Day 7 (תהילים פא\פב) דוד \ מלכות –
Number of Bull Karbanos = 7 , total of 70, for the seventy nations of the world.
On Hoshana Rabbah there is a minhag to stay up all night and to read the entire sefer Devarim. The theme of this Torah portion is for all Jews to live in Eretz Yisrael. We start with story of the sin of the spies who rejected Aliyah. How do we fix it? We move here and build up Eretz Yisrael.
The Tehillim of the day is #81 as the previous day. The theme continues, that no matter how low one has sunk, if one heeds G-d’s words to observe His mitzvos , then He will send the ultimate geulah of Moshiach ben Dovid. However, if the seventh day falls on a Friday, then the Tehillim of the day is #82. In this chapter the theme discussed is that justice is a prerequisite for the continued existence of the world. Today, Hoshana Rabbah, is judgment day. This is also the last set of karbanos offered in the Temple on behalf of the seventy nations of the word.
- מזמור לאסף; אלקים נצב בעדת קל, בקרב אלקים ישפט.
- עד מתי תשפטו עול, ופני רשעים תשאו סלה?
- שפטו דל ויתום עני ורש הצדיקו.
- פלטו דל ואביון מיד רשעים הצילו.
- לא ידעו ולא יבינו בחשכה יתהלכו; ימוטו כל מוסדי ארץ.
- אני אמרתי אלהים אתם, ובני עליון כלכם.
- אכן כאדם תמותון וכאחד השרים תפלו.
- קומה אלקים שפטה הארץ כי אתה תנחל בכל הגוים.
- A psalm by Asaf; G-d stands in the Divine assembly in the midst of judges shall He judge.
- Until when will you judge lawlessly and the presence of the wicked will you favor, selah?
- Dispense justice for the needy and the orphan, the poor and impoverished vindicate.
- Rescue the needy and destitute and from the hand of the wicked deliver them.
- They do not know nor do they understand in darkness they walk, collapse do all the foundations of the earth.
- I said, Angelic are you sons of the Most High, are you all.
- But like men you shall die and like one of the princes you should fall.
- Arise , G-d judge the earth, for You allot the portion of all the nations.
ס – 6-0
כ – 2-0
ה – 5
13 =13+1 =14 = דוד בגימטריה +1
King Dovid Epitomizes Malchus
When the house of King Dovid will be reestablished by Mashiach, then the Truth and recognition of our Torah and G-d will be recognized by the world. It will be clear to all that the other religions of the world are based upon lies. In addition, the succah of Dovid סוכת דוד הנופלת , the Beis Hamikdash, will be rebuilt by the Jewish people prior to the arrival of Moshiach.
והיה למלך על כל הארץ, ביום ההוא יהיה ה’ אחד ושמו אחד.
Hashem will be King over the Land; on that day Hashem will be One and His Name will be One (Zechariah 14:9).
According to the Zohar (parshas Pekudei ), the third Beis Hamikdash will be built with man-made stones and not made by G-d! The Midrash Pesikta clarifies that G-d will lower the supernal Yerushalayim upon the earthly one (Aspaklaria HaMe’irah on Zohar 2:114a). The Beis Hamikdash will be built with stones from the first Temple. In our time, the Arabs are unearthing these very stones. The Derishat Tzion, Aruch LaNer are both clarify that the Bnei Yisrael will build the man-made Beis Hamikdash before Moshiach comes.
When the King Moshiach reveals himself, he will stand on the roof of the Beis Hamikdash and proclaim to Israel: “O humble ones, the time for your redemption has come…Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of Hashem has shone upon you (Yeshayah 60:1). (Piska Kumi Ori)
King Dovid was born from Yishai and Nitzvas bas Adael. His soul was a gilgul reincarnation of Adam HaRishon. He received the seventy years of life from Adam; this is the reason that Adam HaRishon died at age 930 old and not 1,000 years old, as was the initial plan. Uriah the Chiti was a gilgul of the snake נחש , and Bas Sheva was a gilgul of Chava. Dovid Melech HaMashiach, is waiting in Gan Eden to come down to us and reestablish his Malchus – דוד מלך ישראל חי וקים.
G-d is Recognized As King, In Eretz Yisrael
The Zohar (3:276a) states that G-d is initially only call called “The King” in Eretz Yisrael. By Jews returning to Israel we enable the מלכות to return to the place (Tzion); subsequently the world will recognize the One True G-d as King. We accomplish bringing this closer to reality by celebrating Hoshana Rabbah, the day of Malchus, in Eretz Yisrael.
A person who simply waits for Mashiach to arrive and carry him off to Eretz Yisrael, shows that he does not believe in Mashiach at all. His faith is only external, and it causes him to fool himself. We learn this from the Lulav, where the Torah states that you must take “for yourself” ולקחתם לכם . This teaches us that we must substantiate our faith with action (Eim HaBanim Sameichah). We also learn from the arba minim that we need every type of Jew to make Aliyah and to settle the land. All four types of Jews are bound together into one group, as the arba minim are bound together אגודה אחד (VaYikra Rabbah 30:12).
We want to bring back the Malchus to Eretz Yisrael. The most important action to facilitate the arrival of the Mashiach, is to engage in Yishuv Eretz Yisrael. G-d delays Mashiach’s arrival until the Land is built up by us (Mishnat Chassidim).
The Day of The Great Hoshanah
Rav Moshe of Tchortkov states, that the day is named Hoshana Rabbah after the Kaddish prayer, “Amen yehei shmei Rabbah “ אמן, יהא שמיה רבא. Since, whoever answers the Kaddish prayer with all his might, is assured that any negative judgment will be ripped up.
This time is also called the night of the seal חותם . Neila, on Yom Kippur is the seal of the King on His decree. Whereas, the night of Hoshanah Rabbah is the seal on the envelope to send the decree. On this night we get a verdict from G-d for the entire year. The following month is Mar Cheshvan, the month of the flood or מבול. The word “bul “ בול , means “a seal”. This word in Hebrew, is composed of the first ((ב, middle (ו ( and last letters ((ל of the Torah. After the spiritual high of the recent holidays, we put our first accomplishments to the test during the month of Cheshvan. In this manner , we seal the year since there are no official holidays to observe; instead we only pursue our work and Torah study.
During the first half of Hoshana Rabbah night, the seal is being created. To improve it we read the entire book of Devarim , which is also called by the name “Mishna Torah ”. The five books of the Torah are a conduit to connect the spiritual world of Zeir Anpin (the six sefiros), to the physical world of Malchus. Sefer Devarim seals and includes all the five books of the Torah. When we read Devarim, we should have in mind to seal the Malchus. This is the Day of Dovid HaMelech. On this day we have the potential to change our verdict, to improve our life and parnassah, for the upcoming year.
On Yom Kippur our verdict was given, however on Hoshana Rabbah our verdict is being read to the angels who carry it out. The main judgment period is from Hoshana Rabbah evening until midnight חצות. The moon, like King Dovid, represents Malchus and the sun represents the Zer Anpin. Just as the moon waxes and wanes and the seasons change, every Heavenly verdict can be changed when the proper conditions of Teshuvah and Tefilah are met.
When we circle the bima in shul during the seven hakafos and we say “Hosha’Na” – Save us! The job of today is to perfect the Malchus of the previous days of Succos. Malchus is the executor of every sefirah. We again draw in the four minim into the sphere of Malchus, when we shake the lulav for the very last time this year.
On all seven days of the holiday, we are standing in the middle sphere representing Malchus. We then wave the lulav bundle, representing the six sefiros of Zer Anpin, in the six directions of the sefiros, to bring in their influence into the Malchus. However, on this day of Hoshana Rabbah, we have an additional dimension of seven hakafos, also called Hoshanos. The bima of the shul with the sifrei Torah represent Malchus, and the congregation prays in a circle to unite all of the six sefiros, into the day of Malchus.
The Willow Beating Ceremony – חביטת הערבה
Once the seven hakafos have been completed with the unification of the seven sefiros, then we enter the Hoshanah willow ceremony. This Din of beating the five aravos prepares us for the marriage with G-d, the following day on Shemini Atzeres. We say a יהי רצון prayer after beating the Hoshana bundle of five willows, ערבות. We beg G-d to accept our prayers on the merits of our hakafos and for our honoring of the seven Ushpizin. We ask Hashem to sweeten the five strengths גבורות , which are Binah, Gevurah, Hod, Yesod and Malchus, which are represented as the feminine fingers of the left hand (Sefer Yetzirah).
In the seal of the Malchus, are found the five final Hebrew letters of the alphabet which represent Judgment, דין – ך ם ן ף ץ . We elevate the aravos into the air and then we beat the letters into the ground of Malchus . This symbolizes the cleansing of the Malchus component of our neshama.
It is well known that the lulav bundle represents parts of the human body (eyes, spine, lips, heart) and the four typical types of Jews (+/- those who have possess Torah learning / do good deeds etc.). The aravos specifically represent the lips of speech. The succah represents the Beis Hamikdash and therefore one should especially endeavor not to say lashon harah inside the succah. The five aravos in the willow bundle are beat five times on the ground. This is because there are five groups of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, attributed to speech:
- Gutturals – אהחע
- Labialsבומפ –
- Palatals – גיכק
- Lingual’s – דטלנת
- Dentals – זסערשThis is a very visual reminder that we are never allowed to speak lashon hara. This is one of the reasons that we do not have the Beis Hamikdash today and thus we cannot perform the daily aravos ceremony.
The Aravos represent the highest 0f the spiritual realms, as described by the Zohar. This is based on Tehillim chapter sixty eight.
. שירו לאלקים, זמרו שמו; סלו לרכב בערבות, בי-ה שמו, ועלזו לפני
Sing to G-d, make music to His name, extol the One Who rides upon the highest heavens (Aravos) with Yah His Name (Tehillim 68:5).
The Aravos look like the human mouth. This is significant, since all major aveiros can be attributed to improper speech or לשון הרע . In heaven, we are protected from punishment and judgment for our sins by our good deeds. However, when we speak loshon hara, we are no longer protected and we can then receive a harmful judgment. Therefore, on this day of final judgment, we take the five aravos and beat them five times on the ground in order to subdue our loshon hara. In this manner the mikatreg , or accusing angel will hopefully not be able to cause us harm. This ultimately can purify our souls and bring good into the world. Subsequently, this power can enable the Beis Hamikdash to be rebuilt and to bring in the Geula of the Moshiach of Malchus beis Dovid.
This ceremony of beating and waving the aravos on the ground, חיבות ערבות , is a minhag established by the final Neviim (Rama, Orach Chaim 664:4, Talmud Succah 44b) . They were active during the second Beis Hamikdash and were called the “Returnees to Tzion”שיבת ציון . This ceremony was instituted by the prophets: חגי, זכריה, מלאכי. Similar to the Lulav bundle, this custom was instituted as a memory of what was done in the Temple, זכר למקדש.
Rav Steven Weiner writes about this ceremony, that it is an act of seeking out Tzion דרישת ציון (Yirmiyahu 30:17). He further posits, that this procedure is affirming a specific prophesy of Chagai, by acting it out.
Navi Chagai received his prophesy נבואה on the 21st day of Tishrei, which is the day of Hoshanah Rabbah ! This is also the day on the calendar, that Shlomo HaMelech concluded his dedication of the first Beis HaMikdash. G-d states in the prophesy, that the Jews should build the second Beis Hamikdash and that He is with them. He will shake מַרְעִישׁ the heavens הַשָּׁמַיִם, the earth הָאָרֶץ and overturn the goyim and deliver their wealth to Yisrael. The final seven bull sacrifices of this day represent our ability to receive the wealth of the nations.
נביא חגי פרק ב, א-ט
א בַּשְּׁבִיעִי, בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הָיָה, דְּבַר ה’ , בְּיַד חַגַּי הַנָּבִיא, לֵאמֹר. ב אֱמָר נָא, אֶל זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן שַׁלְתִּיאֵל פַּחַת יְהוּדָה, וְאֶל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק, הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶל שְׁאֵרִית הָעָם, לֵאמֹר. ג מִי בָכֶם, הַנִּשְׁאָר, אֲשֶׁר רָאָה אֶת הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה, בִּכְבוֹדוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן; וּמָה אַתֶּם רֹאִים אֹתוֹ, עַתָּה הֲלוֹא כָמֹהוּ כְּאַיִן, בְּעֵינֵיכֶם. ד וְעַתָּה חֲזַק זְרֻבָּבֶל נְאֻם ה’ וַחֲזַק יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וַחֲזַק כָּל עַם הָאָרֶץ, נְאֻם ה’ וַעֲשׂוּ: כִּי אֲנִי אִתְּכֶם, נְאֻם ה’ צְבָאוֹת. ה אֶת הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אִתְּכֶם, בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְרוּחִי, עֹמֶדֶת בְּתוֹכְכֶם אַל תִּירָאוּ. ו כִּי כֹה אָמַר ה’ צְבָוקֹת, עוֹד אַחַת מְעַט הִיא; וַאֲנִי, מַרְעִישׁ אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ, וְאֶת הַיָּם, וְאֶת הֶחָרָבָה. ז וְהִרְעַשְׁתִּי, אֶת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם, וּבָאוּ, חֶמְדַּת כָּל הַגּוֹיִם; וּמִלֵּאתִי אֶת הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה, כָּבוֹד אָמַר, ה’ צְבָקוֹת. ח לִי הַכֶּסֶף, וְלִי הַזָּהָב נְאֻם, ה’ צְבָקוֹת. ט גָּדוֹל יִהְיֶה כְּבוֹד הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה הָאַחֲרוֹן, מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן אָמַר, ה’ צְבָאקוֹת; וּבַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֶתֵּן שָׁלוֹם, נְאֻם ה’ צְבָקוֹת.
In the seventh month [Tishrei], on the twenty first of the month, the word of Hashem came through Chaggai the Navi, saying: “ Speak now to Zerubavel son of Shealtiel, governor of Yehuda and to Yehoshua son of YeHotzadak, the Kohen Gadol and to the rest of the people saying: Who is left among you who remembers this Temple in its original glory and how do you view it now? Is it not like nothing in your eyes? So now, be strong Zerubavel, the word of Hashem, and be strong, Yehoshua son of Yehozadak the Kohen Gadol, and be strong, the entire people of the land, the word of Hashem, and fulfill, for I am with you, the word of Hashem, Master of Legions, the matter [of the covenant] that I sealed with you went forth from Egypt. My spirit remains in you midst; do not be afraid. For thus said Hashem, Master of Legions: There will be one more [nation to subdue you, the Greeks vs. Chashmonaim]; it is a small one. I will shake the heavens and the earth and the sea and the dry land. I will shake all the nations, and the precious things of all the nations will arrive here, and I will fill this Temple with glory, said Hashem Master of Legions. Mine is the silver, mine is the gold – the word of Hashem, Master of Legions. The glory of this later Temple will be greater than that of the first, said Hashem, Master of Legions; and I will grant peace to this place, the word of Hashem, Master of Legions.” (Chaggai 2:1-9)
Chagai wanted us to act out the prophesy that he received – G-d will shake the heavens and the earth, מַרְעִישׁ אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ . similarly, we shake the Aravos and then strike the earth with the bundle of five Aravos. We specifically use aravos , because these are the branches that were used in the Beis Hamikdash to encircle the mizbeiach daily during Succos. When we say out loud the prayer “Kol Mivaser”, we are asking for the Jews to make Aliyah and then to build the Beis Hamikdash.
In summary, Hoshana Rabah commemorates three major events:
- נבואה של חגי הנביא
- חנוכת המזבח בבית ראשון
- הגאולה השלמה
Rav Teichtal in his sefer, Eim Habanim Semeichah (Pg. 502) begs every Jew to come and build up Eretz Yisrael. We learn this from the mitzvah of the four species, that we must be bound together in one group – אחדות. Only this type of unity can bind us to G-d in His Holy Land. The current building of the land of Israel is supposed to unite the Jewish nation as the arba minim are also united. This unfortunately, has not yet come to fruition. IF we can unite around our one true religion and the one true G-d, this unity can occur. We see that we can have unity during times of war. Let us use our times of peace in order to reconnect with the truth and belief in genuine Torah Judaism.
On Hashana Rabbah we say a farewell prayer to the succah. We end the prayer with the request for us to be, “Next year in Yerushalayim.” This means that all the Jews in Chutz LaAretz should have Aliyah plans for the next year. Otherwise this is just an empty fake expression which the Kuzari calls, “chirping of the birds”.
For those of us who live in Eretz Yisrael, we know that the entire holiday of Succos is about Eretz Yisrael. We know that we are actually doing our maximum effort to bring the Melech HaMashiach. This is accomplished by doing G-d’s Will by serving Him in Eretz Yisrael. We can only bring Moshiach by rebuilding the Beis Hamikdash and living in Eretz Yisrael.