The Democratic Union Party (PYD) is a Syrian Kurdish political party that was founded in 2003. It is the leading Kurdish party in Syria and has close ties to the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), a militant group that has been fighting for Kurdish autonomy in Turkey since 1984.
The PYD was formed at a time when political parties were illegal in Syria under the Ba’athist regime of Hafez al-Assad. However, the Syrian intelligence services saw the PYD as a way to control the Kurdish population and to deflect their demands for autonomy. The regime provided the PYD with weapons and financial support, and it allowed the party to operate openly in Kurdish-majority areas.
The PYD’s relationship with the Syrian regime became more complicated after the outbreak of the Syrian civil war in 2011. The PYD initially adopted a neutral stance in the conflict, but it later began to cooperate with the Syrian regime against the rebels. In 2012, the PYD established a self-administered region in northern Syria, known as Rojava.
The PYD’s control of Rojava has been a source of tension between the Syrian regime and Turkey. Turkey views the PYD as a terrorist organization and has launched several military operations against Rojava. The United States has also supported the PYD and its armed wing, the People’s Protection Units (YPG), in the fight against ISIS.
The PYD’s relationship with the Syrian regime has also been criticized by Syrian Kurds. The Kurds accuse the PYD of being too close to the regime and of failing to effectively represent Kurdish interests.
The PYD has close ties to the PKK. The two organizations share the same ideology and goals, and they have cooperated extensively in the Syrian civil war. The PYD’s leader, Saleh Muslim, is a former PKK member.
The PKK is designated as a terrorist organization by Turkey, the United States, and the European Union. However, the United States has made an exception for the YPG, which it views as a key ally in the fight against ISIS.
The future of the PYD is uncertain. The PYD’s control of Rojava is dependent on the support of the United States. However, the United States has withdrawn some of its troops from Syria, and it is unclear how long the United States will continue to support the PYD.
The PYD is also facing pressure from Turkey. Turkey has threatened to launch a new military operation against Rojava, and it has been working to pressure the United States to end its support for the YPG.
The PYD’s relationship with the Syrian regime is also complex. The regime has expressed a willingness to compromise with the PYD, but the PKK is more totalitarian than the Assad regime – they don’t seem to be willing to compromise with anyone.