 and then advancing toward and becoming involved with many surrounding things (Elazar),14 and by giving particular things precise and mindful attention (priest),15 Pinchus (the act of turning to particular things in consideration) was able to settle down the churning (anger)16 of God’s bringing forth of existence. However, it is additionally necessary to narrow in (צרר) the many behaviors of contemplation (Midian)8 because they hold back from engaging experience in their conspiring (נכליהם),17 upon the act of driving forward into the gaping chasm of abounding options (דבר פעור).18,5

On the peshat, the battle against Midian (excessive contemplation) is delayed. Allegorically, however, the actions of Pinchus and the statement of future confrontation with Midian was enough to cause the stumbling (מגפה plague)19 to cease and allow a census to be performed. The census represents an elevating of the ability to see (ראש)20 in association with the act of being enduringly mentally present (עדת congregation)21 of the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).22 The names of tribal heads, and those of their children, represent the various behaviors of surveying the options available in experience. The word for family, miShPaHhah (משפחה), represents a pouring forth of these behaviors.23 Additionally, the word for those mustered up, P’QuDayhem (פקודיהם), represents the things in experience brought up for review.24 While the associated census numbers characterize the things brought up for review – (2 = repetitive; 3 = dangling; 4 = inundating; 5 = taken in hand; 6 = getting carried up by; 7 = bubblings of).25 We are warned (נס) that when there is a complete drawing out of one’s being enduringly mentally present with experience, the behaviors of repetitively going over a scene (Datan)26 and of one’s taking notice of things in an augmented way (Aviram)27 are subsumed into our way of disposing oneself in experience (land),28 and therefore, the behaviors of festering over a scene in an attempt to clarify things (sons of Qorahh)29 remain alive.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to reveal the allegorical significance of all of these names. However, since Tsalaphachad (צלפחד), a descendant of M’nasheh, is discussed later on in the parashah, it benefits us to mention his other descendants. The act of slipping through what is taken notice of of God’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time (M’nasheh)30 and the act of disposing oneself to an overwhelming amount of God’s Guidance, being scattered about experience (Ephraim)31 are the two behaviors of a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of God’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to God’s guidance found in experience (Yoseph).32 Going about acquainting oneself with things (Makhir)33 is a behavior of slipping through what is taken notice of of God’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time (M’nasheh) and an act of revealing what is evident (Gil’ad)34 comes from one’s going about acquainting oneself with things (Makhir). The behaviors associated with an act of revealing what is evident (Gil’ad) are: indicating what’s around (איעזר),35 allotting something to oneself (חלק),36 intentionally moving forward advancing forward with initiative (אשריאל),37 shouldering something (שכם),38 making an effort to acknowledge the thing (שמידע),39 and unearthing something about the thing, but then turning away from it (חפר).40 The act of leaning in, agitatedly looking about in many directions (Tsalaphachad)41 results from one’s turning away from something of interest. However, there are no activities (sons)42 associated with it, only acts of endeavoring into experience (daughters)2 – spreading about a scene (מחלה),43 and sifting through things (נעה);44 gamboling around (חגלה),45 deliberating about things (מלכה),46 and merely feeling disposed to things (תרצה).47

After completely listing the tribal heads and their children, Moshe is instructed to allot the land by inheritance, and according to the size of each tribe. Since the land symbolizes a person’s disposing of oneself to things in experience,28 this allotment represents the thing in experience toward which a person will be disposed. The inheritance represents what activity is to be inherited from experience. The amount of things that a person inherits from experience depends on how much a person’s being mentally persistent with particular things (איש man)48 in experience musters up for review24 – for some it is a larger amount, for others a smaller. The disposing of oneself to experience is allotted by how much a person draws oneself into experience (גורל),49 depending upon the effort made by the person when putting oneself forth (names)50 and when leaning in (מטות)51 in taking notice of things (אבות).52

Since the tribe of Levi does not have an inheritance with the rest of the children Israel, the listing of their names and their census is placed in association with the territorial allotment. Additionally, although the behaviors associated with the other tribes of Israel make a broad survey of the things available in experience,22 the behaviors of Levi have the role of clinging to a scene so as to generate an awareness of many startling things.53 So while Israel makes a general survey, Levi acts as the acquisition arm, the arm that leads to engaging experience more intently both mentally and physically. That which is inherited and allotted from experience allegorically comes through the behaviors associated with Levi. Again, reviewing the significance of all of the names is not possible in this blog, but a mention of some can be revealing. We are reminded that a person’s having a heightened mindfulness of a scene (Amram)54 comes from the act of intently maintaining a visual fix on a scene (Qahat).55 The initiative (wife)56 of a person’s having a heightened mindfulness of a scene (Amram) is for God’s bringing forth of existence to be taken seriously (Yokheved).57 She represents a forcing inward (daughter)58 of a person’s mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things (Levi).53 This forcing inward generates a seriousness when a person is otherwise feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim).59 As a result of these behaviors, we are repeatedly bringing things in experience to light (Aharon)13 and we are able to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe).60 But we also find ourselves at times feeling overwhelmed and therefore rejecting what is stirred up in experience (Miriam).61

Even so, the behaviors of bringing things in experience to light (Aharon)13 and drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)60 are what we utilize when we survey the many things found in experience, when we filter through and clarify what is sharply imposed in experience (Sinai).62 However, all of these disappear (die)63 when experience barrels down and barrages a person (מדבר).64 All that remains under those conditions are one’s doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something (Kalaev ben Y’phunah)65 and one’s dwelling upon the extensiveness of G-d’s bringing forth of existence with endurance (Y’hoshua bin Nun).66

In many ways, Kalaev and Y’hoshua represent our ideal behaviors; for only they were willing to take on the challenges of what oppressively draws in of experience (Canaan).67 But what do we do when we are instead leaning in, agitatedly looking about in many directions (Tsalaphachad)41 after having turned away from things of interest (חפר)?40 What do we do when there are to us no activities (sons),42 only acts of endeavoring into experience (daughters)2 – spreading about a scene (מחלה),43 and sifting through things (נעה);44 gamboling around (חגלה),45 deliberating about things (מלכה),46 and merely feeling disposed to things (תרצה)?47 What do we do when our willingness to give forth to experience in taking notice of things (father)52 has died as a result of the being barreled down by a barrage of experience (midbar)?64

Of course, if no effort at all is made, life will not simply hand the inactive-uninvolved-uncommitted person something to do. However, when it is assured that a person’s acts of endeavoring into experience (daughters)2 – associated with a leaning in, agitatedly looking about in many directions (Tsalaphachad)41 – do drive directly forward into experience (דברות),18 they shall be given a possession (אחזת) of what can be inherited from experience (נחלתו) through what pushes in (בתוך)68 of the many things pointing the way (אחים brothers)69 as a result of their taking notice of things in being willing to give forth to experience (אביהן their father).52 If a person is mentally persistent with a particular thing (איש man),48 but to it there does not exist a taking action (son),42 then the potential activity inherited from experience is passed over for the sake of its ability to force itself (בתו his daughter).58 But if there is no ability to force oneself, then you shall give the potential activity inherited from experience for its many acts of pointing the way (brothers).69 But if there are not to it acts of pointing the way, then you shall give the potential activity inherited from experience to the acts of pointing the way associated with its being willing to give forth to experience (brothers of its father).69,52 But if there do not exist acts of pointing the way to its willingness to give forth to experience, then you will give it to its ability to manifest passion (relative),70 the one that approaches more closely to it, as a result of its ability to flow forth (family).23 Then it will drive in and take possession of the potential activity inherited from experience.

In the following paragraph, HaShem tells Moshe (the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience)60 to ascend to this mountain of Abharim (הר העברים הזה). This mountain represents an act of bringing to light (הר)71 the many things in experience passing through (עברים),72 so that he might look upon the way of disposing of oneself (land)28 that HaShem is giving to the children of Israel. Moshe is further informed that, like Aharon, he is to be gathered to his people. Allegorically, Moshe’s death does not represent his disappearance, but instead the full manifestation of his functioning as the mental sieve with which a person processes experience.63 In this capacity, Moshe and the act of repeatedly bringing things to light (Aharon),13 rebelled against the more limited amount of experience brought in by God’s bringing forth of existence. Instead due to their nature as the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)60 and the act of repeatedly bringing things to light (Aharon),13 they brought out an excessive amount of stirring experience (water)73 with which to engage, referred to here as: the many things drawn out74 as a result of one’s posturing,75 associated with the commitment to advance forward into experience,76 what barrels down in experience64 as a result of one’s holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable77 (מי מריבת קדש מדבר צן). Allegorically, neither of their deaths are actual punishments, but were instead natural consequences of their functioning as intended based on the meaning of their names. In other words, the mental faculties represented by Moshe and Aharon were simply never capable of bringing a person into the act of disposing oneself to experience (land)28 – despite their crucial role as essential mental processes.

Moshe requests a replacement to lead the people stating: “The congregation of HaShem shall not be as a flock that there is not to them a shepherd.” What is required is for an ability to be mentally persistent with particular things (man)48 to rise above the person’s tendency to be enduringly mentally present with all that is in evidence in experience (congregation)21 – to be able to see the individual trees within the forest. For this tendency will otherwise be as an act of holding back in consideration of the many things in experience (flock)78 without any leader (shepherd)79 to direct a person’s ability to engage with specific things in experience. HaShem then designates the ability to dwell upon the extensiveness of God’s bringing forth of existence with endurance (Y’hoshua bin Nun).66 The text then states: the person’s advancing toward and becoming involved with many surrounding things (El’azar),14 an act of giving things precise and mindful attention (priest),15 will inquire into what is clearly expounded upon (משפט) of experience,80 of the things lit up and emanating out in every direction (orim),81 for Y’hoshua (the ability to dwell upon the extensiveness of God’s bringing forth of existence with endurance).66 Based on what comes in of these two processes a person will engage experience.

The second half of this parashah consists of instructions regarding the twice daily ascension offerings; the Shabbat and New Moon offerings; and the Pesach, Shavuot, Rosh haShanah, Yom haKippurim, Sukkot and Sh’mini Atseret offerings. Each festival represents a specific way of approaching a specific type of life situation. The daily ascension offering is referred to as a repetitive act of approaching me more closely (קרבני), an act of getting in intimately close for the purpose of engaging with me (לחמי),82 regarded as acts of remaining (mentally) persistent with me (לאשי),83 an act of wafting-easing into me (ריח נחחי).84 It requires an act of pushing down into experience (כבש sheep)85 – one of being mentally sharp (אחד)86 in the time of making an investigation (בקר);87 and one of repetitively imposing oneself (השני)25 between the times of becoming overly mixed up and confused (ערבים).88

Similarly, in the stirring event of settling in upon a particular thing in experience (Shabbat),89 repetitive acts (two)25 of pushing down into experience (כבש sheep)85 are required. It is an act of being mentally occupied when going around a thing in experience90 that is settled into, by settling into it (עלת שבת בשבתו).

Whereas the daily ascension offerings and the shabbat offerings are allegorically about engaging experience, those of rosh chodesh are about making observations. The repetitive lunar cycles represented by the word HhoDeSh (חדש moon) evolved from the root DuSh (דוש) meaning to tread, thresh and rake by repeatedly flowing over and over something. Likewise, the word for head (ראש) evolved from the word to see (ראה). Therefore, RaaShay Hhodeshim (ראשי חדשים heads of the months) allegorically signify acts of seeing things by raking over and over a scene. There are three ascension offerings representing acts of going around particular things in experience as a means of becoming mentally occupied with them.90 The first offering represents an act of moving about experience91 so as to make an investigation87 (פר בן בקר a bull of the cattle); the second represents an act of advancing with initiative toward particular things,92 being mentally sharp86 (איל אחד one ram); and the third represents repetitive acts of making an effort to push oneself to engage specific things in experience85 (כבשים בני שנה sheep of one year old), so as to bring up a bubbling of information about it (שבעה seven).25 Unlike the ascension offering, the sin offering represents a means of veering about experience (חטאת)93 so as to take notice of stirring things (שעיר male goat)94 that are intense enough to be noticed (עזים goats)95 by remaining mental sharp (אחד one).86

Due to editing limitations, I am unfortunately unable to elaborate on the other offerings at this time.

Notes:
1 – ZaNAH (זנה – (to flail) > prostitute), which evolved into ZaNaBh (זנב – (flail) > tail) and distribution > sustenance (maZoN – מזון) and ear (אוזן – /oZeN) literally meaning “what turns back and forth > flails” initially referring to the movements of a non human ear such as a dog.
2 – sons / daughters (בן – בנות) The Hebrew word for daughters (BaNot – בנות) is the feminine plural of the word for son, Ben (בן). It is derived from the root BooN (בון) meaning to squeeze through, making ben (בן) to literally mean “one squeezed through.” Sometimes the word is used to mean “worthy or deserving of.” It can also be used to describe a characteristic of a person or indicate belonging, such as in the phrase describing one’s age. This can be seen further in phrases such as ben laylah (belonging to the night), ben hakot (worthy of being struck down) and ben rega\ (immediately, at once). Allegorically, ben (בן) means a person’s characteristic activities or behaviors. Similarly, the word for daughters, banot (בנות), allegorically means “one’s acts of endeavoring (squeezing through) into experience.”
3 – Moab (מואב Mo/aBh) Allegorically: one’s yearning to give forth of oneself (in taking notice of things). From the verb Ya/aBh (יאב) to yearn-long to give forth of oneself. See Syriac cognate: to pant after, desire, eagerly, long for. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
4 – master, lord, husband, owner (בעל Ba\al) Allegorically: an act of probing. The verb Ba\aL (בעל) means to engage in sexual intercourse (Dt21:13;24:1). From there it comes to mean husband > master, owner. Ba’al the Canaanite god of the rain storms means “fructifier.” The verb evolved from Ba\aH (בעה – to probe, search).
5 – P’or (פעור P’\uR) Allegorically: what is gapingly wide open. From the verb meaning: to open wide (Is5:14)(Ps119:131)(Jb16:10;29:23). Syriac cognate: open wide, gape open; cleft, chasm.
6 – Zimri (זמרי ZiMRy) Allegorically: disposing oneself to the many different things that can be pruned off from experience, what was trimmed off in being favorably disposed to it From ZaMaR (זמר) to cut off, prune. Related to DhaMaR(דמר) (Ugaritic – (cut off / set aside) guard, protect, warrior; Sabaic – (cut off / set aside) protect, defend, be favorably disposed, judge in favor of, initiate a grievance).
7 – Salu (סלוא SaLu\) to hold things up for comparison. From SaLa\ (סלא)see מסולאים (pual) (held up to) comparable with (Lm4:2) which evolved from SaLaH (סלה) (draw upward) (pual) outweighed, balanced, compared in value (Jb28:16,19)
8 – (Midian – מדין) Allegorically: contemplation. Based on the roots DuN (דון – to abide with) and דין (DYN – to judge, contemplate). Also Proverbs 19:13 מדיני אשה arguments-contentions of a woman.
9 – Kozbi (כזבי KoZBy) Allegorically: one’s being bombarded by so many impressions that the person shrinks away from experience in ultimate failure. The root KaZaBh (כזב) means to fail, decieve. Additionally, it evolved from the root (mostly unattested) KaZaH (כזה) (grooved> to be wrinkled > shrivel up) which in Arabic is KaZ (כז) – to dry up, shrivel. Jastro has the related KaZaZ (כזז) to be shy, bashful (which is essentially: shrink back). These come from KaSaH (כסה) which essentially means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Consider: throne (KiSae/ – כסא) literally means what is marked up with many impressions > covered. From (KaSaH – כסה) to cover over. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider; K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished).
10 – Pinhas (פינחס) one’s turning toward particular things for closer consideration; from PaNaH (פנה – to turn toward) + HhuS (חוס) with \aL (על) means to show concern / shower consideration upon, which evolved from ChuSh (חוש) essentially: to spend time with or persist with someone or something by experiencing, sensing, feeling or considering.
11 – BriT (ברית) Usually translated covenant, technically it means “clear agreement.” Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening)
12 – peace (שלם ShaLoM) Allegorically: submitting to, fulfilling of or completion of, from the verb ShaLaM (שלם – to suspend, compete, suspend > submit > make peace, make restitution). Note of the same root: robe (שלמה – SaLMaH) meaning “what suspends, dangles, draws behind.” The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate; (שלג – SheLeG) snow (lit: what is suspended in the air).
13 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
14 – El’azar (אלעזר) one’s advancing forward with initiative, becoming involved with the things that are around; from El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.” + \aZaR (עזר) surround, around. Syriac: entangle, involve, swaddle.
15 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10)
16 – anger (חמה HhaeMaH) Allegorically: churning anger. From HaMaH (המה – to stir up) > HhaMaH (חמה – to stir, heat, churn). The Hhet becomes hardened to Chet in CheM/aH (חמאה) butter (what is churned).
17 – their conspiring (נכליהם) Allegorically: their causing a holding back. From NaKaL (נכל) to collude, conspire > crafty, deceptive. This root evolved from KaLaH (כלה) to contain, hold back. NKL in Arabic is to refrain, abstain, desist, draw back, withdraw, recoil, shrink, flinch; (cause to recoil) > repel, punish severely). While in Sabaic: (make a containment wall) finish off, work (in stone); water channel).
18 – DaBhaR (thing- דבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar (מדבר – wilderness, place of flash floods) may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise.
19 – plague (נגף NeGePh) Allegorically: stumbling. From the verb NaGaPh (נגף) meaning to strike, thrust against, plague, but also to strike legs against one another > stumble (Jr13:16)
20 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
21 – congregation (עדה \aedaH) Allegorically: an act of being enduringly mentally present. Related to testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
22 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
23 – family (משפחה miShPaHhaH) Allegorically: to pour, flow forth. Related to Akkadian and Arabic cognates: “to pour” and probably Akkadian SaPhaHh to spread, spend freely, splash over, scatter, disperse, frustrate, squander; diaspora.
24 – those mustered (פקודים P’QuDim) Allegorically: those mustered or brought up for review. From the verb PaQaD (פקד) meaning literally to bring out, but used to mean: to remove, to attend to-visit, bring out punishment upon, hurt-damage, to muster for military service, to muster for counting, to muster for reviewing (Jd21:9)(SmI14:7;17:18), to set aside, to assign, make responsible.
25 – two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN), year (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים) Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
three (שלש – ShaLoSh) actually means suspend, dangle. This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust.
four, forty, forth (ארבע /aRBa\) derived from RaBha\ (רבע – to lie down, spread out, make square). Allegorically it represents a spreading out in all directions; flooding / inundating hence 40 days and nights of flood, wandering in the wilderness and Moshe’s time with HaShem in the mountain
five (fingers) > fifth (חמש – ChaMaeSh) handed = armed (חמושים – ChaMuShim) which actually means “grasping or groping” from MuSh (מוש – to grasp, grope)
six (שש – ShaeSh) Allegorically: being elated and getting carried away. The probable literal meaning of six is “carried over (to other hand (when counting)).” It is related to other roots meaning “to lift and carry” originally from NaShaH > NaSa/ (נשה > נשא). They are ShuS (שוש – to lift something, to rob) ShuS (שוס – to lift > plunder), SuS (שוש – uplifted, joyful) > SuS (סוס – horse, one who rears upward).
seven (שבע Sheva/). Although with a shin, this word appears to have been derived from the similar root with a letter sin, SaBha\ understood as satiated, it derives from either NaBha\ (נבע – to swell or well up) or Ba\aH (בעה – to bubble up, boil). Perhaps it means the number seven because it fulfills a period of one week, although this too is not completely clear. Metaphorically, from context and this etymology it means “being satiated by what bubbles up” or just “a bubbling up of something. AND once or (a number of) times (פעם Pa\aM), its verb means “to startle / be startled.” The root Pa\aM (פעם) literally means “a single puff of air” from PW\ (פוע) and Pa\aH (פעה) to pant; haPhya\ (הפיע) to resuscitate. Hence Pa\aMon (פעמון) bell; (פעם Pa\aM) anvil; (פעמים Pa\aMim) hoof beats.
26 – Datan (דתן DaTaN) Allegorically: repetitively going over a scene. Related to Dotan (דותן). Possibly in the word Dat (דת – religion (although some believe this to be from Persian or from DaNT to rake, tread, thresh, stampede. Which works in context as well.
27 – Aviram (אבירם /aBhyRaM) Allegorically: “my taking notice of things is elevated.” From /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of,” + RaM (רם) elevated, high, exalted.
28 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
29 – Qorah (קרח) one’s getting in very close and festering over a particular thing. Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. essentially mean “to get in very close”: קרה to come upon, happen occur; קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read; קרב to approach; קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate; קרן horn, to project; קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner; קרש to contract, gnash, bite into; קרס to stoop; קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse; נקר to gouge, chisel; שקר to gouge > deceive, lie. In Arabic, the root קרח means to wound, fester, ulcerate. From the idea of fester over something it also means to think up, propose, invent, and improvise. In Sabaic, to inflict a wound. In Syriac: to become bald, (?be clear >>) expose, divulge, disclose, declare expressly, make clear, evident, specify). This idea of baldness which predominates in Hebrew comes from wound > ulcerate > clear out / away > bald, ice/ frost, inside lining (of clothing).
30 – M’nasheh (מנשה) is “one’s slipping through what is taken notice of G-d’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time.” From כי נשני אלהים את כל עמלי ואת כל בית אבי “Because Elohim (G-d’s Guidance) caused me to forget (defer) all that I occupy myself with (in experience) and all that comes in (בוא RaTsaH (רצה to dispose, show favor) > /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition) BUT (RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצץ to run upon / crush) > /aRTs (ארץ earth)) to all that overwhelms me (עוני from ענה which means to afflict, overwhelm, rape, humiliate etc)
32 – Yoseph (יוסף) In naming Yoseph, the text says that G-d’s guidance (Elohim) was remembering (being clear minded), attentive to and opening the womb of Rachel and gathering in (/aSaPh = אסף) [her] censure-taunt-sharply jabbing. The word ReHheM (רחם – womb), from the root RaWaHh (רוח – wide) means facilitating expansiveness for someone or something. These are the supplemental behaviors that allow roaming about to be an effective way of gathering in information. Therefore, allegorically Yoseph means “a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of G-d’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to G-d’s guidance found in experience.”
33 – MaKhyR (מכיר) Allegorically: one going around becoming acquainted. From HaKyR (הכיר) to recognize, become acquainted. Related to foreigner (נכר – NaeKhaR) which literally means “one of vague acquaintance.” The verb of the same root means: to acquaint, to recognize, to be unfamiliar and to make an error in recognition, misjudge. These evolved from and are related to the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
34 – Gilad (גלעד GiL\aD) Allegorically: one’s revealing what is evident. From GiL (גל to roll up > reveal) + \aD (עד evidence). The verbs derived from GuL (גול) have meanings related to “to roll up / around” and “to turn over.” GyL (גיל rejoice), GaLGaeL (גלגל to roll down, whirl about), GaLaH (גלה to roll out, remove, to go into exile), GaLaL (גלל to roll, roll up, remove); GaLaBh (גלב (reveal) to scrape, shave); GaLaHh (גלח (reveal) shave); GaLa\ (גלע (reveal) disclose); GaLaM (גלם to roll, bundle up); GaLaSh (גלש to roll down > slide); SaGaL (סגל to roll up, save, treasure); ShaGaL (שגל (reveal) to rape) AND \aD (עד evidence), related to testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
35 – I’ezer (איעזר /y-\eZeR) Allegorically: indicating what’s around. From (אי – where) derived from (אוה – to point, indicate) see (piel) to point out, designate (Ps132:13) and consider /oT (אות sign, indicator) AND \aZaR (עזר) surround, around. Syriac: entangle, involve, swaddle.
36 – Hhaeleq (חלק HhaeLeQ) Allegorically: allotting something to oneself. See to assign, allot, give a share (Dt4:19;29:25)(Js14:5;18:2)(SmII19:30)(Pr17:2)(Jb27:17;39:17)(Nh13:13)
37 – Asriel (אשריאל /aSRy/aeL) Allegorically: intentionally moving forward advancing forward with initiative. There are two unrelated Semitic roots spelled /aShaR (אשר). One, meaning “to go directly,” evolved from ShuWR (שור – to see, get a fix on) [the other, meaning “to confirm, be supportive of, validate and congratulate” evolved from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent)]. The first is related to the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
38 – Shekhem (שכם SheKheM) Allegorically: shouldering something; ShaKhaM (שכם) means “to shoulder something” and is used to mean “to awaken early, make preparations, set out, venture forth, make a diligent effort.”
39 – Sh’mida (שמידע Sh’MyDa\) Allegorically: making an effort to acknowledge the thing. From SYM SuM (שים שום to put, place, label, impose, arrange). The root SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.” AND from ידע to know, acknowledge
40 – Hhaepher (חפר HhaePheR) Allegorically: unearthing something about the thing, but then turning away from it. From two unrelated yet homonymous roots: HhaPhaR (חפר) to dig, unearth, and search from unattested HhaPhaH (חפה) to bend, curve – which can be seen in the Arabic (חף) to enclose, surround, to border, line on both sides, trim, clip, rub off, abrade; and both Arabic roots: חפר to dig, drill, excavate, etch, engrave and ח’פר to watch, guard, protect, and the Hebrew חפשׂ (curve the hand) to search; חפס to dig; חפן to take handfuls, grab. And the other homonym: HhaPhaR (חפר) (ostracize) turn away (one’s face) (Ps34:6), related to Arabic: ח’פר to be shy, timid, bashful.
41 – Tsalaphachad (צלפחד TsaLaPhaHhaD) Allegorically: act of leaning in, agitatedly looking about in many directions. From TsaLaH (צלה) + PaHhaD (פחד). From From TsaLaH (צלה – (to suspend from) to roast (SmI2:15)(Is44:16,19). Related roots mean to suspend > to hang off from the side > lean in. Example TsaLaBh (צלב – to crucify), TsaLaPh (צלף – caper bush (hangs off from cliffs)), TsaLa\ (צלע – side, to limp), TsaL (צל – shadow (hangs off the side of a thing)). PaHhaD (פחד) trembling, agitation, fear; which evolved from PaHhaZ (פחז) (all over the place) unstable (Gn49:4) reckless (Jd9:4)(Tz3:4); which in Syriac means (all over the place) > lewd.
42 – sons (בנים) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
43 – Mahhlah (מחלה MaHhaLaH) Allegorically: spreading about a scene. From the verb MaHhaL (מחל) which commonly means to forgive, but literally means “to rub out” from MaHhaH (מחה) which also means: to hit / strike upon, stretch out / extend over-across (a shoulder – border)(Nm34:11).
44 – Noah (נעה No\ah) Allegorically: sifting through things. From NoWa\ (נוע) to sift (Am9:9).
45 – Hhaglah (חגלה HhaGLaH)Allegorically: gamboling around. From HhaGaL (חגל) to go around (Jastro), Arabic cognate: hop, leap, skip, gambol. From HhoWG (חוג) to make a circle (Jb26:10) which also evolved into HhaGaG (חגג) to go around in circles, stagger (Ps107:27)
46 – Milkah (מלכה MiLKaH) Allegorically: deliberating about things. Which is related to King (MeLeKh – מלך) from the verb MaLaKh (מלך) to rule, it evolved from MaLaHh (מלח) to balance > to sail. It is more appropriately translated as to deliberate > to act deliberately. But also means to deliberate, as can be seen in the Akkadian to consider, discuss, advise, look after, mind, and confer.
47 – Tirtsah (תרצה TiRTsaH) Allegorically: merely feeling disposed to things. From RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
48 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
49 – draw lots (גורל GoRaL) Allegorically: how much a person draws oneself into experience. Because GoRaL literally means “to draw in” as related to: GuR (גור) to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
50 – name (שם – ShaeM) from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
51 – tribe, staff (מטה – MaTeH) from NaTaH (נטה – to stretch, incline)
52 – father /aBh (אב) derives from /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
53 – Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
54 – Amram (עמרם) having a heightened mindfulness of a scene; from \aM (עם – people) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.+ RaM (רם – elevated, high, heightened)
55 – QaHaT (קהת) the act of intently maintaining a visual fix on a scene; from (hold onto firmly) to be obedient (Gn49:10). Based on an unattested root קת (to hold onto firmly) which would have evolved from קשה (be hard / firm / stiff / straight). Also related to קת (Syr – remain fixed, stuck, fix eyes upon / gaze).
56 – /aeSheT (אשת), “wife of” comes from /eeShah (אשה). However, based on a false etymology, its allegory comes from the verb ShaTaT (שתת) meaning “to set up / out to do something, to start something or lay the foundation for.”
57 – Yokheved (יוכבד) G-d’s bringing forth of existence is taken seriously. Yo from יה a shortened version of YHWH from the verb to be, to exist in its piel form + KaBhaD (כבד – be heavy, honor, respect, take seriously).
58 – daughter (BaT – בת) Allegorically: push into, force into, be decisive. Technically comes from the feminine of son (BeN – בן), hence (BeNt – בנת). Although the letter nun (נ) drops out. However, the allegorical meaning for daughter comes from a different, rarely used root BuT (בות) which in Arabic means “cut off, sever, complete, finish, achieve, carry out, fix, settle, decide, determine; final decision.” Furthermore, BuT (בות) evolved into BaTaR (בתר) (force into) to cut, slice into, part (Gn15:10); BaTaQ (בתק)(piel) to thrust through (Ek16:40); BaTaSh (בתש) make incisions, beg, urge; BaTuLaH (בתולה) (literally: one forced into) virgin, maiden, virginity.
59 – Mitsraim (מצרים). Allegorically, one’s feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in. This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s viusally narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh (chaos).
60 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplified: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
61 – Miriam (מרים MiRYaM) is a well respected and is lauded in the Torah, the book of Micah, and the Talmud. In the past decades, there has been a resurgence of enthusiasm for her in feminist circles – a community that I proudly support. However, based on etymology and context, her name is to be derived from the root MaRaR (מרר) which in Akkadian means “to chase away” and “to eject and throw out” in Ugaritic. Allegorically, Miriam means “a person’s rejecting what is stirred up in experience.”
62 – Sinai (סיני) Allegorically: showing restraint in filtering and clarifying experience. From SaNaN (סנן (impose >) to be bright, sharp & to filter, refine, strain) from ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach) &/or ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat), from /aNaH (אנה – to impose)
63 – die (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
64 – miDBaR (מדבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise. Another thing to consider is that Akkadian has a cognate for midbar the associated verbs duppuru “to go away” and tuppuru “to drive away.” (William L. Moran (Harvard Univ.) – FB discussion, Semitic Etymology group). In Akkadian, it means Steppe, a plain devoid of tall plant life. So perhaps it means “barreled over.”
65 – Calaev son of Yiphunah (כלב בן יפונה Kalaebh ben Y’phunah) Allegorically: a person’s doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something. From the root KaLaBh (כלב) from which evolved כילבית barnacle and כלוב cage (Jr5:27) (closed ??) basket (Am8:1,2). The root evolved from KaLaH (כלה) meaning “to contain” and “container,” and כָלָה certitude, conviction, decision, and resolution (SmI20:33). Yiphunah (יפונה) is the pual of PaNaH (פנה) to turn, to face; (piel) literally meaning “to rapidly change the face of s.th / s.o” > to prepare a surface > to clear or empty out; (pual) “one who is made to rapidly turn to face s.th.”
66 – Joshua bin Nun (יהושע – Y’HoShu\a). Allegorically: dwelling upon the extensiveness of G-d’s bringing forth of existence. From: Ya (Y-H-W-H, God’s bringing forth of existence) + HoShu\a (הושוע) from YaSha\ (ישע) the Arabic cognate: (dwell upon / linger with) comprehend > comprehensive, hold accommodate, house, seat, encompass, include, be large enough, wide, roomy, spacious, be capable to do something. From Sha\aH (שעה – to dwell, linger). Nun (נון) to persist, endure (in the same spot) (Ps72:17).
67 – Canaan – from the root KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. A comparison with related roots such as KaNaS (כנס to enter), KaNaPh (כנף wing, (what is drawn in)), KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon. So Canaan allegorically means one’s being subdued by the many things drawing in from experience from context.
68 – in the middle of, midst of (תוך ToKh) comes from the verb TaWaKh (תוך – to push or force inward).
69 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
70 – relative (שאר Sh’/aeR) Allegorically: passion, overflowing, expanding outward. This root is related to Sha/aR (שאר) to remain, be in excess and S’uR (שאור – leaven, what overflows). According to Jastro, the root also conveys the idea of bodily contact and intimacy > passion. The root evolved from /uR (אור – light) which literally means “what emanates outward.” Hence: /oRoTh (אורות) weeds (emanating outward), herbs; /aWiR (אויר open space, air); ממארת cancerous, malignant; and Nile (יאור – Y’/oR) “what forms a delta, emanating outwards.
71 – mountain (הר HaR) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective. It comes from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb).
72 – Avarim (עברים \aBhaRim ) Allegorically: the many things in experience passing through. From the verb \aBhaR (עבר) to pass through, cross over.
73 – water (מים – maYiM) from YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up).
74 – waters of (מי MaY) Allegorically: things drawn out-off. This presumes that the word for water in the construct state is not related to the word MaYiM (מים), but rather from MaHaH (מהה – diffuse, dissolve, dilute). It probably relates to the drawing away of a diluted particles in water.
75 – M’rivah (מריבה M’RiBaH) to content, dispute, strive (ריב RyBh) Allegorically: posture (literal meaning). From RaBh (רב) to be big, make bigger.
76 – QaDaeSh (sanctify) Allegorically: dedicated to move forward. Related to Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Allegorically: what is brought forward. Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
77 – (צן Tsin) Allegorically: a place of holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable. From Arabic cognates: Ss/N (צאן) to protect, guard, safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste; ThyN (ד’ן) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider presume; think s.o capable of doing s.th, opinion, belief, doubts; suspicion.
78 – Tso/N (צאן – flock) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
79 – Ra\aH (רעה) means to shepherd, lead, graze, to put out to feed.
80 – judgment (משפט MiShPaT) Allegorically: a declared judgment or clarification. From PuT (פוט) to burst forth, therefore, make a declaration, which is usually a clarification or clearly stated instruction.
81 – orim (אורים /oRim) Allegorically: the things lit up and emanating out in every direction. From /oR (אור light) literally means “what emanates,” consider: אורות (weeds-emanating outward) herbs, אויר open space, air and ממארת cancerous, malignant.
82 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle
83 – Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) Allegorically: an act of being mentally persistent. From /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
84 – pleasant (easing) aroma (ריח נחחי) Allegorically: an act of wafting-easing into me. From RayaHh (ריח) to waft, from RuaHh (רוח) wind, breadth, spirit. Roots with R.Hh. (רח) essentially mean “to move back and forth on the horizontal plain > wide. RaWaHh (רוח – wide) > RuWaHh (רוח) wind > breath > spirit. RaHhaM (רחם) womb, compassion, intestines – means facilitating width-expansiveness for someone or something; RaHhaBh (רחב) wide; RaHhaPh (רחף) to move back and forth, hover; RaHhaL (רחל) Arabic – to roam, wander about, set out from a place, without direction; ewe (one who wanders off when pregnant); RaHhaQ (רחק) to be-go far; RaHhaSh (רחש) to move, stir, flutter (heart); frying pan; Akk- to move, to set in motion; RaHhaTs (רחץ) to wash; /aRaHh (ארח) to travel > YaRaeHh (ירח) (traveler) > moon. MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out AND NiChoaCh (נחח) from NoWCh (נוח) which means to rest, rest upon, ease into, coming to rest.
85 – sheep (כבש KeBheS) literally means: pushed down upon > matted; as opposed to KeSeBh (כשב sheep; lit: fluffy). Related to other roots with K.B. (כב) all meaning “to press down upon” such as KaBhaH (כבה) to extinguish, snuff out; KaBhaL (כבל) to fetter, shackle; KoBha\ (כובע) helmet; KaBhaR (כבר) compress, to press through a sieve, to press through; KaBhaSh (כבש) to subdue, conquer; footstool, furnace; KaBhaS (כבס) to wash; KaBhaD (כבד) be heavy-intense, honor, take seriously.
86 – one (/eHhaD – אחד) Allegorically: mental sharpness. This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
87 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, one who investigates) or morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
88 – evening (ערב – \aRaBh) derived from \aRaH (ערה – to pour) > \aRaBh (ערב – to mix, confuse), evening being a time of mixing of day and night. From \aRaBh > \gaRaBh (ערב).
89 – Sabbath (שבת – Shabbat). This verb evolved from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still). So the root (שבת – ShaBhaT) means (to settle down) > cease, rest, but allegorically also has a meaning of settling in.
90 – ascension offering (עולה – \oLaH) Allegorically: an act of meandering about mentally busying oneself with things. From \aLaL (עלל) to meander about, to busy oneself, even though the peshat is from \aLaH (עלה) to be about > above > to ascend.
91 – bull (פר PaR) Allegorically: to scatter about. The unattested root PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck. A bull or cow are described as PaR(aH) because it is disengaged from the rest of the herd.
92 – ram (איל ayil) Literally: one who rams forward; allegorically: one’s fervently advancing forward with initiative. Originally from the root /aWaL (אול) from which are derived: El (אל) G-d, meaning “one initiating or advancing forward experience;” el (אל) to, toward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward
93 – sin offering (חטאת ChaTa/T) Allegorically: an act of veering about experience. From HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). See also HhiTaH (חטה) wheat = what leans, inclines; and ChiTae\ (חטא) to re-aim, rectify from veering off-going astray
94 – goat (hairy one) (שעיר), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up)
95 – goats, \iZim (עזים) is derived from the word \aZ (עז) meaning strong and intense. This is related to the Akkadian \eZeZu meaning to be / become angry or full of rage.

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Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

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About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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