Allen S. Maller

Torah’s galaxy worlds formation from beginning to end

At the beginning of the creation of our universe there were zero atoms of matter; only subatomic particles of quark/gluons that turned into protons and neutrons in the first fraction of a second, long before becoming atoms (tohu and vohu).

Then, when the Universe was about 380,000 years old, the first atoms of matter were formed. These were hydrogen atoms, the simplest element in the periodic table. These atoms of hydrogen collected into gas clouds and began to cool gradually and settle within the small clumps or “halos” of dark matter that emerged from the Big Bang. Dark matter neither reflects nor emits visible light, yet it makes up 85% of all matter in the Universe.

This cooling phase, known as the Cosmic dark ages (darkness on matter’s surface) lasted about 100 million years; the delay due to waiting for structure to form so that the gas (90% hydrogen plus 10% helium and little bit of heavier elements) can cool. Then the gas that had cooled inside the dark matter halos became gravitationally unstable, collapsing and coalescing, beginning the formation of the first stars — which became the very first galaxies ever formed.

With the formation of the first galaxies, the Universe burst into light (let there be light), bringing the cosmic dark ages to an end; and resulting in two different populations of galaxies, like some of the satellite galaxies now orbiting our Milky Way galaxy.

The first was a very faint population consisting of the galaxies that formed during the “cosmic dark ages.” The second was a slightly brighter population consisting of galaxies that formed hundreds of millions of years later, once the hydrogen that had been ionized by the intense ultraviolet radiation emitted by the first stars was able to cool within more massive dark matter halos.

The intense ultraviolet radiation emitted by the first galaxies destroyed the remaining hydrogen atoms by ionizing them into a plasma state, making it difficult for this gas to cool and form new stars. The process of galaxy formation ground to a halt and no new galaxies were able to form for the next billion years or so.

Eventually, the halos of dark matter became so massive that even ionized gas was able to cool. Galaxy formation resumed, culminating in the formation of spectacular bright galaxies like our own Milky Way (firmament distinguishing the upper/earlier firmament from the lower/later firmament).

These findings were published in the Astrophysical Journal in August 2018.

Although much of this current cosmology fits in neatly with Genesis 1, especially with the addition of Isaac Luria’s insights of Tsimtsum and Tikun, the real issue is not how it all started (Tsimtsum); but how it all (human civilization and all other extra-solar civilizations) is going to end (Tikun).

“A German- Jewish philosopher named Rosenzweig pointed out that when it comes to God’s creation we are totally passive creatures, i.e. nature is what it is. When it comes to God’s revelation we are somewhat active, but only as receivers, transmitters, commentators and enactors. But when it comes to the world’s redemption, we are full partners, for God can’t redeem us and our world without our free will participation.

Thus, when Jews challenge God they do so based on a perceived injustice or unfairness in their partner’s activities. Abraham argues on behalf of the innocent living in Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18:17-33). When the Jewish People built the golden calf, Moses argued on their behalf against the severity of God’s judgement {Exodus 32:7-14).

Abraham and Moses didn’t challenge God in order to break the covenant. They were committed partners with God in the Covenant just as good marriage partners love each other even while disagreeing over some issue. My wife and I have always helped each other to draw close together, and we have never stopped communicating or making love.

So too the relationship between God and Israel; with study being our form of communication; and doing mitzvot and celebrating Shabbat being our form of making love.

For more insight into our responsibilities as partners with God in the redemption of our world and human society, see my just published book: Which religion Is Right For You?: A 21st century Kuzari (Hadassa Word Press ISBN 978-620-2-45517-6)

About the Author
Rabbi Allen S. Maller has published over 850 articles on Jewish values in over a dozen Christian, Jewish, and Muslim magazines and web sites. Rabbi Maller is the author of "Tikunay Nefashot," a spiritually meaningful High Holy Day Machzor, two books of children's short stories, and a popular account of Jewish Mysticism entitled, "God, Sex and Kabbalah." His most recent books are "Judaism and Islam as Synergistic Monotheisms' and "Which Religion Is Right For You?: A 21st Century Kuzari" both available on Amazon.
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