David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Shophtim – Clarification through a Well-aimed Gaze

Virtue signaling aside, “righteousness, righteousness – you shall pursue” is one of my favorite lines of Torah. Nevertheless, from an allegorical perspective the word TseDeQ (צדק) actually means to be particular in making observations.1 God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim),2 sets the stage of potential experiences. Nevertheless, it is our responsibility to behave as planners – by directing and aiming one’s gaze (שטר)3 – and to make the clarifications (שפט)4 needed when taking notice of things in our being stirred up by them (gates).5 We must make clarifications of particular detail (משפט צדק) of the many things that crowd in from experience about which we are mindful (people)6 while weaving throughout experience (שבט tribes).7 In order for us to live lively lives and for us to drive into and take possession (ירש) of the ways for us to dispose of ourselves to experience (land)8 that God gives us, these clarifications must be free of distortions and bias and they must not be influenced by anything that one might find (inappropriately) enticing (bribes).9 Because the entire purpose is to engage the experience available to us, we mustn’t implant false assurances (Asherah)10 – any difficulties (trees)11 alongside our ability to flow forth to experience (altar)12 – nor should there be acts of rigidity (מצבות pillars)13 that could hamper the ability to engage.

Once observations of particular detail have been obtained, a decision must be made. It is counter productive to try to flow forth (זבח offer)12 to experience – being both rigidly focused on one thing (שור ox)14 while also expressing an uninhibited craving for some other thing that may come (שה yearling).15 If you should find that the act of being mentally persistent (man)16 or of conducting yourself through experience (woman)17 is performing poorly in making observations of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim)2 such that there is a transgressing of a clear understanding of It (לעבר בריתו) -18 while instead there is a laying out to other forms of guidance (אלהים אחרים)2 – then you must investigate well (דרש היטב). If it is true, then you must pelt this act of being mentally persistent (man)16 or of conducting yourself through experience (woman)17 with what prominently sticks out in experience (stones > facts)19 such that they are killed off (מת).20 Nevertheless, this must be based upon the coming in of repetitive evidence (two witnesses)21 or what is dangling about of what is evident in experience (three witnesses)22 – it shall not be drawn away (killed off) upon the coming in of what is evident in experience that is an enigma or conundrum (אחד one (witness)).23

If it is too difficult for you to correctly clarify the many details taken notice of by you in your being stirred up (gates)5 then you must go to the confrontation that arises (place)24 selected for you by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).2 There you must come into the acts of giving things precise and mindful attention (Kohaen),25 the acts of mentally clinging to a scene and thus generating an awareness of many startling things (Levites),26 and thus the ability to make clarifications (שפט).4 Then you will investigate and make inquiries (דרש). Thereafter, you must perform as these mental faculties instruct you. The act of being mentally persistent (man)16 that shall perform presumptuously, proudly, rashly or arrogantly (בזדון) so as not to hearken to the act of giving something precise and mindful attention (Kohaen)25 – which fixes its sights upon God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim)2 or the ability to make clarifications (שפט) – must be completely drawn away (מת).

If a King is desired:
If you shall come into the act of disposing of oneself in experience (land)8 given you by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim)2 and you shall decide to place upon yourself an act of deliberation (king)27 in accord with the many things drawing in from experience (nations)28 all around – such an act of deliberation must be based upon the mental faculty pointing things out to you regarding experience (brothers).29 It may not be based upon an act of being mentally persistent with things in experience that is of a mere vague acquaintance (foreigner).30 Such deliberation may not increase upon itself an abundance of things that rear up from experience (horses)31 such that the act of being mindful of what crowds in from experience (people)6 returns to the act of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in (Mitsraim).32 Nor shall it increase upon itself many acts of conducting oneself through experience (wives)17 so as to distract its will. Nor shall it increase upon itself an excess of lasting impressions (silver)33 or of fleeting impressions (gold).34 Finally, the many impressions (כסא throne)35 of its deliberation must be based upon the impressions made (כתב)36 of a repetition (copy)37 of what is thrown out into the light (Torah)38 upon a recounting (ספר)39 of the acts of giving things precise and mindful attention (Kohaen),25 the acts of mentally clinging to a scene and thus generating an awareness of many startling things (Levites).26

Offerings for the Priests:
The offerings granted to the Kohanim from the people represent the behaviors utilized in order to give the details of experience precise and mindful attention (Kohaen).25 The material to which they mentally attend come from the acts of being mindful of what crowds in from experience (people)6 – be it of acts of visually fixing on things (שור ox)14 or as a result of a more frenzied craving for things (שה yearling)15 from experience. They engage the details of experience by scattering about a scene (זרוע arm),40 by getting in intimately close to things so as to engage (לחיים jaw),41 and by channeling in so as to penetrate and excavate something so as to attain a greater understanding (קבה stomach).42 Additional material for precise mindfulness comes through the seeing (ראשית first)43 associated with your hovering about so as to become acquainted (דגנך grain),44 of your driving in (תירשך juice, wine),45 and of your narrowing in so as to make things perfectly clear (יצהרך oil)46 and the seeing (ראשית first)43 of what is sheared off from experience as a result of your considering things in experience from a distance (flocks).47

Abhorrent Practices and Witchcraft:
You shall not behave like the abhorrent practices of the acts of heedlessly drawing into experience (גוים nations),28 causing your actions to transgress (מעביר) beyond the act of being mentally persistent (fire)48 – being one who makes hasty and uninformed decisions (קסם soothsayer);49 being one who speculates (מעונן observes omens);50 and being one who senses things through intuition (מנחש diviner);51 and being as one who pulls away – misfiring and failing to launch (מכשף witch);52 and being one basing a belief on anecdotal experience (חבר charmer);53 and being one who suspends action and inquires of a voice given forth as if from nowhere (שאל אוב),54 and regularly behaving as if in the know (ידעני),55 and being one who inquires of and investigates the many things completely drawn away (דרש המתים inquires of the dead).20 On the other hand, you must be completely and entirely with God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim).2 For God shall establish a(n internal) prophetic-rant (נביא)56 as a result of your approaching more closely (מקרבך),57 as a result of the mental faculty pointing things out to you regarding experience (brother).29 If what this rant reports shall come to be, then it is from HaShem. If its words are ultimately presumptive or rash (זדון) then do not listen to them.

Setting Aside Cities (of Refuge):
If God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim),2 shall give forth to you the disposing of oneself (land)8 associated with the acts of heedlessly drawing into experience (גוים nations)28 – the stirring situations associated with them (their cities)58 and the many things coming in of them (their homes).59 You should set apart for yourself a suspending of the situations stirred up (three cities)22, 58 so that one feeling meek and subdued (passive of רוצח)60 may flee there. Because in feeling meek and subdued, he shall strike upon what he perceives-receives from experience (his friend)61 without acknowledging (the thing) – that he is not imposing himself (hating)62 with regard to it – as a result of that which is attenuated at the frayed edge of awareness (yesterday),63 those easily drawn away from awareness (day before yesterday).64 Given that he shall come in aligned with that which he perceives-receives from experience (רעהו)61 in the place of being stirred up (יער forest),65 in order to incline into the many things that are difficult and elusive with which to strive (עצים trees).11 But the power of his reach (יד)66 will compulsively drive in, by drawing inward again and again (with an ax),67 in order to be mindful68 of the thing that is difficult and elusive that is striven with (העץ tree).11 Yet the ability to penetrate (ברזל iron)69 it shall slip and draw off from the thing that is difficult and elusive that is striven with (העץ tree).11 Such that it will be brought out against (מצא)70 the thing that he perceives-receives from experience (רעהו)61 such that it will be completely drawn away (die).20 He shall flee toward a subduing of (אחת one)71 the many things stirred up (cities)58 that are advancing forward in experience and remain lively.

One piece of evidence:
You must not allow something evident (עד), a challenging conundrum requiring mental sharpness (single witness),23 to stand firmly against (your) ability to be mentally persistent (with something else)(איש man).16 If something evident that is unflinching (חמס)72 shall remain firm against (your) ability to be mentally persistent so as to overwhelm it – causing a twisting away (from the experience), then the two ways of applying oneself (אנשים men)73 will remain before God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) – the acts of giving something precise and mindful attention (priests)25 and the acts of making clarifications (judges).4 And the acts of making clarifications will inquire well. If something that appears evident is making false assertions (שקר) such that it testified against the mental faculty pointing things out with regard to it (its brothers),29 then you must clear out the badness (הרע) from your midst.

Going out to battle against your enemies:
Given that you shall go out for an engaging of experience (battle)74 concerning the things that are alarming (enemies)75 – an abundance of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)6 that is beyond you. You shall not fear them, because God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim),2 is ever present76 with you, being the one who has elevated you as a result of a disposing of oneself (land)8 to the act of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in (land of Mitsraim).32 The giving of a situation precise and mindful attention (priest)25 must say to the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people): “Preclude from softening your determination, preclude from feeling afraid, and preclude from becoming scattered and agitated, and preclude from becoming frightened off from the many things being presented by them! Nevertheless, if there was already to the (your) being mentally persistent (איש man)16 something new that has come in from experience (new house),59 or it has dug deeply into things accumulated from experience (נטע כרם)77,78 and has not followed through with it, or it has already designated (ארש) a way of conducting oneself in experience (אשה wife)17 and it has not yet taken it up – then these things should be dealt with first. After these concerns have been dispatched, the planners – acts of directing and aiming one’s gaze (שטרים)3 – shall prepare the way for your engaging of experience by mustering up for review (פקדו) the acts of overseeing experience (שרי)79 associated with the acts of standing at attention (צבאות)80 through the seeing (ראש)81 of the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people).6

A Peaceful City vs One that shall not Submit:
If a stirring situation (city)58 shall peacefully open itself up for you, then the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)6 found there shall devote attention82 to experience for you. If it shall not submit83 itself to you, then you will narrow in upon it and then God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented in experience (Elohim),2 will put it into your hand and you will strike upon all that is made clearly manifest (males)84 of it – regarded as a coming in of what is ravaging (לפי חרב).85 At the very least, the many ways for a person to conduct oneself through experience (women),17 and the acts of mincingly and fastidiously roaming about (dependents),86 and the act of pushing inward so as to make observations (herd animals),87 and all of what can be drawn up (שלל)88 that shall be with the stirring situation (city), you shall rifle through. So that you will embrace (eat)89 what can be drawn up (שלל) of what alarms you.75

Do Cut Down Non-edible Trees:
Given that you shall narrow in upon and advance toward a stirring situation (city)58 – one of many stirring things (many days),90 you shall not undermine the act of striving with it (its trees)11 – regarded as an act of thrusting and driving in upon it, an act of repeatedly drawing in (גרזן an ax).67 Because you shall embrace (experience)89 from it. Nevertheless, you shall undermine an act of striving (tree)11 that you shall acknowledge that it is not an act of striving of embracing experience (edible tree).89 And you will cut (it) down so that you will build up a means of narrowing in upon (מצור) the stirring situation (city).

Finding One Deceased in a Field:
Given that there shall be found an act of being thrown about (חלל)91 with the act of being mentally absorbed with experience (אדמה),92 an act of vacillating93 with the frenzy of experience going back and forth94 (נפל בשדה one falling the field) – then your acts of of seeing things clearly (elders)95 and of your making clarifications (judges)4 shall extend toward the many stirred up situations (cities)58 round about the being thrown about with experience. There will be the stirred up situation (city) that is closest. Then the acts of seeing clearly associated with that stirred up situation will take up an act of meandering about so as to descend upon things (עגלת calf),96 one of making an investigation (בקר cattle).97 Then they will bring it to something to be inherited from experience of powerful alignment (נחל איתן)98,99 that had not been mentally attended to (יעבד)82 and had not been scattered upon for the sake of becoming engaged (יזרע).40 Then for the sake of becoming aware of the situation, they will spread out (ערף)100 the act of meandering about so as to descend upon things (עגלה calf) – in alignment with the thing to be inherited from experience (נחל). Then the acts of giving things precise and mindful attention (priests),25 behaviors of clinging upon a scene with mental persistence so as to generate an awareness of many startling things (Levites),26 will draw near and get in very close. Then the acts of clearly seeing that stirred up situation shall submerge (wash)101 their reach (hands)66 concerning the act of meandering about so as to descend upon things (עגלה calf), the one that spread out for the purpose of becoming aware of things (הערופה), with the thing to be inherited from experience (נחל). However, being overwhelmed (ענו)102 and stating that they did not cause experience to pour forth (blood)103 nor did they see it, they beseeched HaShem to pacify (כפר)104 that which was pouring forth in experience freely (הדם הנקי). And therefore, in your applying yourself in experience (אתם),105 you shall clear out what pours forth freely of experience as a result of the your approaching closer (מקרבך).57 Because you shall persist with (תעשה)106 that which is straightforward (הישר) in making observations (עיני eyeings)50 of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H).

Notes:
1 – righteousness (צדק TseDeQ) Allegorically: to be particular in one’s behavior. From the verb DaQaQ (דקק to beat into particles > to crush > be-make thin) which in turn evolved from the root DaQ (דק to pound, beat, powder, particulate, particular, punctilious, examine carefully).
2 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
3 – planner, officer, official, magistrate (שטר) Allegorically: one who directs and aims their gaze. From TuR (טור) ( TsuR (צור) to narrow in upon) > sight, direct at / into) > TaRaH (טרה) to throw, project, aim, cast at, argue, debate
4 – judge (שפט ShoPhaeT) judgment (משפט MiShPaT) Allegorically: a declared judgment or clarification. From PuT (פוט) to burst forth, therefore, make a declaration, which is usually a clarification or clearly stated instruction.
5 – gate (שער Sha\aR) – also Seir (שעיר Sae\iyR) barley (שערים from שעורה S’/oRaH), goat (hairy one),demon (שעיר Sa\yR). Allegorically: acts of taking notice of many things in being stirred by them. Except for gate (which possibly is derived from עיר city (place stirred up)), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up).
6 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
7 – rod, staff, branch > tribe (שבט SheBheT) Allegorically: swinging back and forth, weaving > ?scanning. ShaBhaT (שבט) Akkadian “to beat, sweep away, (sweep back and forth” Syriac (swing easily) to fly loose, float, stream; beat out, hammer, rod, staff, branch, tribe); SaBaT (שׂבּט) Arabic – lank hair; graceful stature. The root ShaBaT evolved from ShaBaTs (שבץ) to embroider / inlay, but also agony (SmII1:9); which evolved from ShaBaSh (to go back and forth) > to run in all directions, entangle, confound; from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still).
8 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
9 – bribe (שוחד ShoHhaD) Allegorically: an enticing thing that induces joy. From the root HhaDaH (חדה) (sharp) to be joyful / glad rejoicing (Ex1:9) which itself is related to HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen.
10 – Asherah (tree, pole) (אשרה /aShaeRaH) Allegorically: having a false sense of confidence, assurance, confirmation. There are two unrelated Semitic roots spelled /aShaR (אשר). One, meaning “to go directly,” evolved from ShuWR (שור – to see, get a fix on). The other, meaning “to confirm, be supportive of, validate and congratulate” evolved from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent).
11 – tree, wood of (עץ \aets) Allegorically: an act of striving-difficult-elusive. From tree, wood (עץ – \aeTs) derived from the root \uTs (עוץ) which derived from /uTs (אוץ hasten). Literally meaning “to hasten, force, push through” it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel.” Allegorically, it is used to mean “one’s striving, one’s urges or things that are difficult or elusive – the later from the Arabic cognate and context.
12 – altar (מזבח – miZBae’aHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
13 – pillar (מצבה maTsaeBhaH) Allegorically: show a rigid defiance or rigidly obstinate, unyielding, intransigent. From NaTsaBh (נצב to stand upright-defiantly-straight).
14 – ox (שור – Shur) Allegorical: fixing one’s gaze. This root (ShuR – שור), like with Yisrael, means to be fixed either physically or visually. Hence, physically (wall, ox, umbilical cord) and visually (to get a fix on (see) (Nm23:9,24:17)(Hs14:9))
15 – yearling, youngling (שה – SeH) from the verb ShaHaH (שהה – to stay, remain, stand still, dwell, tarry, pause). The Arabic cognate means: “desire, wish, covet, crave, long, arouse greed, whet the appetite; sensual, sensuous, libidinous, lustful, uninhibited.”
16 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
17 – wife-woman (/eeShaH – אשה) It is believe that the words forth husband-man (/eeSh – איש) and wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) are not related etymologically. Perhaps, wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) is related to its plural (NaShiM – נשים). This word is related to NaSa/ (נשה) which like NaSa/ (נשא) means to lift up and carry along. Thus wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) could mean “one who lifts up and carries.” Allegorically, based on this and context, it means “one’s conducting oneself through experience.”
18 – BriT (ברית) Usually translated covenant, technically it means “clear agreement.” Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening)
19 – stone (/eBheN – אבן), from the root BuN (בון – to be or project between), literally means “what sticks out prominently.”
20 – die (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
21 – two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN), year (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים). Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach). AND evident-witness (עד – \aeD); testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
22 – three (שלש – ShaLoSh) actually means suspend, dangle. This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust.
23 – one (/eHhaD – אחד) Allegorically: mental sharpness. This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
24 – place, establishment (מקום MaQoM) Allegorically: what is firm, established, establishment, what arises, what confronts. From the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Note QaM (קם) enemy, foe, adversary (one who stands firmly before, standing up to).
25 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10)
26 – Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
27 – king (MeLeKh – מלך) from the verb MaLaKh (מלך) to rule, it evolved from MaLaHh (מלח) to balance > to sail. It is more appropriately translated as to deliberate > to act deliberately. But also means to deliberate, as can be seen in the Akkadian to consider, discuss, advise, look after, mind, and confer
28 – nation (גוי – GoY) literally to draw inward, arch inward; Arabic cognate passionately stirred (love / grief)
29 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
30 – foreigner (נכר NaeKhaR) Allegorically: one is only vaguely familiar (with experience). From the verb: (piel) to make of the status of vague acquaintance; acquaint (SmI23:7); recognize (Jb21:29;34:19); make unfamiliar (Jr19:4); make an error in recognition, misjudge (Dt32:27).
31 – horse (סוס SuS) Allegorically: what rears up (in experience). Related to ShuS (שושׂ) (to lift up / draw off from) > to lift something, to rob (Is10:13) and שוס שאס שסס? to plunder / loot; and שׂישׂ to be joyous-jubilant – all essentially meaning “to lift up.”
32 – Mitsraim (מצרים) Allegorically: feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience. In Hebrew, this word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s visually narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh, chaos. Note, however that linguists suggest that this is a calque from the Egyptian: ‘Ṭawy’ meaning the ‘Two Lands’ where Ṭaw is ‘land’ and ‘iy’ is the dual. Even if this were correct, the allegorical use still holds.
33 – silver (כֶּסֶף – KeSePh) evolved from the root K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Over time, silver tarnishes. K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished)
34 – gold (זהב – ZaHaBh) literally means “of fleeting impressions.” From unattested ZaHaH (זהה – exude light), see Syriac cognate ZaHa/ (זהא – shining, glorious, splendid, resplendent) and in Arabic (radiant, shine brightly, be haughty). Also Arabic cognate of ZaHaBh means to take leave, vanish, to take with, lead or conduct, to allow the imagination to wander > think, believe; gold, going, passing, manner, opinion, belief, ideology, orientation
35 – throne (KiSae/ – כסא) literally means what is marked up with many impressions > covered. From (KaSaH – כסה) to cover over. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider. See also KeSePh (כסף)
36 – to write (כתב KaTaBh) literally means “to make an impression.” Where the verbs beginning with (כת) essentially mean “to press in with force.” Hence: KaTaL כתל (Arb- to press into, compact, mass); KaTaM כתם to stain; KaTaN כּתּן (Arb – (compress together > build up) linen); KaTaPh כּתף (Arb- (pressed together) be thick, dense, to condense; to shackle, (Hebrew – shoulder (joint)); KaTaR כתר to huddle, crowd in; KaTaSh כתש to crush; KaTaT כתת to smash
37 – copy (משנה MiShNeH); two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN), year (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים). Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
38 – Torah (תורה) from YaRaH (ירה) to throw into the light > teach > aim > penetrate; from /aRaH (ארה) to pick out into the light.
39 – book (ספר SaePheR) Allegorically: a recounting. Related to the verb SaPhaR (ספר to cut, trim, count, recount)
40 – arm (זרוע ZaRoa\) Allegorically-literally: the scatterer. Realted to seed (זרע – ZeRa\) meaning to scatter, but practically also suggests implantation > engagement. Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter; which expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
41 – two jaws (well joined) > cheeks (לְחָיַיִם L’HhaYym); fresh (לחים LaHhim) According to Klein, there are two forms LaHh (לח) and Lae’aHh (לח). Allegorically: one’s of getting in closely. Related to LuaHh (לוח board, plank), this root means “to join together and to be well joined” evolved from (לוה – LaWaH) meaning “to cling to or join to” as a verb it is used to mean “to escort, guide.” The sense of fresh comes from “well joined” branch that when fresh-moist-vigorous does not snap or break off easily. The root also means “vigor, moisture.” Also related to: /aLaHh (אלח) taint, contaminate (well joined).
42 – stomach, abdomen (קבה QaeBhaH) Allegorically: to channel in so as to gain a greater understanding. Related to: to curse (קבב QaaBhaH), tent (קבה QuBaH), abdomen (קבה QaeBhaH) are all etymologically related through the root (קבה QaBhaH) which literally means to channel. In Arabic (קאבּ) to dig, dig up, burrow, excavate, hallow out, burst open, imminent. In Akkadian:(קבּו) to command, say, speak, promise, agree, imply, pronounce, decree, name, designate, nominate, promise, give understanding. Note niphal NaQaBh to be designated (Nm1:17)(Ea8:20). Roots that share Q.B. generally mean to channel: wine vat-press (יקב YeQeBh); QaBhaL (קבל – to accept, receive (channel toward)) and QaBha\ (קבע – to rob (channel away from)), QaBhaTs (קבץ – to gather (channel) together), QaBhaR (קבר to bury, inundate, flood), female (נקבה N’QaeBhaH) which is related to NaQaBh (נקב socket, to penetrate, pierce, bore (channel) into-out) – these evolved from the root QaBh (קוב – (Arb – to dig a (channel) shallow, to hallow out)) which evolved from QaW (קוה – to channel together).
43 – the first of (ראשית – Rae/ShyT) Allegorically: “the seeing of > what is seen of” from head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
44 – grain (דגן DaGaN) Allegorically: hovering about and become acquainted. (Arabic: dusky, murky, gloomy; remain, stay, get used / accustomed; Syriac: to cloud or inflame eyes). It evolved from the verb DaGaH to be / become numerous (Gn48:16). This root evolved from DuKh (דוך to pound, crush > particles). It evolved into verbs meaning covering and staying in one place: DaGa/ (דגא) veil, cover, shroud, blanket, dark, gloomy, dusky, cajole, flatter; DaGaL(דגל) (veil) to dupe, deceive (Jastro); be conspicuous; banner-standard (Syriac: to lie, deceive, deny, disappoint, defraud, cheat, be unfaithful; Akk: wait, obey, await s.o, show reverence, put attention on, look repeatedly, have at one’s disposal); DaGaSh (דגש) a Hebrew punctuation mark indicating that one is to remain on a consonant longer, thus plosive or geminated, (Syriac: to stab, pierce, transfix); DaGaR (דגר) to brood.
45 – juice, wine (תירש TyRoSh) Allegorically: driving in, taking possession. Related to possession (ירשה Y’RaeShaH) Allegorically (literally): what is driven into. Its evolution: YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRaSh (ירש – to penetrate-drive in, take possession, to dispossess). Also from YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRa/ (ירא to be penetrated > in awe > afraid).
46 – oil (יצהר YiTsHaR) Allegorically: narrowing in upon a particular thing so as to make it clearer. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the related words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon.
47 – flock (צאן – Tso/N) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
48 – Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
49 – sorcery (קסם QeSeM) Allegorically: arbitrary, piecemeal decision making. From QaSaM (קסם) to cut into, carve, chip (Jastro); (to go firmly & straight through >) to decide (Jastro); Cognate with Arabic (קשׂם): to split, divide, part, distribute, share, Kismet (arbitrary lot, fate), foreordain, exorcise, take an oath.
50 – one who observes omens (מעונן M’\oNaeN) Allegorically: one who speculates. Related to eye (עין \ayin) Allegorically: to eye, make observations. From \oN (עון to eye > observe) and related to \aNaH (ענה) to turn (unclear if eye is based on the curved shaped of the eye or the turning one does to see or both).
51 – diviner (מנחש M’NaHhaeSh) A;;egorically: one who senses things through intuition-feeling about. Related to snake (נחש NaHhaSh) Allegorically: feeling about. From the verb NaHhaSh (נחש) meaning to divine, and in modern Hebrew, to guess. Derived from the verb HhuSh (חוש) to sense, feel, experience, and hasten and in Arabic, to grope. Additionally: NaHhoSheT (נחשת) means cooper (probably literally means) what was hastened-coaxed out. Additional proof is available, but itself allegorically based
52 – witch (מכשף M’KhaShaePh) Allegorically: one who pulls away – misfiring and failing to launch. Related to sorcerers (מכשפים), related to Arabic כשף (Arb- pull away, remove, throw open, take off, unveil, reveal, disclose, uncover, expose, show, demonstrate, shed light, study, scrutinize, investigate, examine, reveal secrets. In Amharic: to fail, foil frustrate, fail to go off, misfire/
53 – charmer (חבר ChoBhaeR) Allegorically: one basing a belief on anecdotal experience. In Hebrew HhaBhaR (חבר) means to join together. In Arabic: ChaBhaR (חבר) means “to try, experience, know well, inform, communicate, negotiate, seek information; but also personal experience and knowledge.”
54 – one who inquires of an /oBh (שאל אוב) Allegorically: one who suspends action and inquires of a voice given forth as if from nowhere. In Hebrew, the root Sha/aL (שאל) to ask, request; literally means “to suspend before.” Many roots with Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate. An /oBh (אוב) is a type of spirit – perhaps from yielding to the spirit that channels through another. Possibly from the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
55 – soothsayer (ידעני YiDoNy) Allegorically: regularly behaving as if in the know. From ידע to know, acknowledge.
56 – prophet (נביא NaBy/), prophetess (נביאה NaBhy/a), to prophesy (נבא NiBa/) Allegorically: to rant, a(n internal) prophetic-rant. See: to mutter to oneself, ramble at the mouth to oneself, to rant, gripe (SmI18:10)(Jr29:26)
57 – innards, one’s midst (קרב QeReBh); one close to him, relative (קרבו – Q’RoBho) Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. (קר) essentially mean “to get in very close”: KaRaH (קרה to come upon, happen occur); QaRa/ (קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read); QaRaBh (קרב to approach); QaRaM (קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate); QaRaN (קרן horn, what approaches more closely); QaRa\ (קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner); QaRaSh (קרש to contract, gnash, bite into); QaRaS (קרס to stoop, clasp); QaRaTs (קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse); NaQaR (נקר to gouge, chisel); ShaQaR (שקר to gouge > deceive, lie).
58 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
59 – house (בית BaYiT ) Allegorically: what comes in. From the root Bo/ (בוא to come in). Literally it means “the place of coming in.”
60 – murderer (רוצח RoTsae’aHh) which literally means “one who runs through and demolishes another.” In Arabic, the passive cognate means “one who is demolished, subdued and meek.” Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
61 – friend (רע – Ra’a\) from the verb Ra\aH (רעה – to welcome, to receive, take delight in) which evolved from Ra/aH (ראה – (be penetrated) to see, perceive) from YaRa\ (ירא – (be penetrated) > be in awe, be afraid) from YaRaH (ירה – to aim > penetrate). Note also רע (perception) thought (Ps139:2) and רעא (Syr- think, be minded, be of opinion, reason, purpose)
62 – hater, one hating (שונא SoNae/) Allegorically: one who imposes oneself upon or treats sharply. This root evolved from ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat), however it literally means to impose > repetitively sharpen having evolved from /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself.
63 – yesterday (מתמול MiTMoL) Allegorically: that which is attenuated at the frayed edge of awareness. From (מול MuL) “frayed, threadbare, attenuated.”
64 – day before yesterday (שלשום ShiLShoM) Allegorically: those easily drawn away from awareness. From (שלש ShaLoSh, three) which literally means “suspend, dangle.” This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust. Many roots with Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate. In Hebrew, the root Sha/aL (שאל) to ask, request; literally means “to suspend before.” This idea of suspend mutated into drag and draw out and then draw away. To understand Sheol, consider: Arabic SaL(שׂל) “to pull out, withdraw, remove gently > steal away, slip away, sneak, escape > have Tb, be consumptive” and how that evolved into שׁאל depart, dead?, sparse, scarce; של to dry up, wither, lame, paralyzed > שלו decaying corpse.
65 – forest (יער Ya\aR) Allegorically: the place of being stirred up. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
66 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /uD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
67 – ax (גרזן GaRZeN) Allegorically: what draws into something repeatedly (so as to attain understanding). Derived from GuR > GRH literally meaning to draw > drive into. From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, seep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
68 – to cut (כרת KaRaT) Allegorically: to bear in mind. Cognate with Arabic KaRaT (כרת) to do, move, affect, concern, oppress, depress, care for, heed, bear in mind, take an interest in, pay attention). From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
69 – iron (ברזל BaRZeL) Allegorically: what penetrates, act of penetrating. From BaRaZ (ברז) to bore, perforate, transfix Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening), ברץ (Syr- to pierce, transfix; to make clear / apparent); ברז (go clear through) to bore, perforate, transfix; ברד (what bores into) hail שבר to break, literally means “to go clear through,” hence it means to break, break apart, shatter, smash, crash, to distribute-buy-sell provision (?broken pieces); and for a wave to break. However, its secondarily evolved form SaBhaR (שבר) means to contemplate, look to and hope for. There is an identical noun SheBheR (שבר) meaning “interpretation” or more correctly break down > analysis that indicates the transition between the two.
70 – to find (מצא MaTsa/) Literally and Allegorically: be brought out (against). This root evolved from MaTsaH (מצה) meaning to wring out. The noun MaTsaH (מצה) meaning strife / quarrel comes from the verb NiTsaH (נצה) to strive / struggle.
71 – one (אחת /aChaT) Allegorically: subdued OR scooping up. Actually from /aChaDT (אחדת) > /aChaT (אחת) from one (/eHhaD – אחד) This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen. HOWEVER, the allegorical use is not related to this etymology and is instead could be based on one of two roots: ChaTaT (חתת) meaning to press down upon, to subdue, and to frighten. > therefore, the allegory means “what subdues in experience.” OR the allegory of /aChaT is from the verb HhaTaH (חתה) to scoop up.
72 – violent / belligerent (חמס HhaMaS) Its evolution began with HaMaH (המה – to stir up) > HhaMaH (חמה – to stir, heat, churn, excited) (HhaeMaH (חמה) anger). From the root (חמס HhaMaS) evolved HhaMaeTs (leavened, violent), and then HhaMaD (חמד hot-excited for, covetous)
73 – Men (/aNaShim – אנשים) from the noun /eNoSh (אנוש), evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Therefore the meaning is those applying-imposing themselves in experience.
74 – to engage in battle (מלחמה MiLHhaMah) Allegorically: an engagement, getting in closely. Derived from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
75 – enemies (אויבים /oYaeBhim) Allegorically: those who cause a crying out (in alarm), those alarming. From YaBhaBh (יבב) to cry out, lament; in Syriac: to make a joyful noise, sound, shout, howl).
76 – with (עם \iM) Allegorically: ever present with. It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
77 – to plant (נטע NaTa\) Allegorically: to dig deeply into. From the Arabic cognate: meticulous, fastidious, go into something deeply, explain something.
78 – vineyard (כרם KeReM) heaping up a lot from experience; from the verb KaRaM (כרם) (surround) > vineyard, (per Jastro > ) to pile up, stock up; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk). From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
79 – overseers (שרים SaRiM) from the verb SaRaH (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל), does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When used to mean to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When used to mean to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court
80 – army, assemble, wage war and the necessity to stand firm and be ready (Jb7:1) (צבא TsaBha/) evolved from the root TsaBhaH (צבה to swell), which evolved from NaTsaBh (נצב to stand upright-defiantly-straight). Related roots: gazelle (צבי Ts’Bhy); and yellow (צהוב TsaHoBh)(probably from an unattested intermediary TsoBh (צוב)) literally meaning “to stand out, be ardent.”
81 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh), possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
82 – work-serve-slave-worship-devote (עבד – \aBhaD) Allegorically, this root is used in the verb and noun to means “devote (attention).” Although originally as a noun meaning slave, the verb evolved to mean to work, serve, worship and devote. It evolved from /aBhaD (אבד), thus meaning “one lost (to slavery).”
83 – peace (שלם ShaLoM) Allegorically: submitting to, fulfilling of or completion of, from the verb ShaLaM (שלם – to suspend, complete, suspend > submit > make peace, make restitution). Note of the same root: robe (שלמה – SaLMaH) meaning “what suspends, dangles, draws behind.” The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate; (שלג – SheLeG) snow (lit: what is suspended in the air).
84 – to remember, male (זכר – ZaKhaR) literally means to be clear, hence to remember (be clear in mind) from ZaKhaH (זכה – (to be clear) be pure, free of guilt, right / justified, innocent, be acquitted / right, to be privileged. Also note (Syriac – (manifest something with clarity) use magic arts; bring up a familiar spirit; divine using a spirit).
85 – by the edge of the sword (לפי חרב) Allegorically: regarded as a coming in of what is ravaging. From Py (פי) mouth, from the word PeH (פה) which evolved from B’ (ב – in) > BoW/ (בוא – to go / come in) AND sword (חרב – CheReBh) the verb means to be hot, heat, dry, but also to make desolate, to devastate (Jd16:24)(KgII19:17)(Is42:15) and to be devastated (emotionally) (Jr2:12), therefore allegorically: ravaging of experience.
86 – dependent, young children (TaPh – טף)allegorically means “one’s mincingly and fastidiously roaming about” from TaPhaPh (טפף) to make the rounds, go about in a delicate affected manner, walk mincingly (Is3:16)
87 – herd animal (בהמה – B’HaeMaH) This word evolved from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
88 – booty (שלל ShaLaL) Allegorically: what is suspended > drawn off, away. Technically, the associated verb means “to let fall.” This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. Many roots with Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate. In Hebrew, the root Sha/aL (שאל) to ask, request; literally means “to suspend before.” This idea of suspend mutated into drag and draw out and then draw away. To understand Sheol, consider: Arabic SaL(שׂל) “to pull out, withdraw, remove gently > steal away, slip away, sneak, escape > have Tb, be consumptive” and how that evolved into שׁאל depart, dead?, sparse, scarce; של to dry up, wither, lame, paralyzed > שלו decaying corpse.
89 – eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
90 – YoM (יום – day), from HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.”
91 – ?slain, pierced, tossed about (חלל HhaLaL) Allegorically: one thrown or tossed about. Commonly understood as “one slain through piercing” in Gesenius and Klein. However, חללי רעב (of hunger) Lm 4:9; Also note Is 22:2. Related to: HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), evolving into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth. HhaLaL(חלל)(piel) cast away, throw about; > HhaLaL (חלל)(piel) to break up, to dissolve; > HhaL (חל) (Arabic – (throw about > permeate) dissolve, resolve, analyze, release, break up, overwhelm, replace); > ChaL (חל) (Arabic – pierce, transfix, break, violate, pass through, permeate, mix, mingle, pickle).
92 – ground (אדמה /aDaMah) comes from the root DooM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparitive Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
93 – to fall (נפל NaPhaL) Derived from the root PaLaL (פלל to pray, to consider, to judge) but the essential meaning is “to go back and forth.” Nevertheless, the niphal form of this verb means “to stagger and fall” in Ezekiel 28:23. This is the root, from which NaPhaL evolved as meaning “to fall.” Very often, before one falls, they lose their balance and seem to shift back and forth.
94 – SaDeH (שדה) field, is related to the verb SaDaD (שדד – (drag behind) to level / harrow ground) which in turn is related to ShaDaD (שדד – (to drag) > to overpower, plunder, ruin, destroy). The idea of going back and forth can be seen in the related verbs ShaDaKh (שדך – haggle, negotiate, stipulate) and ShaDaPh (שדף – to make swing back and forth, to blast)
95 – elders of (זקני ZiQNaey) allegorically “the acts of clearly visualizing things of the making of a sustained survey of what advances forward in experience” from (זקן – (be clear) beard, old), related to ZuQ (זוק – (Arb- (make clear in the mind) to visualize) and ZaQaQ (זקק – (to make clear / purify) to distill).
96 – calf (עגל \eGeL) Allegorically “meandering, wallowing and rushing about experience in order to swiftly descend upon things.” Related to the Arabic: rush, urge, hurry, impel, expedite; catch up, descend upon swiftly, wheel; cart, calf, worldly & Syriac: to roll round / away / about violently, writhe, wallow.
97 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigates) & morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
98 – brook, wadi (נחל NaHhaL) Allegorically: what swirls around. Related to NaHhaL (נחל) (Arb- (swarm around) bee; (spin around) top, dreidel). Probably from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), which evolved into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth. However, NaHhaL could also be from NaHhaH (נחה) which has a sense of leaning in or inclining toward something. Cognate with NaHhaH (נחה) is the Arabic (נחא – to wend one’s way, go, move, walk, turn toward > follow, imitate; BUT Also (incline >) lean, push aside, remove, yield, withdraw), Also from NaHhaH (נחה) is NaHhaL (נחל (to push toward) inherit) and NaHhaT (נחתּ to take down, put at the disposal of, bring, reach for ((Ugaritic)).
99 – strong, mighty (איתן /ayTaN) Allegorically: well aligned, perpetual flow, which evolved from the rarely used verb /aTaH (אתה) meaning to come, from which also evolved eT (את – (be aligned) with); and /aToN (אתון – she donkey, one who walks in alignment)ץ The word also means: unrelenting (Pr13:15); “stampede” of a sheep-fold; synergistic, allied, well organized (Jr5:15)(Jr49:19)
100 – to release, knock, down, break the neck and paralyze (ערף \aRaPh) Allegorically: to spread out and become aware of things. The Arabic cognate: to recognize, perceive, be aware, discover, knowing, authority, traditional, habitual, diviner. It evolved from RaPhaH (רפה – to release, dissipate, loosen, let down, make lax > relax, make weak, to leave, forsake, abandon)
101 – to wash (רחץ RaHhaTs) Allegorically: to move back and forth. Roots with R.Hh. (רח) essentially mean “to move back and forth on the horizontal plain > wide. RaWaHh (רוח – wide) > RuWaHh (רוח) wind > breath > spirit. RaHhaM (רחם) womb, compassion, intestines – means facilitating width-expansiveness for someone or something; RaHhaBh (רחב) wide; RaHhaPh (רחף) to move back and forth, hover; RaHhaL (רחל) Arabic – to roam, wander about, set out from a place, without direction; ewe (one who wanders off when pregnant); RaHhaQ (רחק) to be-go far; RaHhaSh (רחש) to move, stir, flutter (heart); frying pan; Akk- to move, to set in motion; /aRaHh (ארח) to travel > YaRaeHh (ירח) (traveler) > moon. MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out
102 – to turn, answer (ענה \aNaH) Allegorically: be-feel overwhelmed, derived from \aNaH (ענה) to afflict, overwhelm, humiliate, rape, oppress. This root evolved from /aNaH (אנה to impose oneself). In actuality, these two roots are not etymologically related and differed in sounds, the first with a ghayin; the later with an ayin.
103 – blood (דם – DaM) allegorically means “what flows,” evolved from DaWaH (דוה – to flow). Incidentally, not related to DuM (דום – still, silent) which evolved from DaMaH (דמה – to cease, be still) ) pounce and cover s.th > ) young lion; (piel) (wipe away and nullify the effect of) to pacify (Pr16:14), deny, renounce and atone.
105 – You, I (אתה את אתם אתן /aTaH /aT /aTeM /aTeN)(אני /aNy) Allegorically: You or I, in applying-imposing oneself in experience. Derived from the verb /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose and apply oneself. Many other Semitic cognates preserve the elided letter nun. The other word for I (אנכי /aNoKhy), allegorically meaning “I, in my making my impression,” comes from the verb NaKaH (נכה) literally meaning “to make an impression,” it is used to mean “to strike down.”Although most other Semitic cognates are similar, NaK (נך) in Amharic means “to touch, bear upon, impinge upon, involve (affect), reach (top of wall).”
106 – the root \aSaH (עשה). It literally means “to persist at,” but it is used to mean to wander and patrol (at night)(Arabic & Ugaritic), to do and perform, and to grope and grab at something (piel). Furthermore, the related words \uSh (make haste – עוש) and \aShaN (be volatile, flare up – עשן) suggest an impulsive quality as well.

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Hans Wehr. Ed by J Milton Cowan (1979) Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, NY: Published in the United States by Spoken Languages Services, Inc with permission of Otto Harrassowitz

Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, eds., A Concise Dictionary ofAkkadian, 2nd corrected printing (Santag Arbeiten und Untersuchungen Zur Keilschriftkunde, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000)

Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.

About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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