David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

R’aeh – The Imperative to Truly See

The word G’rizim (גרזים) alludes to acts of repeatedly drawing into something1 – as an ax (גרזן GaRZen) repeatedly drives into wood and as a person repeatedly draws into something for greater understanding. On the other hand, the word Ayval (עיבל) alludes to something distorted.2 Since a mountain (הר HaR) represents a place of bringing things to light and of conceiving of things from an elevated vantage point,3 each mountain represents ways of viewing experience. Blessings are attained when one repeatedly drives into aspects of experience so as to attain greater understanding (G’rizim), but things in experience are poorly understood when they are made light of (קללה)4 when viewed from a distorted perspective (Ayval). Situations are created for us by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), and by God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).5 These are the demands (mitsvot) presented to us in experience that we must be attentive to, otherwise we will turn away from the threshing of experience (דרך DeReKh)6 and by default go after other forms of guidance (אלהים אחרים) that we do not acknowledge (לא ידעתם).

In order to come into the way of disposing of oneself to experience (land)7 that God’s bringing forth of existence is giving to us, it is necessary to assuredly and repeatedly eradicate (אבד) the many confronting situations that arise in experience (המקמות places)8 that the acts of heedlessly drawing into experience (גוים nations)9 devote themselves to (עבד)10 – upon the acts of excessively bringing things to light (high mountains),3 and upon the acts of heaping things upon oneself and thus compelling oneself (hills),11 and in being under the influence of any urge that one delights in (delightful tree).12 You must analyze and break through (שבר)13 the rigid obstinancy associated with them (מצב pillars)14 and the (false) assurance associated with them (אשרה Asherah),15 you must repeatedly oversee and discharge of (שרף burn)16 by being mentally persistent (באש with fire).17

In contrast, you must search (דרש) for the dwelling-presence (שכן) of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim) – for the confrontational situation that arises in experience (המקום place)8 where God chooses to place what is put forth of him in experience (שמו His name).18 For your own sake, be observant and on guard (השמר) lest you become mentally preoccupied with (תעלה עלתיך)19 just any situation that arises that you see. Still with any desire of your spirit, you may flow forth (זבח offer)20 and embrace (אכל eat)21 what can be driven into with confidence (בשר flesh),22 providing God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim), gives it to you through any act of taking notice of things in being stirred up (שעריך gate)23 – in accord with an act of remaining firm, ready and full of desire (צבי gazelle)24 and in accord with an act of advancing forward with initiative (איל ram).25 Thus the text distinguishes between three types of behaviors: acts of heedlessly drawing into situations (גוים nations),9 those purposely selected for a person by God (where He places His name), and those opportunities taken notice of in being stirred up that also come from HaShem (found in your gates).23

Every day, we are to seek out and be attentive to God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim). Any rantings of our minds (נביא prophet)26 or musings of our imaginations (חלום dreams)27 that give us a sign (אות) or tries to persuade us (מופת)28 causing us to go after other forms of guidance (אלהים אחרים) that we do not acknowledge (לא ידעתם) must be completely drawn away (killed off).29 Because it is God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim), that brings us out from acts of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim)30 and saves us from what comes in of the many acts of being lost in devoting one’s attention to experience (house of bondage).31,10 Whereas rantings of the mind (נביא prophet)26 or musings of the imaginations (חלום dreams)27 thrust (הדיח) a person off from acts of threshing through experience (הדרך the path)6 that God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim), demands of you to go upon it.

A Brother that Misleads You:
Your mental faculty pointing things out to you regarding experience (brother),32 a behavior of your being mentally ever present (mother),33 can mislead you (יסיתך) causing you to go and devote attention to other forms of guidance (אלהים אחרים) that you do not acknowledge (לא ידעתם) and thus cutting off the act of disposing oneself to experience (קצה הארץ).7 You may not yield to it, nor be attentive to it, and your eye shall not consider it. You shall assuredly muse over (הרג kill) it.34 The power of your reach (ידך hand)35 shall be upon it with an act of seeing (בראשונה at first)36 in order to draw it out (להמיתו kill it)29 and then all of the act of being mindful of what crowds in from experience (people),37 thereafter. Then you will pelt it (סקל) with the many things in experience that stick out prominently (אבנים facts-stones)38 because it sought to thrust you off from being upon God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).

The City with Worthless People:
In scooping up (אחת)39 from the potentially stirring situations (עריך cities)40 made available to you by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim), you may hear behaviors without utility (בליעל)41 coming out (from within you) in an attempt to thrust off the acts of settling in (ישבי inhabitants)42 with what is stirred in experience.40 You must investigate and make a determination and inquire fully. If it is true you must engage (strike upon) the ways of settling in with what is stirred up of experience, and all that is with it, and the acts of pushing in and making observations (בהמת herd animals)43 associated with it – regarded as a coming in of what is ravaging of experience (לפי חרב).44,45 You will oversee and extract (שרף)16 of the situation stirred in experience (city)40 by being mentally persistent (fire).17

Holy Children of God:
In your applying yourselves in experience (אתם),46 you are those who are active (children)47 with regard to God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim). You shall not draw yourselves away (התגדד make gashes),48 nor shall you place an act of festering over experience (baldness)49 between your acts of making observations (eyes),50 regarded as an act of being completely drawn away (dead).29 Because in your applying yourself (אתה),46 you are one who is mindful of what crowds in of experience (people),37 one brought forward in experience (קדוש holy).51

Kashrut:
You may not embrace (eat)21 any (behavior) that is abhorrent or detestable (תועבה). You may only embrace behaviors that entail observing and/or engaging situations through observation, investigation, scrutiny and appropriate judgment (מפרסת פרסה one splitting the hoof)52 and whose details are observed and scrutinized spatially and temporally distant from one another (שסעת שסע one separating a cleft).53 Furthermore, your behavior must include mental rumination (מעלת גרה one elevating the cud).54 When you embrace from stirred up situations (במים in the waters)55 it is necessary to remain sharp, restrained, and refined and to disengage when necessary (סנפיר fin),56 and also it is necessary to remain firm (קשקשת scales).57 Finally, you may embrace any act of containing-restraining retreat (כל צפור bird)58,59 that is of perfect mental clarity (טהור).60 In contrast, you may not embrace any act of containing-restraining bravery (כל ערב)61 with regard to its asserting itself (למנו its kind).62 Additionally, any act of running rampant (שרץ)63 of being engrossed (עוף)64 with experience may not be embraced, while any act of being engrossed (עוף) with experience that is of perfect mental clarity (טהור) may be embraced.

You shall not fully embrace (eat)21 each-thing making a forceful, bellowing overture in experience (נבלה carcass).65 You may give it forth for the purpose of drawing into it (גר sojourner)66, that exists with your taking notice of something in being stirred up by it (in your gates)23 – such that it (your drawing into it) will embrace it. Or you may dodge it (מכר sell)67 – to be regarded as something that remains unfamiliar (נכר).68 Because in your applying yourself (אתה), you are one mindful of what crowds in of experience (people),37 one who has been brought forward (holy)51 with regard to God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim). You may not stew over (בשל) something random (גדי)69 in being captivated (חלב)70 as a result of the being mentally ever present with it (אמו).33

Tithing:
You shall assuredly bear down (tithe)71 upon what comes in of your scattering about experience (seed) so that you shall embrace of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim) – what bears down71 of your hovering about so as to become acquainted ( דגנך grain),72 of your driving in (תירשך juice, wine),73 and of your narrowing in so as to make things perfectly clear (יצהרך oil),74 and what wells forth (firstborn)75 of your making an investigation (cattle)76 and your consideration from a distance (flock)77 – in order that you shall learn to be in awe of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim), all of the many stirring things (days).78 If the threshing (דרך way)6 is too much for you, then put it in the form of many lasting impressions (silver)79 and then go to the situation arising (מקום place)8 that God shall select. Then convert those may impressions (silver)79 into the desire of your spirit and embrace (eat)21 regarding the many things being presented of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim). Nevertheless, you shall not abandon the act of mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things (Levi)80 that is with your taking notice of things in being stirred up by them (gates).23 After there is a dangling of many imposing things (three years),81,82 all of what bears down71 of what comes in of you from experience shall be for the act of mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things (Levi) – and the act of drawing in (sojourner),66 and the act of making of a complete accounting (יתום),83 and the act of concentrating (widow)84 that is with your taking notice of things in being stirred up by them (gates).23

Sh’mitah:
At the end of becoming bloated with what bubbles up of imposing things (seven years),85,82 you shall perform an act of letting things go (Sh’mitah). Any person probing (בעל)86 what is put off and postponed of his reach (debt of his hand),87,35 in that he postpones with what is perceived by him (friend),88 must release and let go. He shall not enclose around89 and pursue what is perceived by him (friend),88 nor what points things out for him regarding experience (brother).32 That which one is vaguely acquainted with and with which one can become more familiar (foreigner),68 you may enclose around.

An Impoverished Brother:
Given that there shall be with you, a state of wanting and being dissatisfied (אביון)90 as a result of what is challenging (אחד)91 of the mental faculty pointing things out for you regarding experience (brother),32 as a result of what is challenging of your taking notice of things in being stirred up by them (gates),23 in your disposing of yourself in experience (land)7 that God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim) gave to you. You shall not harden nor become obstinate with regard to your will (heart). And you shall not retract the power of your reach (hand)35 from the mental faculty pointing things out for you regarding experience (brother),32 the one that is dissatisfying (impoverished).90 For you shall surely open your hand for the sake of it that you shall surely distribute your energies and resources (עביט)92 to it sufficiently enough for its lack-deficiency – that there shall be a lacking to it.

A Hebrew Slave:
Allegorically, your brother represents your mental faculty that points things out for you regarding experience.32 One that passes and wanders through experience (Hebrew)93 will serve as an act of devoting attention to experience (slave).10 When what is repetitively imposing in experience (year)82 is bubbling and bloating (seventh),85 you must send it forth into experience freely. In doing so, you shall assuredly overload it from your considering experience from a distance (flock),77 from your repeatedly drawing into experience (threshing floor),94 and from your vigorously channeling into experience so as to attain greater understanding (vat)95 – that which is given to you by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim). Nevertheless, you must remain clear minded (זכר)96 because you were one lost in devoting attention to experience (slave)10 in the feverishly focusing on the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim)30 and it was God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim), that was saving you.

Sanctifying-Bringing Forward the First Born:
Anything welling forth (firstborn)75 that is generated through your making an investigation (cattle)76 and through your considering experience from a distance (flock)77 – that which is clearly manifest (male)96 – you shall bring forward (הקדיש)51 regarding God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to you in experience (Elohim). However, you shall not become lost devoting attention (עבד)10 with what wells forth of your staring fixedly into experience (ox)97 and you may not cut short (sheer)98 what wells forth of your considering experience from a distance (flock).77 If there is a limping or blindness with it you shall not be able to flow forth to experience through it. However, in your taking notice in being stirred up by it (gates),23 you may embrace it – being overwhelmed (טמא)99 and being clear minded (טהור),60 together – in accord with an act of remaining firm, ready and full of desire (צבי gazelle)24 and in accord with an act of advancing forward with initiative (איל ram).25

Due to a suggested limitation on the number of words per blog, I suggest these links for further reading regarding the chagim:
Leaping from Pesach into the Recounting of the Omer | David Kolinsky | The Blogs (timesofisrael.com)

Sh’vuot – the holiday of fulfillment | David Kolinsky | The Blogs (timesofisrael.com)

Seventh Month: Mental Sharpness, Humility and Joy | David Kolinsky | The Blogs (timesofisrael.com)

Notes:
1 – G’rizim (גרזים G’RiZim) Allegorically: drawing into something repeatedly (so as to attain understanding). Derived from GuR > GRH literally meaning to draw > drive into. From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, seep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
2 – Ayval (עיבל \aybhaL) Allegorically: something distorted. Derived from (עבה \aBhaH) to swell; hence Syriac (עבּא) thick, swollen, dense > crass, uncultivated; swollen face / eyes / body ~ as a wound. Arabic: (עבל \aBaL) plump, well-rounded, chubby, fat, granite. Additionally: related Ta\aBh (תעב) (from \aBhaH (עבה) that which is swollen > deformed, distortion, monstrosity, gross, crass, uncultivated) > something that a person sees or becomes aware of that is disturbing / troublesome / considered disgusting. Abhorrent).
3 – HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective. It comes from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb).
4 – curse (קללה Q’LaLaH) Allegorically: held in light esteem. Derived from QoL (קול voice (channeling)), words from QaLaH mean “to be light” or “to remove from the surface.” QaLaL (קלל make light of, to be swift, to curse > be vile). QaLaH (קלה roast (make light)); dried, light (קלקל Q’LoQaeL). In Syriac: קלקל means “to distort, distract, throw into confusion, bring shame upon; to be held in light esteem.”
5 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
6 – way, thresh (דרך – DeReKh). from DaRaKh (דרך) to tread, trample, thresh, walk about, guide and aim.
7 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
8 – place, establishment (מקום MaQoM) Allegorically: what is firm, established, establishment, what arises, what confronts. From the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Note QaM (קם) enemy, foe, adversary (one who stands firmly before, standing up to).
9 – nation (GoY – גוי) and body (G’WiYaH – גויה) Allegorically: acts of heedlessly drawing into experience. Both derived from the root GaWaH (גוה) literally meaning “to draw in,” in Arabic גוי means to be passionately stirred (love / grief), passion. In Syriac GaWaH means to take / bring in, admit, innermost
10 – work-serve-slave-worship-devote (עבד – \aBhaD) Allegorically, this root is used in the verb and noun to means “devote (attention).” Although originally as a noun meaning slave, the verb evolved to mean to work, serve, worship and devote. It evolved from /aBhaD (אבד), thus meaning “one lost (to slavery).”
11 – hill (גבעה – GiBh\aH) Allegorically: what is heaped up, compelling. This root means to heap up, therefore > hill, goblet. In Sabaic, the verb GaBa\ (גבע) means to impose and force, to compel. Related roots of G.B. mean to heap up or hover over. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
12 – tree, wood of (עץ \aets) Allegorically: an act of striving-difficult-elusive. From tree, wood (עץ – \aeTs) derived from the root \uTs (עוץ) which derived from /uTs (אוץ hasten). Literally meaning “to hasten, force, push through” it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel.” Allegorically, it is used to mean “one’s striving, one’s urges or things that are difficult or elusive – the later from the Arabic cognate and context.
13 – to break (שבר – ShaBaeR) literally means “to go clear through,” hence it means to break, break apart, shatter, smash, crash, to distribute-buy-sell provision (?broken pieces); and for a wave to break. However, its secondarily evolved form SaBhaR (שבר) means to contemplate, look to and hope for. There is an identical noun SheBheR (שבר) meaning “interpretation” or more correctly break down > analysis that indicates the transition between the two. Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening)
14 – pillar (מצבה maTsaeBhaH) Allegorically: show a rigid defiance or rigidly obstinate, unyielding, intransigent. From NaTsaBh (נצב to stand upright-defiantly-straight).
15 – Asherah (tree, pole) (אשרה /aShaeRaH) Allegorically: having a false sense of confidence, assurance, confirmation. There are two unrelated Semitic roots spelled /aShaR (אשר). One, meaning “to go directly,” evolved from ShuWR (שור – to see, get a fix on). The other, meaning “to confirm, be supportive of, validate and congratulate” evolved from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent).
16 – to burn (שרף SaRaPh) Allegorically: to extract and oversee. This root literally means “what is released > to make dissipate, to cause to secrete and draw out resin, to coat with resin.” It evolved from the root RaPhaH (רפה) to loosen and release. In Arabic the two related roots mean: (release>) (SaRaPh) to dissipate, squander, exceed all bounds, immodest, overdo, to be extravagant > (ShaRaPh) be highborn, noble, look down upon, oversee, supervision
17 – Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) Allegorically: an act of being mentally persistent. From /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
18 – name (שם – ShaeM) from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
19 – ascension offering (עולה – \oLaH) Allegorically: an act of meandering about mentally busying oneself with things. From \aLaL (עלל) to meander about, to busy oneself, even though the peshat is from \aLaH (עלה) to be about > above > to ascend.
20 – offering (זבח – ZaBhaHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
21 – eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
22 – flesh, confident (בשר – BaSaR). The word almost always means flesh, but literally “what is driven into with confidence,” probably alluding to removing meat from a bone. The Arabic cognate means “to peel, scrape / shave off, grate, shred, come in contact, sexual intercourse, apply oneself.” Also note probable mis-translation of (Ec2:3) תרתי בלבי למשוך ביין את בשרי Conventionally translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my flesh. But more correctly translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my confidence.
23 – gate (שער Sha\aR) – also Seir (שעיר Sae\iyR) barley (שערים from שעורה S’/oRaH), goat (hairy one),demon (שעיר Sa\yR). Allegorically: acts of taking notice of many things in being stirred by them. Except for gate (which possibly is derived from עיר city (place stirred up)), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up).
24 – gazelle (צבי Ts’Bhy) Allegorically: an act of remaining firm, ready and full of desire. From TsaBhaH (צבה) to swell and to desire. Evolved from NaTsaBh (נצב to stand upright-defiantly-straight) and then two related roots: TsBha/ (צבא) army, assemble, wage war and the necessity to stand firm and be ready (Jb7:1) AND yellow (צהוב TsaHoBh)(probably from an unattested intermediary TsoBh (צוב)) literally meaning “to stand out, be ardent.” According to Jastro, there is a verbal form of this root meaning: to be defiant, jealous, angry, grieve, and provoke.
25 – ram (איל ayil) Literally: one who rams forward; allegorically: one’s fervently advancing forward with initiative. Originally from the root /aWaL (אול) from which are derived: El (אל) G-d, meaning “one initiating or advancing forward experience;” el (אל) to, toward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward
26 – prophet (נביא NaBy/), prophetess (נביאה NaBhy/a), to prophesy (נבא NiBa/) Allegorically: to rant. See: to mutter to oneself, ramble at the mouth to oneself, to rant, gripe (SmI18:10)(Jr29:26)
27 – dream (HhaLaM – חלם) Allegorically: mentally concentrate, muse over. This root literally means “closely joined.” Therefore, חלמה seem; חלמות (egg yoke); חלמא (cement); In Arabic: to dream, muse, reflect, meditate; parasitic, nipple shaped. In Torah it is often used allegorically to mean to concentrate mentally.
28 – miracle, persuasive thing (מופת MoPhaeT) Allegorically: persuasive thing. Probably from PaTaH (פתה) to open wide > be open to persuasion, be gullible; to deceive.
29 – die (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
30 – Mitsraim (מצרים). This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s visually narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh, chaos.
31 – house (בית BaYiT ) Allegorically: what comes in. From the root Bo/ (בוא to come in). Literally it means “the place of coming in.”
32 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
33 – mother (/aeM – אם) Allegorically: being mentally present. It literally means “who or what that is ever present” It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence); /aYaM (אים) foreboding literally means “an ever present feeling,” and m’/uMaH (מאומה) something literally means “a thing of that is ever present” and /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe).
34 – to kill (הרג – HaRaG) allegorically meaning “to muse over something.” Tirliteral roots with R.G.(רג) generally meaning “to go back and forth.” רגג to swoon after; הרג to kill (make go back and forth), in Syriac and Arabic to muse over, blur the mind; רגל walk about, spy out, to slander; שרג to slip back and forth, entangle; שׂרג to swing back and forth, slip; רגב clod, make clods; quiver, be afraid; רגף to shake, stir; רגם to throw at, pelt at, Akk- shout at, persecute raise claim against, accuse; Ugr – to communicate, say, tell, announce, inform, answer; Amh- to curse, wish evil upon; Arb- to stone, curse, revile; shooting stars, meteorites; רגע to swing back and forth, roll; רגש to surge together, rage; רגז to deviate from side to side, wander about, get lost; ארג to weave
35 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /UD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
36 – first, beginning of (ראשית Rae\ShyT) and head (ראש – Ro/Sh), possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
37 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
38 – stone (/eBheN – אבן), from the root BuN (בון – to be or project between), literally means “what sticks out prominently.”
39 – one (אחת /aChaT) Allegorically: subdued OR scooping up. Actually from /aChaDT (אחדת) > /aChaT (אחת) from one (/eHhaD – אחד) This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen. HOWEVER, the allegorical use is not related to this etymology and is instead could be based on one of two roots: ChaTaT (חתת) meaning to press down upon, to subdue, and to frighten. > therefore, the allegory means “what subdues in experience.” OR the allegory of /aChaT is from the verb HhaTaH (חתה) to scoop up.
40 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
41 – worthless, without utility-usefulness (בליעל). From B’Ly (בלי without) and \aLaL (עלל) to meander about, to busy oneself.
42 – inhabitant-settler (יושב – YoShaeBh) Allegorically, “one who settles down.” This verb evolved from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still) and the root (שבת – ShaBhaT) meaning (to settle down) > cease, rest.
43 – herd animal (בהמה – B’HaeMaH) This word evolved from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
44 – Py (פי) mouth, from the word PeH (פה) which evolved from B’ (ב – in) > BoW/ (בוא – to go / come in)
45 – sword (חרב – CheReBh) the verb means to be hot, heat, dry, but also to make desolate, to devastate (Jd16:24)(KgII19:17)(Is42:15) and to be devastated (emotionally) (Jr2:12), therefore allegorically: ravaging of experience.
46 – You, I (אתה את אתם אתן /aTaH /aT /aTeM /aTeN)(אני /aNy) Allegorically: You or I, in applying-imposing oneself in experience. Derived from the verb /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose and apply oneself. Many other Semitic cognates preserve the elided letter nun. The other word for I (אנכי /aNoKhy), allegorically meaning “I, in my making my impression,” comes from the verb NaKaH (נכה) literally meaning “to make an impression,” it is used to mean “to strike down.”Although most other Semitic cognates are similar, NaK (נך) in Amharic means “to touch, bear upon, impinge upon, involve (affect), reach (top of wall).”
47 – sons (בנים) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
48 – make marks or gashes in one’s skin (התגודד HiTGoDaeD) Allegorcally: to draw oneself away. From GaD (גד) to draw across, draw off, draw away from > cut across. Hence GuD (גוד) (to cut across) to split off, draw away from, to form a faction, GaDaD (גדד) (cut off >) form a troop; GaDaL (גדל) (cut across >) weave > build up > great; GaDa\ (גדע) to lop off; GaDaPh (גדף) to draw off, scrape, hollow out, scrape the dregs, drag through; SaGaD (סגד)(cut across oneself) to bow; GaDaSh (גדש) to stack up; NaGaD (נגד) to draw out > tell a story; be drawn across from > opposite.
49 – baldness (קרחה QaRaHhaH) one’s getting in very close and festering over a particular thing so as to expose and clarify. Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. essentially mean “to get in very close”: קרה to come upon, happen occur; קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read; קרב to approach; קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate; קרן horn, to project; קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner; קרש to contract, gnash, bite into; קרס to stoop; קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse; נקר to gouge, chisel; שקר to gouge > deceive, lie. In Arabic, the root קרח means to wound, fester, ulcerate. From the idea of fester over something it also means to think up, propose, invent, and improvise. In Sabaic, to inflict a wound. In Syriac: to become bald, (?be clear >>) expose, divulge, disclose, declare expressly, make clear, evident, specify). This idea of baldness which predominates in Hebrew comes from wound > ulcerate > clear out / away > bald, ice/ frost, inside lining (of clothing).
50 – eye (עין \ayin) Allegorically: to eye, make observations. From \oN (עון to eye > observe) and related to \aNaH (ענה) to turn (unclear if eye is based on the curved shaped of the eye or the turning one does to see or both).
51 – Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
52 – hoof (פרסה) from verb of the same root meaning to split, break. Syriac: spread out, extend, stretch out, unfold, unroll, diffuse, divide; devise, plan, scheme; Arabic: to tear to pieces, ravish, rape, eye, regard searchingly, scrutinize, detect (a quality) be perspicacious, discriminating, discrimination; Akkadian – to spread out, cut off, abolish, withhold, decide, pick out, select, divide, section off, investigate, establish facts, arbitrate, reach a decision, pass judgment
53 – make a cleft or fissure, cleft hoof (שסע ShaSa\) Allegorically: to put distance between (temporal or physical). Cognate with Arabic: far (away), great (distance), distant, remote, wide, large, huge, vast, roomy, spacious, extensive, enormous
54 – one elevating the cud (מעלת גרה ma\aLaT GaeRaH) Allegorically: mental rumination. Related to Arabic cognate:
draw, pull, drag, tug, draw / bring down on s.th, ruminate, repeat constantly (words / ideas). Roots derived from GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce
55 – water (מים – maYiM) from YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up)
56 – fin (סנפיר S’NaPyR) Allegorically: to remain sharp, restrained, and refined and to disengage when necessary. Similar to “thorn bush (סנה – S’NeH)” literally meaning sharp thing, related to SaNaN (סנן – sharp, bright, (to sharpen) to refine, filter, strain) + PyR (פיר) “what can be removed” as related to PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck. A bull or cow are described as PaR(aH) because it is disengaged from the rest of the herd.
57 – scales (קשקשת QaSQeSeT) Allegorically: remaining firm. Derived from QaShaH (קשה) to be firm, stiff, hard.
58 – all, each (כול KoL). Allegorically: containing, restraining of. This verb evolved from HhoL (חול sand, common (literally meaning “what is thrown about > goes on and on.”) From there, it evolved to KaLaH (כלה to contain, restrain, complete)
59 – Tsipor (צפר – TsiPoR) Allegorically: a flood of things or a being flooded by things. From צפר (TsiPaeR – (to overflow out of) > to evacuate, to bail out from (Jd7:3), which evolved from TsaPhaH (צפה – to overflow). TsiPoR (צפור – bird) literally means “the one that evacuates, flies away.”
60 – pure (טהור TaHuR) . This root evolved from TsaHaR (צהר). The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing (TsuR צור) in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the related words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. This root essentially means “so narrow > thin so as to be visually clear > pure.”
61 – Raven (\oRaeBh – עורב). There are two Hebrew roots ערב. The relevant one evolved from רב (R-B = to be large) and means to be a guarantor or security. Raven (\oRaeBh – עורב) comes from this root. Hence the need for a scarecrow.
62 – its kind, species (מינו MyNo) Allegorically: its asserting itself. The word meaning kind-species comes from MaNaH (מנה) to distribute, count, be from, bestow, confer, furnish, hand out, present, apportion, allocate, deal out, and assign. However, there is another word (מין MyN) derived from Ma/aN (מאן) meaning heretic, sectarian which evolved from from אנה which means “to impose or apply oneself.”
63 – teem (שרץ – SheReTs) Allegorically: running rampant. Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
64 – fowl (עוף \oPh) The root from which this word evolved is not entirely clear to me. It could have come from HhaPhaH (חפה to bend, curve) > Syriac: (עף – to fold over, double, multiply, increase); OR from /aPhaH (אפה (to cover the face) > to bake; which evolved to אפף to smother (the face)). The allegorical meaning comes from the related verbs: Arabic (עף – to shrink from, refrain, abstain, abstinent, modest, chaste, decent, pure) and (עאף – to loathe, have an aversion, feel disgust, proud, disdainful) which are related to the Hebrew עיף tired, weary.
65 – carcass (נבלה NiBhLaH) Allegorically: what makes a forceful, bellowing overture. The word for carcass comes from BaLaH (בלה) to force into and mix together, crumble; which evolves into NaBhaL (נבל) to fall down, wither (Is34:4)(Ek47:12)(Ps1:3) to crumble (Jb14:18). However, from a different root, the word Naebhel (נבל) means both a leather bottle and a musical instrument with bellows. The root literally means to push or send something outward. In Sabaic, the root means to dispatch, send someone on a mission, and to make overtures.
66 – sojourner, convert (גר – GaeR) from the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
67 – to sell (מכר MaKhaR) Allegorically: to bring around, take around, deliver over, dodge (Arb). Arabic: (get around) deceive, dupe, delude, cheap, double cross, cunning, craftiness, ruse, dodge, swindler, impostor. From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
68 – foreigner (נכר – NaeKhaR) literally means “one of vague acquaintance.” The verb of the same root means: to acquaint, to recognize, to be unfamiliar and to make an error in recognition, misjudge.
69 – young goat, kid (גדי – G’Dy). Allegorically: random, spontaneously occurring development From the root GaDaD (גדד – to draw off from). The Arabic: new (factor), innovative, luck, recent development, recently become fact, grave, take s.th seriously, strive earnestly. Amharic: luck, strange, monster, flutter about, group
70 – milk (חלב – HhaLaBh) from the Arabic root (חלב = ChaLaB – to seize with claws, cajole, coax, beguile, fascinate, captivate; gripping, captivating, attractive, tempting)
71 – ten, tenth, twenty, tithe (עשרה – \aSaRaH) metaphorically means “what bears down (upon a person).” This Semitic root consists of two etymologically unrelated homonyms. The number ten evolved from the root that means “to be well supported.” But the other homonym means to urge, force, compel, bear down, plight, and predicament in Arabic; and to put pressure on, demand, exact payment, constrict, enclose, and confine in Akkadian.
72 – grain (דגן DaGaN) Allegorically: hovering about and become acquainted. (Arabic: dusky, murky, gloomy; remain, stay, get used / accustomed; Syriac: to cloud or inflame eyes). It evolved from the verb DaGaH to be / become numerous (Gn48:16). This root evolved from DuKh (דוך to pound, crush > particles). It evolved into verbs meaning covering and staying in one place: DaGa/ (דגא) veil, cover, shroud, blanket, dark, gloomy, dusky, cajole, flatter; DaGaL(דגל) (veil) to dupe, deceive (Jastro); be conspicuous; banner-standard (Syriac: to lie, deceive, deny, disappoint, defraud, cheat, be unfaithful; Akk: wait, obey, await s.o, show reverence, put attention on, look repeatedly, have at one’s disposal); DaGaSh (דגש) a Hebrew punctuation mark indicating that one is to remain on a consonant longer, thus plosive or geminated, (Syriac: to stab, pierce, transfix); DaGaR (דגר) to brood.
73 – juice, wine (תירש TyRoSh) Allegorically: driving in, taking possession. Related to possession (ירשה Y’RaeShaH) Allegorically (literally): what is driven into. Its evolution: YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRaSh (ירש – to penetrate-drive in, take possession, to dispossess). Also from YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRa/ (ירא to be penetrated > in awe > afraid).
74 – oil (יצהר YiTsHaR) Allegorically: narrowing in upon a particular thing so as to make it clearer. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the related words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon.
75 – first born (בכור – BaKhuR) from BaKhaR (בכר – to bud (well up), to be born first), which evolved from BaKhaH (בכה) to cry, weep, vent and trickle; which evolved from NaBhaKh (נבך) (welling up) spring, source (Jb38:16)
76 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigates) & morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
77 – flock (צאן – Tso/N) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
78 – YoM (יום – day), from HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.”
79 – silver (כֶּסֶף – KeSePh) evolved from the root K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Over time, silver tarnishes. K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished)
80 – Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
81 – three (שלש – ShaLoSh) actually means suspend, dangle. This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust.
82 – year (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים); two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN). Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
83 – orphan (יתום Y’ToM) Allegorically: an act of making of a complete accounting. Literally meaning “standing alone,” this word evolved from TaMaM (תמם) (stay put) > stay put-come to a stop-an end-finished-spent up-perished-consumed-completed-behave perfectly. See (hiphil) to make a complete accounting of (KgII14:4)
84 – widow (אלמנה /aLmaNaH) Allegorically: bound up, resolved, concentrated, silenced. From the root /aLaM (אלם) to bind, be silenced, but also strong and maintaining anger.
85 – seven (שבע Sheva/). Although with a shin, this word appears to have been derived from the similar root with a letter sin, SaBha\ understood as satiated, it derives from either NaBha\ (נבע – to swell or well up) or Ba\aH (בעה – to bubble up, boil). Perhaps it means the number seven because it fulfills a period of one week, although this too is not completely clear.
86 – master, lord, husband, owner (בעל Ba\al) Allegorically: an act of probing. The verb Ba\aL (בעל) means to engage in sexual intercourse (Dt21:13;24:1). From there it comes to mean husband > master, owner. Ba’al the Canaanite god of the rain storms means “fructifier.” The verb evolved from Ba\aH (בעה – to probe, search).
87 – debt (משה MaSeH) creditor (נושה – NoSheH) Allegorically: put off, postpone, procrastinate. This root evolved from MaShaH (משה – to draw out). In Hebrew it means (to draw out > postpone >) to grant credit > slip past the time of payment and to forget. In Arabic: put off, postpone, defer, procrastinate, allow some time to pay, grant credit; longevity, stick
88 – friend (רע – Ra’a\) from the verb Ra\aH (רעה – to welcome, to receive, take delight in) which evolved from Ra/aH (ראה – (be penetrated) to see, perceive) from YaRa\ (ירא – (be penetrated) > be in awe, be afraid) from YaRaH (ירה – to aim > penetrate). Note also רע (perception) thought (Ps139:2) and רעא (Syr- think, be minded, be of opinion, reason, purpose)
89 – to exact payment, oppress (נגש NaGaS) Allegorically: enclose around. Like its etymological relation, NaGaSh (נגש) meaning to approach, draw closely into and around, which in Ugaritic is to pursue, enclose, over-whelm, devour and in Sabaic: to gain control of a town, king.
90 – one who is in a state of wanting, impoverishment (אביון /eBhYoN) Allegorically: wanting, desiring, needing, dissatisfied. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) “to be willing to give forth of oneself, to desire, to yield, yearning, to consent to.” A related term /aBhiYoNaH (אביונה) means desire (interest in life, although often translated as sexual desire)
91 – one (/eHhaD – אחד) Allegorically: mental sharpness. This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
92 – to lend (העביט) Allegorically: distribute your energies and resources. This root has the special meanings of lend, recover what was lent and to borrow (depending on the form). But these are extensions of its essential meaning of to break apart / split up (their ranks) (Yl2:7)
93 – \eBheD \iBhRi (עבד עברי), a Hebrew slave. Because the associated verb \aBhaD (עבד) also means to devote and show devotion, its allegorical meaning is “one’s devoting attention.” The word Hebrew, \iBhRi (עברי), comes from the root \aBhaR (עבר), to pass through or over. Many explain this word as referring to Avram’s crossing over a river in his entering into Canaan, but based on allegorical context and the fact that the Hebrews were nomads who passed through from one grazing area to the next, it is more likely that it means wanderer.
94 – threshing floor (גרן GoReN) Allegorically: repetitively threshing (drawing into) through experience over and again; From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon.
95 – wine vat-press (יקב YeQeBh) Allegorically: to channel in so as to gain a greater understanding. Related to: to curse (קבב QaaBhaH), tent (קבה QuBaH), abdomen (קבה QaeBhaH) are all etymologically related through the root (קבה QaBhaH) which literally means to channel. In Arabic (קאבּ) to dig, dig up, burrow, excavate, hallow out, burst open, imminent. In Akkadian:(קבּו) to command, say, speak, promise, agree, imply, pronounce, decree, name, designate, nominate, promise, give understanding. Note niphal NaQaBh to be designated (Nm1:17)(Ea8:20). Roots that share Q.B. generally mean to channel: QaBhaL (קבל – to accept, receive (channel toward)) and QaBha\ (קבע – to rob (channel away from)), QaBhaTs (קבץ – to gather (channel) together), QaBhaR (קבר to bury, inundate, flood), female (נקבה N’QaeBhaH) which is related to NaQaBh (נקב socket, to penetrate, pierce, bore (channel) into-out) – these evolved from the root QaBh (קוב – (Arb – to dig a (channel) shallow, to hallow out)) which evolved from QaW (קוה – to channel together).
96 – to remember, male (זכר – ZaKhaR) literally means to be clear, hence to remember (be clear in mind) from ZaKhaH (זכה – (to be clear) be pure, free of guilt, right / justified, innocent, be acquitted / right, to be privileged. Also note (Syriac – (manifest something with clarity) use magic arts; bring up a familiar spirit; divine using a spirit).
97 – ox (שור – Shur) Allegorical: fixing one’s gaze. This root (ShuR – שור), like with Yisrael, means to be fixed either physically or visually. Hence, physically (wall, ox, umbilical cord) and visually (to get a fix on (see) (Nm23:9,24:17)(Hs14:9))
98 – sheer (גזז GaZaZ) Allegorically: to cut short-back. Related to: cut stone (גזית – GaZyt) from GaZaH (גזה to cut off / short / across) (Jr7:29) which evolved from GuZ (גוז) (be bold) to cut off / short / across (in behavior/ physical) (Ps90:10). Also GaZaL (גזל) to snatch away from (cut off), chick-hatchling; GazaM (גזם) cutting locust; GaZa\ (גזע) stem, stump; GaZaR (גזר) to split apart, decree.
99 – impure, unclean (טמא TaMae/) The evolution of this root begins with TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast). From there, TaM (טם) means “flood, inundate, overwhelming” in Arabic; “stop up, block, closely packed, solid, dense, opaque, repress, restrain; repressed, coerced” in Syriac; plaited in Akkadian; and TaMaM (טמם) is “filled / crowded to capacity” in Amharic. Essentially, these roots mean squeezed in > overstuffed > overwhelmed.

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Hans Wehr. Ed by J Milton Cowan (1979) Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, NY: Published in the United States by Spoken Languages Services, Inc with permission of Otto Harrassowitz

Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, eds., A Concise Dictionary ofAkkadian, 2nd corrected printing (Santag Arbeiten und Untersuchungen Zur Keilschriftkunde, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000)

Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.

About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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