David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Regarding God, Don’t Miss the Tree for the Forest

The verb KaHaeN (כהן) means “to perform with precise and mindful intention” or “to give something precise and mindful attention.”1 Even though, in Judaism, we are divided into Kohanim (כהנים priests), L’viim (לוים escorts), and Israelites; we are all to behave as kohanim, as those who perform in life with precise and mindful intention – for we are to be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation (Exod. 19:6). There are two realms in which a person can be precise and mindfully attentive – the realm of the particular and the realm of the expansive and comprehensive. As stated in the parashah, one of the responsibilities of the priest is to bring close the bread of Elohim. Allegorically, this means that a person who is giving a scene precise and mindful attention brings forth what is closely gotten into (לחם bread)2 of God’s Guidance being presented to it in experience (Elohim).3 In other words, by being mindfully attentive, a person scans a scene for God’s guidance, and brings it forward, engaging it and making it into a reality.

In the text, it is emphasized that a kohaen cannot be defiled among or through his people. The word to defile, HhaLaL (חלל), literally means to throw about, while the passive “to be defiled” means “to be thrown about.” When scanning a scene, a person who is being mindfully attentive cannot allow himself to become mentally squeezed in and unavailable (יטמא ritually impure),4 throwing himself about (defiling himself), probing a scene (בעל a master),5 through the many acts of being mindful of the many things crowding upon him from experience (among his people).6 In other words, a person who is mindfully attentive cannot become mentally muddled by being distracted by all of the details crowding in from experience, This is how one’s being precise and mindfully attentive deals with the realm of the expansive and the comprehensive. A kohaen must be holy for Elohim – the acts of being precise and mindfully attentive must be brought forward (holy)7 specifically for God’s guidance being presented to it in experience (Elohim).3

Although the text says that a kohaen may not be ritually impure for a soul-spirit among his people, he may become ritually impure for a close relative: his mother, his father, his son, his daughter, his brother and his virgin sister. Allegorically, this means that one’s being precise and mindfully attentive (a kohaen) must also perform in the realm of the particular, with particular things or activities the are close to him in experience. In such a case, one’s being precise and mindfully attentive may become mentally squeezed in and unavailable (ritually impure) when passionate8 about a particular something – regarding the being mindful of something in particular,9 or regarding the taking notice of something,10 or regarding engaging in a particular activity,11 or regarding behaving decisively with a particular thing,12 or regarding a particular thing in experience that is pointing the way for it.13 If there is a thing in experience that is subduing,14 that requires him to push into it,15 that had not yet been engaged with mental persistence,16 then the person being precise and mindfully attentive may become mentally squeezed in and unavailable when engaging it.

The text says that if the daughter of a priest prostitutes herself, thus defiling her father, then she must be burned in fire. Allegorically, this means that if a person is decisively mentally engaged with a particular thing (daughter), giving it precise and mindful attention (of a kohaen), but then flails about (prostitutes itself)17 and thus defiles its taking notice of the thing – then it must be overseen with mental persistence (burnt in fire).18,19 In other words, if a person is attentive to a particular thing, but then the attentiveness flails, the person must come back to it utilizing the ability to be mentally persistent.

The high priest is one from among his brothers that has oil poured upon his head – he is anointed. Allegorically, the high priest (the kohaen hagadol) is the act of giving a scene precise and mindful attention that weaves together many intricate things (גדל GaDaL)20 – this is as a result of his mental faculties pointing many things out for him regarding experience (from his brothers).13 He represents the mental faculty that sees what exudes of experience (oil upon his head)21,22 and layers on the many acts of bringing up and revealing what basic facts can be discovered of a scene.23,24 Therefore, he cannot make chaotic or disorderly (in his attempts to attend to too many things)(פרע )25 his seeing of things (head)22 and he cannot mangle and mutilate his revealing of basic facts (clothing).24 In his taking notice of a thing10 or in his being mindful of a thing,9 he cannot allow himself to become mentally squeezed in and unavailable (impure). Its role is to assess a situation or scene and then to purposely force into one particular thing (virgin)15 and make that into his way of conducting oneself through experience (wife).26 His wife cannot be a widow, divorced, defiled, or a prostitute – Therefore, with regard to his way of conducting himself through experience (wife), he cannot allow himself to become bound up (widow),27 or driven into (divorced),28 or to throw himself about (defiled) – she cannot be as one flailing about for the things advancing forward in experience.

The text says to tell Aharon that a man from among his seed that has a defect may not approach in order to bring close the bread of his God. Allegorically, this means that when a person is bringing things to light (Aharon),29 being mentally persistent (a man)16 and scattering oneself about as a seed with the intent to insert oneself into a particular aspect of experience,30 there can be no defect (מום) that would prevent him from approaching for the purpose of bringing forward what is to be closely gotten into (bread)31 of God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim). His being mentally persistent cannot manifest a blindness (עור), or a limping about (פסח), or a being exhausted (חרום),32 or a behaving superfluously (שרוע). Additionally, an act of being mentally persistent (man) may not be overly contemplative (broken),33 traipsing about experience (leg);34 or be overly contemplative of reaching out into experience (hand);35 or excessively hover over something (hump backed);36 or overly examine something (thin),37 or be muddled (blemished) in its making observations (eye),38,39 or drag itself along (scurvy),40 or overly clinging to things (scabbed),41 or over-extending itself allowing itself to become hedged in (of elongated testicles).42,43 Any such way of being mentally persistent (man)16 shall not approach more closely toward what can be gotten into (bread)31 of God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).3 He shall not be able to come into the act of vigorously going over a scene and threshing over the many details (פרכת veil),44 nor shall he approach the act of flowing forth of oneself to experience (מזבח altar).45

As was pointed out in a previous blog, the mental functions represented by Aharon (one’s bringing things to light)29 differs from Israel (one’s making of a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience)46 in that the former is more purposeful and deliberate, while the latter is aimless yet comprehensive. For this reason, Aharon and his children (associated behaviors) must keep themselves away from the holy things (things brought forward)7 of Israel, so that they do not defile the particular thing put forward (שם name)47 of what God brings forward specifically for them. Were a person who is trying to bring to light the specific things being brought forward in experience by God to involve themselves with the abundance that comes forward in making a sustained survey of experience, that person would quickly become overwhelmed and mentally preoccupied with those things. Therefore, any act of being mentally persistent (man) that is narrowed in upon (by something in experience) (leprous)48 or excessively pouring forth (to something in experience)(with a discharge)49 cannot embrace of the many things brought forward in experience (eat holy things), until such time as he is mentally available (ritually pure) – nor can an act of being mentally persistent (man) that comes out of him a hedging in of the ability to scatter about so as to engage something in experience (a laying down of seed)50,30 or one that shall touch any act of running about rampant (teeming creature)51 such that it is made mentally unavailable with respect to it (ritually impure). Any act of being estranged (זר stranger) shall not embrace what is brought forward in experience (what is holy). An act of being settled down and resigned (תושב settler)52 of one giving something mindful attention (kohaen) or one needing to be prodded (שכיר laborer),53 shall not embrace what is brought forward in experience (eat of what is holy).

Additionally, when a man from the house of Israel brings an olah offering there can be no defect in it. This represents a person’s being mentally persistent (man) with something that has come in (house)54 from experience as a result of his having made a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward (Israel).46 Whether it is an act of being mentally occupied with something (עלה olah)55 through an act of making an investigation (בקר cattle)56 with the things that are heaped up (כשבים sheep)57 or with the things that are of intensity (עזים goats);58 or whether it is an act of flowing forth of oneself yielding to many things regarding God’s bringing forth of existence (peace offering)59,60 through an act of making an investigation (בקר cattle)56 or through an act of considering a scene from a distance (צאן flock)61 – in order for it to be acceptable there must be no defect. There cannot be with it a selective blindness, nor an act of looking clear past something,33 nor an act of looking with tunnel vision – being decidedly bent upon something (חרוץ),62 nor an act of gushing forth too heavily (יבלת),63 nor an act of dragging through something, nor an act of relentlessly clinging to something. Furthermore, an act of staring fixedly upon something (שור ox)64 or an act of uninhibitedly longing for something (שה youngling)65may be superfluously prolonged (שרוע) or abridged (קלוט)66 when a person is voluntarily dedicating attention (נדבה)67 to a scene, but as an act of extreme devotion, one of devoting oneself to something exclusively (ignoring all else)(נדר),68 it shall not be accepted. A person may not bring to God’s bringing forth of existence a being suppressed and beaten down (מעוך), a being crushed (כתות), a being torn away (נתוק), and a being severed and cut off (כרות). Lastly, it shall not be acceptable to bring forth what can be gotten into very closely (bread)31 of God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim)3 from the hand of one is only vaguely familiar (with experience)(נכר foreigner).69

The text says that when an ox, or a sheep, or a goat shall be born; it must be with its mother for seven days. Then on the eighth day and beyond it is acceptable as an offering. Allegorically, this means that when staring fixedly upon something (שור ox)64 or when mentally processing something that is heaped up (כשב sheep)57 or of great intensity (עז goat)58 – it must be under (the eye) of being (mindfully) ever present with it (mother),9 whatever bubbles up of stirring things (7 days).70 Then on the day of the person’s exuding outward (eighth)21 and beyond (staring fixedly) it can be regarded as a way of approaching God’s bringing forth of existence. In other words, when one is intently observing something, perhaps because there is much of it or because it is very intense, it is necessary to be mindful of it while things bubble up with it. Thereafter, when it has been sufficiently observed it, one can approach and engage it.

The text goes on to say that an ox or a youngling cannot be slaughtered with its young on the same day. Allegorically, this means that an act of staring fixedly upon something (שור ox)64 or an act of uninhibitedly longing for something (שה youngling)65 and any activity that may be associated with it (its son) cannot be leaned into (slaughtered)71 in an event of being mentally sharp (one day).72 In other words, one can not stare at something or long for something while at the same time engaging that something – and still be mentally sharp. While it is acceptable to acknowledge things encountered in experience – represented by one’s making of an offering of acknowledgment (תודה thanksgiving)73 – it should be done in that moment and not allowed to extend into (excessive) investigation (בוקר morning).56 Because rather than acknowledging everything that can be acknowledged in experience, what is most important is to observe and engage with the specific thing that God is bringing forth to you in experience. It is of utmost importance not to disregard (defile) what is put forward (שם name)47 of what is brought forward specifically by God (“my holy things”).7 Because the specific thing being brought forth by God (God’s bringing forth of existence) must be brought forward (sanctified) while also making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).46 Because God is the one bringing us out from the land of Egypt – from the disposing of oneself to the act of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim).74,75

It is at this point in the text that the chagim (festivals) are again addressed. The word for festival, Chag (חג), literally means “an event of drawing in”76 and allegorically signifies one’s drawing into the experiences created for us by God. They are also referred to as holy gatherings, Moadim (מועדים), a word that literally means “a time of enduring presence” and allegorically signifies a person’s being enduringly, mentally present.77 I have addressed the basic allegorical themes of the festivals before:

Leaping from Pesach into the Recounting of the Omer

Metaphorical Significance of Lag BaOmer

Sh’vuot – the holiday of fulfillment

Seventh Month: Mental Sharpness, Humility and Joy

After a discussion of the festivals, the text reminds us that the Israelites are to bring to Moshe pure olive oil for the candles that are to be burned in the m’norah. Allegorically, the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel) are to bring in the data that exudes of experience (oil)21 – perfectly clear and consolidated78 – for the sake of shedding light upon a scene. This is to be done from evening (ערב) unto morning (בוקר), so as to move from a state of confusion (ערב)79 about a situation, unto an act of making an investigation (בקר).56 Because the oil is brought by the children of Israel, representing acts that I have previously described as aimless yet comprehensive, this occurs outside of the veil (פרכת parochet). Which is to say that it does not involve the act of vigorously going over a scene and threshing over the many details (פרכת veil)44 of many evident things (עדות testimony). Instead, through the act of becoming familiar with things (אהל tent) of being enduringly mentally present (מועד meeting),80 the mental faculty bringing things to light (Aharon)29 lays it out.

Following this Moshe (a person’s mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience)81 is instructed to make twelve challot (חלות). From the Semitic root HhalaL (חלל) meaning “to break up, dissolve, permeate, pass through and analyze,” it represents acts of passing through and permeating a scene as a means of scooping up data.82 Moshe is to put the challot in rows upon the ritually pure table. Allegorically, upon an act repetitively engaging things (table),83 in being mentally clear and available (ritually pure), our Moshe is to make valuations (rows)84 of what is attained from experience. After putting upon them clear priorities (לבנה זכה),85 they are to be regarded as what is to be gotten into of experience (לחם bread).31 It is to be arranged before HaShem. Allegorically, this means that it is to be evaluated with regard to the many things being presented86 of God’s bringing forth of existence, when an experience settles in (Shabbat).87 It is what is especially brought forward (holy of holies)7 from experience for the act of bringing things to light (Aharon)29 and its associated behaviors (sons) to embrace it (eat).88

A theme that is repetitively (although allegorically) touched upon in this parshah is not to miss what is specifically and intentionally put forth in experience by God while making a broader, comprehensive survey of experience. This is why I called this blog: “Regarding God, Don’t Miss the Tree for the Forest.” The Hebrew word for name (שם ShaeM) evolved from the verb SYM-SuM (שים שום)47 meaning “to put, place, label, arrange, and apply.” Allegorically, the name of anything or anyone represents what it puts forth in experience or how it applies itself in experience. Nine times in this and the previous parashah, we are warned not to defile or curse the name (haShem) which represents what is put forth in experience in general – whether of God’s guidance (Elohim),3 or of what is brought forward of God (“my holiness”).7

In the final story of this parashah, there is a son of an Israelite woman and of an Egyptian man. He represents a behavior (בן)11 of conducting oneself through experience (אשה)26 while making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward (Israel)46 and at the same time being mentally persistent (איש)16 narrowing in upon particular things (מצרי).75 While mentally attending to what is commonly found in experience (in the camp),89 there is a wrangling between this behavior and an act of being mentally persistent of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward. In other words, this represents a wrangling between being mentally persistent with both a particular thing while also trying to be mentally persistent with an expansive view of a situation. On the peshat, the behavior curses and makes light (קלל)90 of the name.47 However, the verb used to mean “to curse” (נקב) also means “to channel into, designate, and make a pronouncement.” So allegorically, while conducting oneself through a situation, the person points out (designates) what is put forth in experience and then makes light of it. What follows are mitsvot admonishing a person against making light of God’s guidance being presented in experience and against cursing what is put forth of God’s bringing forth of existence. Furthermore, there are admonishments against striking (down) the soul-spirit of being thoughtfully absorbed with experience (אדם human)91 and against striking down the soul-spirit of pushing inward (so as to make observations of experience) (בהמה herd animal).92 Because any defect in doing so would have to be compensated for with a new one of equal value – an act of contemplation in place of the (defective) act of contemplation (break),33 an act of observation (eyeing) in place of the (defective) act of observation (eye),33 an act of sharply imposing oneself in place of the (defective) act of sharply imposing oneself (tooth).93

In the end, they took the act of making light of experience to a place of focus and concentration – away from (outside of) mentally attending to what was common and prosaic (the camp).89 There they pelted it with the thing in experience that stood out most prominently, represented by a stone.94 After all, the perfect punishment for ignoring what is important is forcing a person to not ignore what is important! (As opposed to killing him, which is what the peshat uses as a metaphor-allegory).

Notes:
1 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10)
2 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle
3 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
4 – impure, unclean (טמא TaMae/) The evolution of this root begins with TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast). From there, TaM (טם) means “flood, inundate, overwhelming” in Arabic; “stop up, block, closely packed, solid, dense, opaque, repress, restrain; repressed, coerced” in Syriac; plaited in Akkadian; and TaMaM (טמם) is “filled / crowded to capacity” in Amharic. Essentially, these roots mean squeezed in > overstuffed > overwhelmed.
5 – master, lord, husband, owner (בעל Ba\al) Allegorically: an act of probing. The verb Ba\aL (בעל) means to engage in sexual intercourse (Dt21:13;24:1). From there it comes to mean husband > master, owner. Ba’al the Canaanite god of the rain storms means “fructifier.” The verb evolved from Ba\aH (בעה – to probe, search).
6 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
7 – Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
8 – relative (שאר Sh’/aeR) Allegorically: passion, overflowing, expanding outward. This root is related to Sha/aR (שאר) to remain, be in excess and S’uR (שאור – leaven, what overflows). According to Jastro, the root also conveys the idea of bodily contact and intimacy > passion. The root evolved from /uR (אור – light) which literally means “what emanates outward.” Hence: /oRoTh (אורות) weeds (emanating outward), herbs; /aWiR (אויר open space, air); ממארת cancerous, malignant; and Nile (יאור – Y’/oR) “what forms a delta, emanating outwards.
9 – mother (/aeM – אם) Allegorically: being mentally present. It literally means “who or what that is ever present” It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence); /aYaM (אים) foreboding literally means “an ever present feeling,” and m’/uMaH (מאומה) something literally means “a thing of that is ever present” and /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe).
10 – father /aBh (אב) derives from /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
11 – sons (בנים) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
12 – daughter (BaT – בת) Allegorically: decisive. Technically comes from the feminine of son (BeN – בן), hence (BeNt – בנת). Although the letter nun (נ) drops out. However, the allegorical meaning for daughter comes from a different, rarely used root BuT (בות) which in Arabic means “cut off, sever, complete, finish, achieve, carry out, fix, settle, decide, determine; final decision.”
13 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
14 – sister (אחות – /aChoT) technically derived from (אח – /aCh, brother). However, the allegorical use is not related to this etymology. Instead, it is based on the root ChaTaT (חתת) meaning to press down upon, to subdue, and to frighten. Therefore, the allegory means “what subdues in experience.”
15 – virgin (בתולה B’TuLaH) Allegorically: a thing forced into. An expansion of the rarely used root BuT (בות) which literally means “to force into.” Hence in Arabic, it means “to cut off, sever, complete, finish, achieve, carry out, fix, settle, decide, determine; final decision.”
16 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
17 – ZaNAH (זנה – (to flail) > prostitute), which evolved into ZaNaBh (זנב – (flail) > tail) and distribution > sustenance (maZoN – מזון) and ear (אוזן – /oZeN) literally meaning “what turns back and forth > flails” initially referring to the movements of a non human ear such as a dog.
18 – to burn (שרף SaRaPh) Allegorically: to extract and oversee. This root literally means “what is released > to make dissipate, to cause to secrete and draw out resin, to coat with resin.” It evolved from the root RaPhaH (רפה) to loosen and release. In Arabic the two related roots mean: (release>) (SaRaPh) to dissipate, squander, exceed all bounds, immodest, overdo, to be extravagant > (ShaRaPh) be highborn, noble, look down upon, oversee, supervision
19 – Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) Allegorically: an act of being mentally persistent. From /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
20 – great, big, complex, interwoven, intricate (גדול GaDoL) Allegorically: the one of that weaves together many intricate things. From GaDaL (גדל) from GaD (גד) to cut across. Hence its etymology: to cut across > braid / weave / twist, make intricate / elaborate > to pile up / grow larger; can be seen in the Syriac: to twist, plait, interweave, compose words artfully, make intricate plans; and Arabic: to stretch a rope > to braid / plait, (interwoven argument >) to debate, bicker, contest, and dispute
21 – oil (שמן – SheMeN) – eight (שמונה – Sh’MoneH) literally mean “what exudes outward.” It evolved from the verb MaNaH (מנה) – to distribute, count, assign, classify. The number is possibly based on the image of putting the two hands together palms down, with the thumbs tucked under the palms with eight fingers splayed out like the exuding of oil (or maybe not).
22 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
23 – to wear, layer clothing (לבש – LaBhaSh) A comparison of related words indicate that this root means to layer out and stratify things such as , LaBhaBh (to layer a cake – לבב), ShaLaBh (to join layers, rungs of a ladder – שלב), HhaLaBh (milk, what layers out – חלב) and L’BhoNah (frankincense, what layers out – לבונה)
24 – clothing (בגד BeGeD) Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From the (probably unrelated) root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
25 – make unruly, disorderly (hair) (פרע) Related to Pharaoh: one’s chaotically attempting to attend to too many things in experience. From (Ex5:4)(CrII28:19) from PaRa\ (פרע) to cause to disengage, cause disorder, chaos
26 – wife (/eeShaH – אשה) It is believe that the words forth husband-man (/eeSh – איש) and wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) are not related etymologically. Perhaps, wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) is related to its plural (NaShiM – נשים). This word is related to NaSa/ (נשה) which like NaSa/ (נשא) means to lift up and carry along. Thus wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) could mean “one who lifts up and carries.” Allegorically, based on this and context, it means “one’s conducting oneself through experience.”
27 – widow (אלמנה /aLmaNaH) Allegorically: bound up, resolved, concentrated, silenced. From the root /aLaM (אלם) to bind, be silenced, but also strong and maintaining anger.
28 – divorced (גרושה G’RuShaH) Allegorically: driving into and thus driven out. From GaRaSH (גרש) understood from Hebrew “to divorce” but compare גרש (Akk- to move towards, stride, copulate with); (Arb- (drive into >) grind, crush, grate, bruise); (Syr- to challenge, stir up). Derived from GuR > GRH literally meaning to draw > drive into. From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
29 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
30 – seed (זרע – ZeRa\) meaning to scatter, but practically also suggests implantation > engagement. Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter. And expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
31 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined > escort). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
32 – flat nosed (perforated nasal septum (Klein)) (חרום ChaRuM) Allegorically: being exhausted (petered out – see Arabic). The roots HhaRaM (חרם) with a secondary (evolved) form of ChaRaM (חרם) evolved from the hiphil of RuM (רום to lift up), HaRyM (הרים) meaning to lift up > remove. In Arabic which still distinguishes between the two forms HhaRaM (חרם) means “take away, deny, exclude, prohibit, declare sacred” while ChaRaM (חרם) means “to carry away / off destroy, annihilate, come to an end, peter out.” The Akkadian means :to cut off, to separate.” To complicate matters more, there is another ChaRaM (חרם) that evolved from ChaRaH (חרה to poke, prod, poke through and perforate) where ChaRaM (חרם) means “net.” This actually might be the source of the perforated nasal septum > flat nose.
33 – broken (שבר SheBheR) Allegorically: overly contemplative. The root ShaBhaR (שבר) literally means “to go clear though” hence it means to break, break apart, shatter, smash, crash, to distribute-buy-sell provision (?broken pieces); and for a wave to break. However, its secondarily evolved form SaBhaR (שבר) means to contemplate, look to and hope for. There is an identical noun SheBheR (שבר) meaning “interpretation” or more correctly break down > analysis that indicates the transition between the two. Additionally, most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening), שבר (break, literally means “to go clear through”)
34 – leg (רגל – ReGeL) From the verb RaGaL (רגל) to walk about, traipse, spy, and deliver false reports
35 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /UD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
36 – hump backed (גבן GiBaeN) Allegorically: excessively hover over something. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; NaGaB (נגב) – Akk: to pile up; In Aramaic and Hebrew to be dry (probably because the NeGeB is dry); in Arabic – highborn, high minded > noble; (hover over) > to pick, choose, select, distinguish; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over).
37 – thin (דק DaQ) Allegorically: (excessively) particularly examined. It is derived from the verb DaQaQ (דקק to beat into particles > to crush > be-make thin) which in turn evolved from the root DaQ (דק to pound, beat, powder, particulate, particular, punctilious, examine carefully).
38 – blemish-smear (תבלול T’BhaLuL) Allegorically: muddles, confused, mixed up. From BaLaL (בלל) to mix up, confuse. Related to BaLaL (בלל) in Akkadian: to mix up, alloy; join battle; muddle, upset, smear, be numb, deep in sleep)
39 – eye (עין \ayin) Allegorically: to eye, make observations. From \oN (עון to eye > observe) and related to \aNaH (ענה) to turn (unclear if eye is based on the curved shaped of the eye or the turning one does to see or both).
40 – ?scurvy, a type of bruise or skin (גרב GaRaBh) Allegorically: to drag along. From the root GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; having evolved from GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out/divorce; SaGaR(סגר) to close in upon
41 – scabbed (ילפת YaLePheT) Allegorically: overly clinging to things vs looking about. From (לפת) to cling to, wrap around, twine around, twist around. For alternative (vs) see Arabic: turn about, look around, incline; inclination, attention
42 – elongated (crushed) (מרוח M’RoaHh) Allegorically: over-extending oneself. From the root MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out (Is38:21) Roots with R.Hh. (רח) essentially mean “to move back and forth on the horizontal plain > wide. RaWaHh (רוח – wide) > RuWaHh (רוח) wind > breath > spirit. RaHhaM (רחם) womb, compassion, intestines – means facilitating width-expansiveness for someone or something; RaHhaBh (רחב) wide; RaHhaPh (רחף) to move back and forth, hover; RaHhaL (רחל) Arabic – to roam, wander about, set out from a place, without direction; ewe (one who wanders off when pregnant); RaHhaQ (רחק) to be-go far; RaHhaSh (רחש) to move, stir, flutter (heart); frying pan; Akk- to move, to set in motion; RaHhaTs (רחץ) to wash; /aRaHh (ארח) to travel > YaRaeHh (ירח) (traveler) > moon. MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out
43 – testicles (אשך /eSheKh) Allegorically: hedged in. Evolved from the verb ShuKh (שׁוך – to cordon off), from SuKh (שוך – to hedge in). Ralated verbs: ShaKhaBh (שכב – to snuggle up, huddle, lie up against, lay down); ShaKhaR (שכר – to become drunk)(= hedged in); HhaShaKh (חשך) to darken, be dark; HhaSaKh (חשך) to withhold; NaShaKh (נשך) to bite, take a bite off;
44 – veil, (פרכת PaRoChet) Allegorically: the act of vigorously going over a scene and threshing over the many details. From the root PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub. Having evolved from the unattested root PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck.
45 – altar (מזבח – miZBae’aHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering
46 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
47 – name (שם – ShaeM) from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
48 – leprous? (צרוע TsaRu’a\), leprosy? (צרעת – TsaRa\aT). Allegorically: the condition of tsara\at refers to a situation or an experience that narrows in upon a person. It evolved from TsaRaH (צרה narrow), from TsuR (צור – narrow in). Although this skin condition is often referred to as leprosy, whatever it is can also affect the fabric of one’s clothing and the walls of one’s home – which leprosy does not. Related to the word (צרע TaRa\) literally means “to narrow in upon or to be narrowed in.” In Sabaic, it means “to damage, harm, defeat, humiliate, and to bring someone to submission.” While the two cognates in Arabic mean: “to throw down, bring to the ground, wrestle, have a seizure, be crazy, and to succumb to something” and “to be humble, be submissive, beg, and to abase oneself.”
49 – (genital) discharge (זב ZaBh) Allegorically: excessively pouring forth (to something in experience); from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow)
50 – laying down of (שכבת ShiKhBhaT) Allegorically: hedgiing in of. From ShaKhaBh (שכב – to snuggle up, huddle, lie up against, lay down). Evolved from the verb ShuKh (שׁוך – to cordon off), from SuKh (שוך – to hedge in). Related verbs: ShaKhaR (שכר – become drunk)(= hedged in); HhaShaKh (חשך) to darken, be dark; HhaSaKh (חשך) to withhold; NaShaKh (נשך) to bite, take a bite off;/eSheKh (אשך) testicles )(what is cordoned off / hedged in).
51 – teem (שרץ – SheReTs) Allegorically: running rampant. Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
52 – settler (תושב ToShaBh) Allegorically: being settled down and resignedץ From YaShaBh (ישב) to sit, to settle. This verb evolved from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still) and the root (שבת – ShaBhaT) meaning (to settle down) > cease, rest.
53 – hired worker (שכיר –SaKhyR) a person who must be prodded (dug into) by experience. From the verb SaKhaR (שכר – to hire) which probably evolved from KaRaH (כרה – to dig).
54 – house (בית – BayiT) from Bo/ (בוא – to come in). Technically, it means “place of coming in” but based in context the allegory uses it as “the coming in of something from experience” or “what comes in from experience.”
55 – ascension offering (עולה – \oLaH) Allegorically: an act of meandering about mentally busying oneself with things. From \aLaL (עלל) to meander about, to busy oneself, even though the peshat is from \aLaH (עלה) to be about > above > to ascend.
56 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigates) & morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
57 – sheep (כשב KeSeBh) lit: fluffy, Allegorically: heaped up, accumulation. Related to: KeSeBh (כּשׂב) (Arb- heaped up >) gain, win, earn, acquire (profit, knowledge) which evolved from: KaShaH (כשה)(hollow >) swell up, >>>>>>> become profitable, grow fat (Dt32:15). As opposed to (כבש KeBheS) literally > pushed down upon > matted.
58 – goats (עזים \iZim) is derived from the word \aZ (עז) meaning strong and intense. This is related to the Akkadian \eZeZu meaning to be / become angry or full of rage.
59 – offering (זבח – ZaBhaHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
60 – peace offerings (שלמים) Allegorically: yielding to or submiting oneself to things; from the root ShaLaM (שלם suspend, complete, submit, make peace, make restitution). The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate.
61 – flock (צאן – Tso/N) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
62 – maimed (חרוץ) Allegorically: an act of looking with tunnel vision – being decidedly bent upon something. From the root HharaTs (חרץ) (to poke out, take a stab at, wound, stick out, pierce through, cut through, channel, groove).
63 – wart-withered growth (יבלת YaBheLeT) Allegorically: an act of gushing forth too heavily. From YaBhaL (יבל) to flow, but there happens to be another YaBhaL meaning to wither.
64 – ox (ShuR – שור) This root means to be fixed either physically or visually. Hence, physically (wall, ox, umbilical cord) and visually (to get a fix on (see) (Nm23:9,24:17)(Hs14:9))
65 – youngling (שה – SeH) from the verb ShaHaH (שהה – to stay, remain, stand still, dwell, tarry, pause). The Arabic cognate means: “desire, wish, covet, crave, long, arouse greed, whet the appetite; sensual, sensuous, libidinous, lustful, uninhibited.”
66 – stunted, retracted, lacking parts? (קלוט) Allegorically: unreasonably abridged. The root QaLaT (קלט) literally means “to draw up and away.” Jastro translates QaLyT (קליט) as a suction or gorge. The general meaning is “to suck in, absorb, retract, intercept.”
67 – free will offering (נדבה N’DaBhaH) Allegorically: devote oneself > an act of dedicating attention. The root NaDaBh (נדב) (to be flowing forth vigorously) > give willingly / generously, volunteer, In Arabic: bewail, scar over, assign (task), apply / devote o.s, be willing, stand ready. The root evolved from the unattested root DaBhaH (דבה) whose meaning “to flow (?vigorously?)” can be seen in (דבדב)(Amh- attack, beat, slam, pound; (דוב)(Amh- tumble down, thud; (דבא) (force, effort) strength, prime (Dt33:25)(דּבּ)(Arb – crawl, creep, move slowly, go on all fours, fill, pervade, invade, stream in, rush in; bear, sand hill, tiny animal, insect)(דּאבּ)(Arb – (extend outward) persist, persevere, tireless, apply / devote o.s, practice eagerly, addicted)
68 – vow (נדר NeDeR) Allegorically: an act of extreme devotion, one of devoting oneself exclusively (ignoring all else). This root evolved from NaZaR (נזר) to turn away from, separate from.
69 – foreigner (נכר NaeKhaR) Allegorically: one is only vaguely familiar (with experience). From the verb: (piel) to make of the status of vague acquaintance; acquaint (SmI23:7); recognize (Jb21:29;34:19); make unfamiliar (Jr19:4); make an error in recognition, misjudge (Dt32:27).
70 – seven (שבע Sheva/). Although with a shin, this word appears to have been derived from the similar root with a letter sin, SaBha\ understood as satiated, it derives from either NaBha\ (נבע – to swell or well up) or Ba\aH (בעה – to bubble up, boil). Perhaps it means the number seven because it fulfills a period of one week, although this too is not completely clear. Metaphorically, from context and this etymology it means “being satiated by what bubbles up” or just “a bubbling up of something. YoM (יום – day), from HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.”
71 – slaughter (people or animals) (שחט – ShaChaT) from HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). Compare cognates: Ugaritic: butcher, slaughterer; Arabic: be annoyed / displeased / angry, to resent, wrath; exasperation; Syriac: to harm, mar, abuse, impair, vitiate, infringe, violate (law / woman)
72 – one (/eHhaD – אחד) Allegorically: mental sharpness. This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
73 – offering of thanksgiving (תודה ToDaH) Allegorically: acknowledging of something. From the root YaDaH (ידה – to point out) (related to YaD (יד) hand – which can be used with neutral, positive and negative connotations. In a neutral context, it means to acknowledge. While in a negative context, it means to blame or acknowledge guilt. Positively, it means to praise.
74 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor)
75 – Mitsraim (מצרים). Allegorically, one’s feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in. This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s viusally narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh.
76 – pilgrimage (חג – HhaG), “an act of drawing in” from the verb HhaGaG (חגג) to make a pilgrimage; from HhuG (חוג) to draw inward > make a circle; from HaGaH (הגה – draw inward > ponder); from GaWaH (גוה draw inward)
77 – appointed time, meeting (מועד Mo\aeD) Allegorically: being enduringly (mentally) present. The following roots all mean: “to endure in place or time.”testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD)
78 – pure (זך ZaKh) “clear” from ZaKhaKh (זכך – (visually bright) be clear, pure) AND pressed (כתית KaTyT) “succinctly consolidated“ from KaTaT (כתת – to pound, smash together). All KaTa* verbs essentially mean to press-impress-compress; such as KaTaBh (כתב – to write), KaTaL (כתל wall; Arabic – to press into, compact, mass),KaTaR (כתר – huddle, croud in on), KaTaPh (כתף – shoulder joint), KaTaSh (כתש – crush, compress)
79 – evening (ערב – \aRaBh) derived from \aRaH (ערה – to pour) > \aRaBh (ערב – to mix, confuse), evening being a time of mixing of day and night. From \aRaBh > \gaRaBh (ערב).
80 – tent of meeting (אהל מועד /oHeL Mo\aeD) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar of being enduringly (mentally) present. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude).” The following roots all mean: “to endure in place or time.”testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD);
81 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplified: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
82 – one (אחת /aChaT) Allegorically: scooping up. Actually from /aChaDT (אחדת) > /aChaT (אחת) from one (/eHhaD – אחד) This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen. HOWEVER, the allegory of /aChaT is from the verb HhaTaH (חתה) to scoop up.
83 – table (שלחן ShuLHhaN) Allegorically: acts of repetitively getting into things more closely. Formed by prefixing Shin and suffixing Nun to LuaHh (לוח tablet, board), from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined).
84 – rows (arranged, arrangement) (מערכת ma\aReKhet) Allegorically: valuations. From the verb \aRaKh (ערך) meaning to arrange, prepare, compare, valuate, estimate.
85 – frankincense (לבונה L’BhoNah) Allegorically: priority. Related to Lavan (לבן) meaning both white and brick. The verb means to layer bricks. A comparison of related words indicate that this root means to layer out and stratify things such as LaBhaSh (to layer clothing – לבש), LaBhaBh (to layer a cake – לבב), ShaLaBh (to join layers, rungs of a ladder – שלב), HhaLaBh (milk, what layers out – חלב) and L’BhoNah (frankincense, what layers out – לבונה). In Arabic it means undertaking, enterprise, object, wish, aim, and goal; thus indicating that it also means “what layers to the top” or is given a priority (aim / goal)
86 – before (לפני LiPh’Nay) from PaNim (פנים face) but literally meaning faces (because a person has many presentations in one’s face), from the root PaNaH (פנה – to face > turn). Allegorically meaning: many faces > aspects > presentations.
87 – Sabbath (שבת – Shabbat). This verb evolved from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still). So the root (שבת – ShaBhaT) means (to settle down) > cease, rest, but allegorically also has a meaning of settling in.
88 – eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
89 – camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
90 – to curse (קלל QaLaL) Allegorically-literally: to make light of. From the verb QaLaL(קלל) to be light > to be swift
91 – human (אדם – /aDaM) evolved from DaMAH (דמה – to make comparisons, to think) which evolved from DuM (דום – be still, silent). Also related ground (/aDaMah – אדמה) comes from the root DuM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparitive Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
92 – herd animal (בהמה – B’HaeMaH) This word evolved from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
93 – tooth (שן ShaeN) Allegorically: imposing, sharp. from ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat), from /aNaH (אנה – to impose)
94 – stone (/eBheN – אבן), from the root BuN (בון – to be or project between), literally means “what sticks out prominently.”

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Hans Wehr. Ed by J Milton Cowan (1979) Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, NY: Published in the United States by Spoken Languages Services, Inc with permission of Otto Harrassowitz

Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, eds., A Concise Dictionary ofAkkadian, 2nd corrected printing (Santag Arbeiten und Untersuchungen Zur Keilschriftkunde, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000)

Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.

Judaic Classics by David Kantrowitz version 3.4, 1991 – 2009. Institute for computers in Jewish Life. Davka Corp and /or Judaica Press Inc.

About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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