Simcha Feuerman
Psychology, Torah and the Daf Yomi

The Waking Dead Sotah 5 Psychology of the Daf Yomi

In the Lecha Dodi liturgy that we recite Friday night, which welcomes Shabbos and the redemption, there seems to be an incorrect ordering of these two stanzas:

הִתְנַעֲרִי מֵעָפָר קוּמִי, לִבְשִׁי בִּגְדֵי תִפְאַרְתֵּךְ עַמִּי, עַל יַד בֶּן יִשַּׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי, קָרְבָה אֶל נַפְשִׁי גְּאָלָהּ:

Shake the dust off yourself, arise, dress up in your garments of glory, my people; through the son of Yishai the Bethlehemite, draw near to my soul and redeem it.

הִתְעוֹרְרִי, הִתְעוֹרְרִי, כִּי בָא אוֹרֵךְ קוּמִי אוֹרִי, עוּרִי עוּרִי שִׁיר דַּבֵּרִי, כְּבוֹד ה׳ עָלַיִךְ נִגְלָה:

Wake up! wake up! for your light has come, arise and shine. Awaken! awaken! utter a song, The glory of Hashem is revealed upon you.

The typical order is to wake up first, and then shake off the dust, not the reverse! What did Rav Alkabetz have in mind?

When I posed this question a number of years ago at the Shabbos table, one of my children suggested that the first stanza refers to a physical awakening and then the second paragraph refers to a spiritual awakening.  I thought this was a good answer.  However, from our Gemara on Amud Aleph perhaps there is another explanation for Rav Alkabetz’s intentions:

וְאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר כׇּל אָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ גַּסּוּת הָרוּחַ אֵין עֲפָרוֹ נִנְעָר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר הָקִיצוּ וְרַנְּנוּ שֹׁכְנֵי עָפָר שֹׁכְבֵי בֶּעָפָר לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא שֹׁכְנֵי עָפָר מִי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה שָׁכֵן לֶעָפָר בְּחַיָּיו

And Rabbi Elazar also says: Concerning any person who has arrogance within him, his dust, i.e., his remains in his grave, will not stir at the time of the resurrection of the dead, as it is stated: “Awake and sing for joy, you who dwell in the dust” (Isaiah 26:19). It is not stated: You who lie in the dust, which would indicate that all the dead will be awakened in the future, but rather: “You who dwell in the dust,” indicating that only one who became a neighbor to the dust in his lifetime by living with extreme humility will stir at the time of the resurrection.

Tosafos asks, if so, why are the arrogant not mentioned in the list enumerated in Mishna (Sanhedrin 10:1) amongst those who will not be resurrected? A simple answer is that since arrogance is a character trait, it should not be absent entirely. It is difficult to make a black and white pronouncement that the person who is arrogant will not be resurrected, since it must be referring to the person who has arrogance out of the proper proportion but not someone who has a healthy pride, as minimal as it should be. (True, Rambam Deos 2:3 says that in regard to arrogance, one should not take the customary Golden Mean, and instead stay far away from arrogance. However that is only relative to other traits, but within the arrogance-humility continuum, there still is a certain balance, just far more to the minimal end than with other traits, see Lechem Mishna ibid 1:5.). Ben Yehoyada notes the particular language of “his dust will not stir.”  He says, this does not mean he will be deprived entirely of resurrection. Instead, it means he will have a more arduous process of being revived, unlike the righteous for whom resurrection will feel more like waking up refreshed from a long sleep.

Regardless of the Peshat, it seems that there is a process of the dust stirring and then the awakening from the dead.  Thus, Rav Alkabetz was referring to the stirring of the dust in first stanza, but awakening of the dead  in the second stanza.

About the Author
Rabbi, Psychotherapist with 30 years experience specializing in high conflict couples and families.
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