David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Blessings come from Yearning and Investigation

Allegorically, Moshe represents our ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.1 Aharon, represents our ability to repetitively bring things in experience to light.2 As his brother, Aharon (the repetitively bringing things to light) is that which points things out (brother)3 to Moshe (the drawing out of particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience). Because, in conjunction, these two mental faculties encounter and mentally process a massive amount of things to be found in experience, they were unable to bring forward (sanctify)4 God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) with what was forcing in (בתוך)5 as a result of the person’s making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).6 Thus they circumvented God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) with the many things drawn out (מי water)7 from experience as a result of an act of posturing (מריבת)8 as a result of being dedicated to advance forward in experience (קדש Qadaesh).4 This occurred in a place of being barraged by experience driving forward (מדבר)9 while holding back, expressing doubts, but also thinking oneself capable (צן Tsin).10 For this reason, Moshe was instructed to ascend to the place of bringing into view the many things passing through of experience (הר העברים),11,12 the place of bringing into view as a result of his gushing forth so as to take notice of things (הר נבו),11,13 which was with a person’s disposing of oneself to the yearning to give forth to things in experience when taking notice of things (land of Moab).14,15 From there, he could see the person’s disposing of oneself to an oppressive amount of things drawing in from experience (land of Canaan).14,16

This is the B’rakhah:
Being our ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience, our Moshe was an act of being mentally persistent with God’s guidance being presented in experience17,18 – איש האלהים. Because Elohim represents all of the guidance that can be attained from experience, our Moshe conveyed an abundance (ברכה)19 of experience to the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).6 On the other hand, God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) came in as a result of a person’s filtering through this abundance of experience (Sinai).20 God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) shown forth to them as a result of a person’s taking notice of things into being stirred by them (Sae’ir).21 God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) appeared as a result of a person’s bringing things into view by repetitively and enthusiastically branching out so as to make distinctions between things (mount Paran).11,22 God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) came into alignment as a result of the numerous things brought forward in experience (קודש).4 From His being reliably ever present (right hand),23 an outpouring cascade of experience (אשדת)24 for them.

Nevertheless, (you being) a person who embraces (חובב) many acts of being mindful of what crowds in from experience (עמים)25 – all of those things brought forward of Him (his holy ones)4 are within your reach (hand).26 And the things stirred up in experience (הם)27 draw inward,28 with regard to your traipsing through experience (feet).29 He (God) shall carry along and elevate your acts of driving forward through experience (דברת).30 Regarding that which is thrown out into the light (תורה),31 the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)1 strove for us – a thing driven into (מורשה),32 compiled (channeled in)33 as a result of a person’s investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov).34 And with the person’s repetitively and intentionally driving straight into experience (Y’shurun),35 he was the one that deliberates over experience (king);36 through the gathering together of the many acts of seeing things (heads)37 associated with the act of being mindful of what crowds in from experience (people),25 scannings of the act of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (tribes of Israel).38,6

R’uvaen:
a person’s initial attempt at making an extreme and tenacious examination (of God’s bringing forth existence) by persistently looking upon an overwhelming scene (R’uvaen)39 shall be lively. But it shall preclude from being completely drawn out into experience (die).40 And his being over-extended41 shall be recounted.42

Y’hudah
And that which is overbearingly apparent (זאת)43 in experience is for a person’s becoming startled in acknowledging God’s bringing forth of existence (Y’hudah).44 And he was saying, ” God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) must attentively (שמע) stay put with the channeling (voice)45 of a person’s becoming startled in acknowledging God’s bringing forth of existence (Y’hudah). And toward his being mindful of the many things crowding into him from experience (people),25 You shall bring him in. His reach (hands) will be extensive for his sake. And you shall be a help all around as a result of the many things in experience narrowing in upon him.”

Levi
And with regard to a person’s mentally clinging to a scene, generating an awareness of many startling things (Levi),46 he said, “Your acts of completely mentally processing things in looking out in wonderment (Tumim)47 and your emanating throughout experience (Urim)48 are for your being mentally persistent, in association with your considering experience (איש חסיד).17,49 That you challenge it (mental persistence) with a challenge. You shall strive with it – regarding the many things drawn off from experience as a result of the act of posturing and struggling with experience (מי מריבה).7,8 What follows requires a bit of clarification before proceeding. As a mental process, Levi represents a thorough and systematic scanning of a scene. Even though what is allegorically represented by the words for father, mother, brother and children are generally also regarded as positive means of mentally processing a scene, in this context they are considered distractions. The blessing continues with: “The one (mental persistence) that asserts with regard to its taking notice of things (father)50 and with regard to its remaining mentally present (mother)51 with things: I didn’t see it. And regarding the mental faculty that points things out to it regarding experience (brother),3 it did not familiarize. And regarding its actively engaging experience (sons),52 it did not acknowledge. Because they (Levites) have observed the way you (God) pour forth (words)53 in experience and they have fixed their sights upon a clear understanding (ברית)54 of you. They shall throw into the light those things in experience clearly declared (משפט)55 by you, for the sake of a person’s investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov).34 And that which is thrown into the light by you (Torah),31 for the sake of a person’s making of a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).6 They (Levites) shall put forth an engaging and investigating of experience (incense)56 with the way that you present yourself (nose)57 and a containing (כליל)58 of things upon the way that you flow forth in experience (altar).59 God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) make excel his endurance. And the exertion of his reach, you shall favor. Split through the prolongings of the things confronting him (loins of his enemies)60,61 and the things that are repetitively and harshly imposing upon him (hating),62 from their standing persistently firm.

Binyamin
Regarding a person’s behavior of being ever mindful while circulating about experience,63 he said, “The one being attentively showered upon (ידיד)64 by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) shall dwell upon Him (upon experience), confidently. One brushing against him (Binyamin) – each stirring experience (day)65 – and when squeezed in between His tight spots (shoulders),66 he (Binyamin) dwells upon the scene.

Yoseph
And regarding a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of God’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to God’s guidance found in experience (Yoseph),67 he said, “His disposing of himself to experience (land)14 is as a result of the endowments (blessings) of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), from the precious things drawn off (מגד)68 of the many things put forth in experience (heaven);69 from what dangles suspended in experience (dew);70 and from the depths of things stirred up71 that sprawls out, subdued;72 and from the precious things drawn off68 as a result of what comes in, in remaining patiently still (sun);73 and from the precious things drawn off68 as a result of what is stirred up (גרש)74 resulting from acts of wandering about (moon);75 and from perceiving things (head)76 resulting from acts of bringing into view (mountains)11 what advances forward in experience (east),78 and from the precious things drawn off from compelling things heaped up (hills)79 of what is otherwise unknown (עולם);80 and from the precious things drawn off as a result of a disposing of oneself (land),14 and of its fullest extent; and as a result of what is favored in being run toward (רצון) as a result of many acts of dwelling upon experience that is sharply felt (סנה).81 It shall gradually come in for the sake of the seeing (head)76 that occurs as a result of a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of God’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to God’s guidance found in experience (Yoseph)67 and for the sake of bringing forward (קדקד)82 what surrounds (נזיר)83 of what points things out to it regarding experience (brothers).3 What wells forth first (בכור)84 as a result of his remaining visually fixated on a scene (שור),85 is the thing that distinguishes itself surging around him (הדר).86 But, his ways of approaching closer (horns)87 to things in experience are the ways of approaching closer that result from attaining greater heights (ראם).88 With them, he thrusts together the acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (peoples),25 things scattered about (discovered in his) disposing himself to the scene (land).14 Then the things in experience stirred up (הם)27 are the myriads resulting from one’s disposing oneself to an overwhelming amount of God’s Guidance found in experience, being scattered about experience (Ephraim);89 and the things in experience stirred up27 are those things training through with which one becomes familiar (אלפי)90 as a result of one’s slipping through what is taken notice of of God’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time (M’nasheh).91

Z’vulun and Yissakhar
And for a person’s being churned up by God’s Guidance found in experience, such that mental persistence liberally pours forth, persistently acquiring an awareness of many startling things (Z’vulun),92 he says, “Joyfully spread out in experience (שמח),93 a person’s being churned up by God’s Guidance found in experience, such that mental persistence liberally pours forth, persistently acquiring an awareness of many startling things (Z’vulun) in your going out. And (be joyful), in being a person taking in a hulking handful of enticing things found in going back and forth by tenaciously examining a scene of God’s Guidance with mental persistence (Yissakhar),94 when you are familiarizing yourself with many things (tents).95 Many acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (peoples),25 an act of bringing things into view (mountain),11 they shall call closer. Regarding what is readily available (שם),96 they shall make flow forth a flowing forth of particulars (זבחי צדק).97,98 Because they shall suckle upon: what overflows of many stirring things (שפע ימים)99,100 and things glossed over101 of treasures hidden a midst what is common (sand).102

Gad
And regarding a person’s taking seriously a new thing that breaks through to the surface in exuberantly trickling through a scene (Gad),103 he said, “Excellent is the one who widens the area in which a person takes seriously a new thing that breaks through to the surface in exuberantly trickling through a scene (Gad) – as one of courage (lioness),104 he dwells upon and makes observations of the scene, then he pounces upon a thing that is scattered (arm),105 additionally, he is diligent and puts his head into it (קדקד head).82 And he makes available for himself the thing that is first perceived (ראשית)76 because that which is put forth (שם)96 is the portion of one who carves something out from a midst the many aspects of a scene, that which is layered in a scene (ספון).106 And he designates the boundary of the perceivings76 resulting from being mindful of what crowds in from experience (people).25 He persists with the particular details98 of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) and his judgments are with the act of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).”6

Dan and Naphtali
And regarding a person’s by abiding in contemplation of God’s Guidance being presented in experience – scanning, feeling out and glancing – when mindfully intermingling, awaiting for what rears up (Dan),107 he said, “A person who abides in contemplation of God’s Guidance being presented in experience – scanning, feeling out and glancing – when mindfully intermingling, awaiting for what rears up (Dan), is one drawing (whelp)108 into that which is thrown into the light (lion).109 He hurls himself forward into experience as a result of the act of repetitively driving in upon something so as to visually fix upon it (Bashan).110 And with respect to a person’s being beset upon and entangled by the many subduing aspects of God’s Guidance found in experience when mindfully intermingling with experience (Naphtali),111 he said, “Being a person beset upon and entangled by the many subduing aspects of God’s Guidance found in experience when mindfully intermingling with experience (Naphtali), be satiated by the repetitive act of disposing yourself to experience (רצון) and become full by the endowments (ברכת) of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) – regarding that which stirs a person up (west)100 and the act of going around and around in a maze of experience (south)112 – he shall gradually take possession.

Ashaer
And regarding a person’s intently driving into experience, taking stock of what exists (Ashaer),113 he said, “one who excels (ברוך)19 as a result of frequently taking action (בנים)52 is a person’s intently driving into experience, taking stock of what exists (Ashaer). He shall be beset (רצוי) upon by many things being pointed out to him regarding experience (brothers).3 And he shall immerse his spontaneity (leg)29 into that which exudes throughout experience (oil).114 What restrains you (from engaging everything)(locks)115 is what of experience is deeply penetrating (iron)116 and that which is deeply felt-experienced (bronze).117 And your effort118 will be in accord with the things in experience that stir you up (days).119

There does not exist anything like the initiating of experience (אל God)120 resulting from a person’s repetitively and intentionally driving straight into experience (Y’shurun)35 – one who engages (רכב)121 the many things put forth in experience (heavens)69 in your being surrounded – and through His billowings (majesty)122 are the grindings of experience (clouds).123 One’s observations (מענה)124 are of God’s Guidance of what advances forward in experience (אלהי קדם)14,78 and subdued (תחת)72 are the scatterings (arms)105 of what is hidden and otherwise inaccessible (עולם)80. And He shall incite (גרש)125 from before you something in experience that is alarming (enemy).126 And He shall say, “Extract it!”127 And a person’s making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)6 shall dwell on experience confidently, alone. The observations (well)124 of a person’s investigating what comes around in experience (Yaaqov)34 will be toward the disposing of oneself (land)14 to what blankets experience (grain)128 and what is driven into and taken into possession (wine).129 Still, the many things put forth in experience (heavens)69 by Him shall spread out, a dangling of opportunity (dew).70 Happy and confirmed are you who makes a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).6 Who is like you? One who is mindful of what crowds in from experience (people),25 supported by God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) – what draws in around (shield)130 of what assists in surrounding you, and that is of what ravages (sword)131 in experience as a result of your welling forth (majesty)122 into experience. And those things in experience that alarm you (enemy)126 shall submit themselves to you. And in your applying yourself (אתה),132 you shall thresh about concerning what pushes in of them (hunches).133

Chapt 34
And our Moshe, our mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience,1 was ascending – as a result of the extensiveness of things resulting from a yearning to give forth to things taken notice of in experience (plains of Moab),134,15 advancing toward the act of bringing into view what gushes forth of it (הר נבו)11,13 – the perceiving of the unlimited branchings of experience (Rosh Pisgah)37,135 that were concerning the many things being presented as a result of his going back and forth in experience (פני ירחו).136,137 And God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) was showing him all of the disposing of oneself to experience (land)14 – the persistent revealing of what was evident (Gilad),138 unto an act of abiding in contemplation of God’s Guidance being presented in experience – scanning, feeling out and glancing – when mindfully intermingling, awaiting for what rears up (Dan);107 and all resulting of a person’s being beset upon and entangled by the many subduing aspects of God’s Guidance found in experience when mindfully intermingling with experience (Naphtali),111 and the disposing of oneself to an overwhelming amount of God’s Guidance found in experience, being scattered about experience, and one’s slipping through what is taken notice of of God’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time (M’nashah),91 and all resulting of a disposing of oneself (land)14 to a person’s becoming startled in acknowledging God’s bringing forth of existence (Y’hudah),44 unto what is stirred up in experience that comes after (ים אחרון).100 And the act of hovering over experience so as to make a selection (Negev),139 and the act of going around and around (ככר),140 an act of getting profoundly into and investigating his going back and forth in experience (בקעת ירחו)141,137 – a stirred up situation of the many acts of making observations in standing firm over a scene (עיר תמרים),142,143 unto the feeling discouraged in feeling small in being narrowed in by experience (Tso’ar).144

So God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H) was saying to him, “This is the way of disposing oneself to experience (land)14 that I am obliged to for a person’s spreading out into experience so as to take notice of the many things stirred up in experience (Avraham),145 for one’s bringing things to light in being meticulously alert to what is around (Yitschaq),146 and for a person’s investigating what comes around in experience (Ya’aqov).34

Notes:
1 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplified: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
2 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
3 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
4 – The piel of QaDaSh literally means to dedicate to move forward, hence it is commonly used to mean both to sanctify something or commit to move it into a more forward, holier position, and to betroth. Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use).
5 – in the middle of, midst of (תוך – ToKh) comes from the verb TaWaKh (תוך – to push or force inward).
6 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
7 – waters of (מי MaY) Allegorically: things drawn out-off. This presumes that the word for water in the construct state is not related to the word MaYiM (מים), but rather from MaHaH (מהה – diffuse, dissolve, dilute). It probably relates to the drawing away of a diluted particles in water.
8 – M’rivah (מריבה M’RiBaH) to content, dispute, strive (ריב RyBh) Allegorically: posture (literal meaning). From RaBh (רב) to be big, make bigger.
9 – miDBaR (מדבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise. Another thing to consider is that Akkadian has a cognate for midbar the associated verbs duppuru “to go away” and tuppuru “to drive away.” (William L. Moran (Harvard Univ.) – FB discussion, Semitic Etymology group). In Akkadian, it means Steppe, a plain devoid of tall plant life. So perhaps it means “barreled over.”
10 – Tsin (צן TsiN) Allegorically: a place of holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable. From Arabic cognates: Ss/N (צאן) to protect, guard, safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste; ThyN (ד’ן) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider presume; think s.o capable of doing s.th, opinion, belief, doubts; suspicion.
11 – HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective. It comes from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb).
12 – Avarim (עברים \aBhaRim ) Allegorically: the many things in experience passing through. From the verb \aBhaR (עבר) to pass through, cross over.
13 – Nebo – N’vo (נבו N’Bho) Allegorically: of his gushing forth (in taking notice of things). The root NaBhaH (נבה) probably evolved from /aBhaH (אבה) to willingly give forth, yield and to take notice of (Arb), thus it would mean: to give forth. Therefore in Syriac NaBhaH means: to stir, begin to move, start, arise, emanate, have origin from; emotion, impulse, and thoughts” while its cognate in Akkadian means: “to rise, well up, flood;” and in Arabic: “wake up, awaken, take notice of, pay attention to, heed, mind note, observe, noted, well known, bring to one’s attention; alertness, insight.”
14 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
15 – Moab (מואב Mo/aBh) Allegorically: one’s yearning to give forth of oneself (in taking notice of things). From the verb Ya/aBh (יאב) to yearn-long to give forth of oneself. See Syriac cognate: to pant after, desire, eagerly, long for. From the verb /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself, yield” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
16 – Canaan (כנען KaNa\aN) Allegorically: one’s being subdued by the many things drawing in from experience. From context). From the root KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. A comparison with related roots such as KaNaS (כנס to enter), KaNaPh (כנף wing, (what is drawn in)), KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon..
17 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
18 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.
19 – blessing (ברכה B’RaKhaH), blessed (ברוך BaRuKh) Allegorically: excessive, excellent. From to bless, declare excellent (BaRaKh – ברך) quite literally means “to make excel” or “shower with abundance.” This root literally means “to make a clearing, to go clear through > be excellent, declare excellent.” BaRuKh – although generally translated as blessed, the most accurate translation would be excellent in the sense of exceeding all bounds, both in regard to esteem and material aspects. Variations in meaning of this root: to kneel (make a clearing), to make a clearing of trees (Jastro); B’RaeKhah (בריכה)(cleared of everything) a man- made pool, lake (SmII2:13;4:12); (piel) to greet (SmI13:10); greet, hail, holler at, accost (Pr27:14); to congratulate (CrI18:10); to curse, blaspheme, declare the horribleness of something (KgI21:10,13)(Ps10:3)(Jb1:11;2:5,9)(Talm. B’M 59b); Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening); ShaBhaR (שבר) literally means “to go clear though” hence it means to break, break apart, shatter, smash, crash, to distribute-buy-sell provision (?broken pieces); and for a wave to break. However, its secondarily evolved form SaBhaR (שבר) means to contemplate, look to and hope for. There is an identical noun SheBheR (שבר) meaning “interpretation” or more correctly break down > analysis that indicates the transition between the two
20 – Sinai (סיני) Allegorically: showing restraint in filtering and clarifying experience. From SaNaN (סנן (impose >) to be bright, sharp & to filter, refine, strain) from ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach) &/or ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat), from /aNaH (אנה – to impose)
21 – Seir (שעיר Sae\iyR) barley (שערים from שעורה S’/oRaH), goat (hairy one),demon (שעיר Sa\yR); gate (שער Sha\aR). Allegorically: acts of taking notice of many things in being stirred by them. Except for gate (which possibly is derived from עיר city (place stirred up)), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up).
22 – Paran (פארן Pa/Ran) Allegorically: an act of repetitively gushing forth and branching out so as to make distinctions between things. From Pa/aR (פאר) meaning “to go to the edge, go over the edge, make an extreme effort with, branch out, set apart, be set apart, to distinguish, adorn, beautify.” Having evolved from Pae/aH (פאה edge); which evolved from PeH (פה mouth). In Akkadian: to seek, look for, search for; Arabic: boil over, flare up, gush forth, excite.
23 – dominant hand (ימין YaMyN) Allegorically: ever present / dominant side. A righty puts Tefillin on the left arm (non-dominant) while a lefty puts his Tefillin on his right arm. YaMyN (ימין) evolved from /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe) means to trust in something’s being ever present. It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which literally means “ever present existence.” It also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence) and mother (/aeM – אם) which literally means “who or what that is ever present.”
24 – אשדת ?pronunciation) Allegorically: an outpouring cascade of experience. Onkelos translates this as אשתא אוריתא a fire of Law (Torah), the Septuagint has “angelos” or angels (possibly מלאכים), the Samaritan Torah agrees with the Judean. Based on allegorical context, I presume the word to be from the root אשד to shed or pour forth.
25 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
26 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /uD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
27 – They (הם HaeM) Allegorically: those stirred up. Derived from the root HaMaH (המה – to stir up) are YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up); HaeM (הם they, those stirred up); HaMoN (המון those stirred up); YoM (יום – day, time period causing a stirring)
28 – to draw inward (תוכו TuKKu) pual from the otherwise unused root TaKaH (תכה) meaning “to hedge in toward.” The root evolved from ShuKh (שוך). Related to the verb SuKh (שוך – to hedge in), which evolved into ShuKh (שׁוך – to cordon off) > ShaKhaBh (שכב – to snuggle up, huddle, lie up against, lay down); ShaKhaR (שכר – to become drunk)(= hedged in); HhaShaKh (חשך) to darken, be dark; HhaSaKh (חשך) to withhold; NaShaKh (נשך) to bite, take a bite off; testicles (אשך /eSheKh). A related Syriac root תוך (TuKh): “contained, enclosed (in memory), kept in bounds, abashed, fence in, coerce, hold in check.” The Hebrew TaKhaKh (תכך) “to press in toward the middle, in between” possibly evolved from TaKaH (תכה).
29 – leg (רגל – ReGeL) From the verb RaGaL (רגל) to walk about, traipse, spy, and deliver false reports. Related R.G… words, generally meaning “to go back and forth.” רגג to swoon after; הרג to kill (make go back and forth), in Syriac and Arabic to muse over, blur the mind; רגל walk about, spy out, to slander; שרג to slip back and forth, entangle; שׂרג to swing back and forth, slip; רגב clod, make clods; quiver, be afraid; רגף to shake, stir; רגם to throw at, pelt at, Akk- shout at, persecute raise claim against, accuse; Ugr – to communicate, say, tell, announce, inform, answer; Amh- to curse, wish evil upon; Arb- to stone, curse, revile; shooting stars, meteorites; רגע to swing back and forth, roll; רגש to surge together, rage; רגז to deviate from side to side, wander about, get lost; ארג to weave
30 – ?words (דברות DaB’RoT) otherwise unattested. Note: word, thing (דבר DaBhaR); pestilence-plague (דבר DeBheR) Allegorically: what drives directly forward. In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar (מדבר – wilderness, place of flash floods) may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise.
31 – Torah (תורה) from YaRaH (ירה) to throw into the light > teach > aim > penetrate; from /aRaH (ארה) to pick out into the light.
32 – a possession (ירשה Y’RaeShaH) or (מורשה MoRaShaH) Allegorically (literally): what is driven into. Its evolution: YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRaSh (ירש – to penetrate-drive in, take possession, to dispossess). Also from YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRa/ (ירא to be penetrated > in awe > afraid).
33 – congregation, convocation, calling together (קהלה > קהלת Q’HiLaH > Q’HiLaT) and (קהל QaHaL) Allegorically: the act of channeling in. This verb evolved from QoL (קול – voice, channeling of sound) which evolved from QaWaH (קוה to channel into).
34 – Yaaqov (יעקב) from the root \aQaBh (עקב) which essentially means “to twist around.” Across the Semitic languages, this root is used to mean “to constrain, to follow, to come after, to trace, to approach closely, to investigate, to criticize, and to grab the heel (supplant).” Allegorically: “to (constrain oneself so as to) investigate what comes around.”
35 – Y’sharun (ישרון Y’ShaRuN) Allegorically: people who go straight toward something. From YaShaR (ישר straight) which evolved from /aShaR (אשר) to go intentionally, directly.
36 – king (MeLeKh – מלך) from the verb MaLaKh (מלך) to rule, it evolved from MaLaHh (מלח) to balance > to sail. It is more appropriately translated as to deliberate > to act deliberately. But also means to deliberate, as can be seen in the Akkadian to consider, discuss, advise, look after, mind, and confer
37 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
38 – rod, staff, branch > tribe (שבט SheBheT) Allegorically: swinging back and forth, scanning. ShaBhaT (שבט) Akkadian “to beat, sweep away, (sweep back and forth” Syriac (swing easily) to fly loose, float, stream; beat out, hammer, rod, staff, branch, tribe); SaBaT (שׂבּט) Arabic – lank hair; graceful stature. The root ShaBaT evolved from ShaBaTs (שבץ) to embroider / inlay, but also agony (SmII1:9); which evolved from ShaBaSh (to go back and forth)
> to run in all directions, entangle, confound; from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still). HOWEVER: TaBaT (תבּט) (Arb- (held branch before swinging back > ) hold back, prevent, hinder, handicap, set back, bring failure, frustrate).
39 – R’ubhaen (ראובן) “tenaciously examining a scene for an activity of God’s bringing forth of existence by being mentally persistent in feeling overwhelmed.” כי אמרה כי ראה יהוה בעניי כי עתה יאהבני אישי “Because she said (made a tenacious examination – Akk.), because HaShem looked upon what afflicts-overwhelms. And now my husband (/eeSh (איש one who persists > husband, allegorically: one’s mental persistence)) shall lovingly give forth to me.
40 – die (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
41 – few (מתי M’TaiY) Allegorically: “a drawing out of.” Gesenius equates this root with MaT or MeT (מת) meaning “man.” Allegorically: those drawn out in space and time (I have not the slightest idea why). Etymologically related to “die” (MuT – מות) which literally means “to be completely drawn away-out.” Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
42 – number, count (מספר miSPaR) Allegorically: counting, recounting. From SaPhaR (ספר to cut, trim, count, recount).
43 – this (זה Zeh; זאת Zo/T) from the verb ZaHaH (זהה) and literally means “what is visually radiant or apparent.”
44 – Y’hudah (יהודה): from הפעם אודה את יהוה “This time, I shall praise HaShem (G-d’s bringing forth of existence).” Generally understood to mean Ya or G-d’s bringing forth of existence is praised. But /oDeH (אודה – I shall praise), comes from the YaDaH (ידה – to point out) which has neutral, positive and negative connotations. In a neutral context, it means to acknowledge. While in a negative context, YaDaH (ידה) means to blame or acknowledge guilt. Additionally, even though Pa\aM (פעם) means once or this time, its verb means “to startle / be startled.” So in the context of his feeling overwhelmed by all of the instruction coming in from experience, Y’hudah means “his becoming startled in acknowledging G-d’s bringing forth of existence.” It is for this reason that Y’hudah’s first three children are named annoyed-irritated (ער – \aeR), complaining-reluctant (אונן – /oNaN) and indifferent-apathetic (שלה – ShaeLaH)
45 – voice, channeling of sound (קול QoL) which evolved from QaWaH (קוה to channel into)
46 – Levites, Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
47 – Tummim (תומים TuMMiM) from the related roots TaMaM (תמם) – TaMaH (תמה) meaning “to stand still in amazement, to wonder; and (to be stunned and undecided).” > (stand still) to do completely, to complete, to finish, etc. Allegorically: acts of serially, mentally processing things completely in looking at something in wonderment.
48 – orim (אורים /oRim) Allegorically: acts of emanating out into experience in every direction. From /oR (אור light) literally means “what emanates,” consider: אורות (weeds-emanating outward) herbs, אויר open space, air and ממארת cancerous, malignant.
49 – kindness (חסד HheSeD) kind-person (חסיד HhaSyD) Allegorically: consideration. From HhaSaD (חסד) that gives such disparate meanings as taunt, envy, kind, shameful indulgence and loyalty? In order to unravel this discordance of meanings, we need to peel back a few layers of the etymological onion. The root ChaSaD (חסד) evolved from the verb ChooS (חוס) which when associated with the preposition \aL (על) means to show concern / shower consideration upon. However, when joined with the preposition b’ (ב), it means to have trust in or rely upon. The word ChooS (חוס) evolved from the root ChooSh (חוש) which has an essential meaning of to spend time with or persist with someone or something by experiencing, sensing, feeling or considering. From this root are words meaning envy, loyalty, and indulgence – all of which essentially meaning spending more time and mental energy on a particular thing.
50 – father (אב /aBh) derives from /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.”
51 – mother (/aeM – אם) Allegorically: being mentally present. It literally means “who or what that is ever present” It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence); /aYaM (אים) foreboding literally means “an ever present feeling,” and m’/uMaH (מאומה) something literally means “a thing of that is ever present” and /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe).
52 – sons (בנים) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
53 – word, speech, statement of (אמרה /aMaRy) Allegorically: pouring forth OR tenacious examination. This root evolved from מר (pouring) a drop (Is40:15) and מור myrrh (sticky and bitter). Most Semitic words of the /aMaR (אמר) root mean sticky, or to stick with. Arabic: constantly urging > command; spirit, soul, mind; pericardium, characteristic; Ugaritic: look at, be seen; order, demand; lamb (matted); Akkadian look at, see, inspect, examine, catch sight of; Syriac: muse, preach, expound, say, speak, renounce (declare away from), tell affirm, assert, intend, chant; predict
54 – covenant (ברית B’ReyT) Usually translated covenant, technically it means “clear agreement.” Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening
55 – judgment (משפט MiShPaT) Allegorically: a declared judgment or clarification. From PuT (פוט) to burst forth, therefore, make a declaration, which is usually a clarification or clearly stated instruction.
56 – incense (קטרת QaToReT) Allegorically: to engage with and inspect. From the verb QaTaR (קטר) to shrivel (from QuT קוט to shrivel, be disgusted), but also means to tie a knot, interlace, couple together, stiffen; In Amharic: tie a knot, keep secret, engage a worker, encircle; engagement > appointment, to rank > number, count >> encircle, regard, consider, supervise, inspect, oversee and reckon
57 – nose, anger (אף /aPh) Allegorically: confronting presentation. Many cognates are /aNaPh (אנף) and this is consistent with the verb “to be angry” (Dt1:37;4:21;9:8,20)(KgI8:46)(Is12;1)(Ps2:12;79:5). Additionally, when prefixed the Peh has a dagesh further suggesting-confirming the loss of the letter nun. This root possibly derived from הניף to swing back and forth, with /aNaPh (אנף) being the intermediary to ענף branch. However, /aNaPh (אנף anger) could just as easily be derived from /aNaH (אנה) to impose oneself. The allegorical idea of confronting presentation comes from the root /aPh (אף – nose, face, brow) which could very well be completely unrelated. Nevertheless, /oPhy (אופי) character, seems to be related to that.
58 – whole offerings (כליל KaLyL) Allegorically: containing of. From KaLaH (כלה to contain, restrain, complete, finish, conclude) > KaLaL (כלל to complete, perfect)
59 – altar (מזבח – miZBae’aHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
60 – loins (מתנים MaTNaYiM) Allegorically: a drawing out of > prolonging of. From MaTaN (to draw out (space or time)). Etymologically related to “die” (MuT – מות) which literally means “to be completely drawn away-out.” Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out), MaT or MeT (מת) meaning “man.” (I have not the slightest idea why). Were there to be a dagesh, it could be surmised to have evolved from NaTaN (נתן to draw out > give forth), but it would not make much of a difference since MaTaN (מתן) evolved into NaTaN (נתן).
61 – enemy (קם QaM) Allegorically: one or what stands firmly before, confronts. From QuM (קום) to get up, arise, stand, be fixed in place, establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Also related: place (מקום MaQoM), QaaM (קם enemy, foe, adversary), Y’QuM (יקום substance, existence), NaQaM (נקם to avenge)
62 – those hating (him) (משנאים) Allegorically: those imposing themselves. From SaNa/ (שנא) to hate, but literally meaning “imposing upon” having evolved from אנה > שנה > שנא allegorically. Related to: year (ShaNaH – שנה), two of them (שניהם Sh’NayHeM) from two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN), two years (שנתים); copy (משנה MiShNeH). Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
63 – Binyamin (בנימין) Allegorically: manifesting one’s capability by being ever mentally present with what is encountered in experience. Initially named by Rachel בן אוני a son of my iniquity (capacity). But renamed, from YaMyN (ימין) meaning ever present / dominant side. A righty puts Tefillin on the left arm (non-dominant) while a lefty puts his Tefillin on his right arm. YaMyN (ימין) evolved from /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe) means to trust in something’s being ever present. It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which literally means “ever present existence.” It also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence) and mother (/aeM – אם) which literally means “who or what that is ever present.”
64 – beloved (ידיד YaDyD) Allegorically: one being attentively showered upon. The root DaWaH (דוה) essentially means “to flow out or over.” The related words DuD and DoD (דוד) meaning kettle > basket; to flee; and uncle-aunt literally mean “to flow out-forth rapidly or abundantly (with substance or love). Related to Arabic WaD (וד) to love, like, be fond of, want and its doublet WDWD (ודוד) to be favorably disposed
65 – derived from the root HaMaH (המה – to stir up) are YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up); HaeM (הם they, those stirred up); HaMoN (המון those stirred up); YoM (יום – day, time period causing a stirring); T’HoMoT (תהומות waters stirred up from the depths)
66 – shoulder, shoulder joint (כתף KaTaPh) Allegorically: pressed together > consolidated. All KaTa* verbs essentially mean to press-impress-compress (together); such as KaTaBh (כתב – to write), KaTaL (כתל wall; Arabic – to press into, compact, mass),KaTaR (כתר – huddle, croud in on), KaTaSh (כתש – crush, compress), KaTyT (כתית – pressed) from KaTaT (כתת – to pound, smash together).
67 – Yoseph (יוסף) In naming Yoseph, the text says that G-d’s guidance (Elohim) was remembering (being clear minded), attentive to and opening the womb of Rachel and gathering in (/aSaPh = אסף) [her] censure-taunt-sharply jabbing. The word ReHheM (רחם – womb), from the root RaWaHh (רוח – wide) means facilitating expansiveness for someone or something. These are the supplemental behaviors that allow roaming about to be an effective way of gathering in information. Therefore, allegorically Yoseph means “a person’s repeatedly gathering in another thing that is jabbing of G-d’s bringing forth of existence, in exploring while roaming about, being clear minded, attentive and receptive to G-d’s guidance found in experience.”
68 – dainties-precious things (מגד MeGeD) Literally: things drawn off or away (considered-made special). From NaGaD (נגד – to draw off from > draw out). From GaD (גד) to draw across, draw off, draw away from > cut across. Hence GuD (גוד) (to cut across) to split off, draw away from, to form a faction, GaDaD (גדד) (cut off >) form a troop; GaDaL (גדל) (cut across >) weave > build up > great; GaDa\ (גדע) to lop off; SaGaD (סגד)(cut across oneself) to bow; GaDaSh (גדש) to stack up; NaGaD (נגד) to draw out > tell a story; be drawn across from > opposite.
69 – heaven, sky (שמים – ShaMayim) from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label, arrange). Allegorically: the many things put forth in experience.
70 – dew (טל TaL) Allegorically: what is suspended and dangling (opportunities). The word TaL (טל – dew) literally means “what dangles” from טלה (suspend in the air) to raise up, which evolved from TsaLaH (צלה – to hang off the side) TsaLaH (צלה – (to suspend from) to roast (SmI2:15)(Is44:16,19). Related roots mean to suspend > to hang off from the side > lean in. Example TsaLaBh (צלב – to crucify), TsaLaPh (צלף – caper bush (hangs off from cliffs)), TsaLa\ (צלע – side, to limp), TsaL (צל – shadow (hangs off the side of a thing)).
71 – waters stirred up from the depths (תהומות T’HoMoT) derived from the root HaMaH (המה – to stir up) are YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up); HaeM (הם they, those stirred up); HaMoN (המון those stirred up); YoM (יום – day, time period causing a stirring);
72 – under, rear-end (תחת TaHhaT) from NaHhaT (נחת to press down upon / bend, to descend, come down); which evolved to HhaTaH (חתה – to push down; (press down into, bring down into) to scoop up) and then ChaTaT (חתת to press down upon, to subdue, and to frighten)
73 – sun (SheMeSh – שמש) Allegorically: unwavering, fortitude, baulking (from the Arabic cognate). The root evolved from ShuM (שום) which essentially means “to stay put.” Hence ShaMaR (שמר – guard, watch), ShaMa\ (שמע – be attentive, listen), ShaMaSh (שמש – to serve, attend to, wait upon) and SuM (שום – to put, place).
74 – ?produce (גרש GeReSh) Allegorically: what is driven into and stirred up. The root GaRaSh (גרש) literally means “to drive into something” however it is used to mean to drive into so as to drive out > divorce. Also related is the noun for “pasture land” (מגרש miGRaSh) and GaRaS (גרש grits). From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
75 – months, moons (ירח YaRaeHh) Literally: wanderer, traveler (for its less consistent movements in the sky as compared to the stars or sun). It evolved from /aRaHh (ארח) to travel. Allegorically: to move back and forth. Roots with R.Hh. (רח) essentially mean “to move back and forth on the horizontal plain > wide. RaWaHh (רוח – wide) > RuWaHh (רוח) wind > breath > spirit. RaHhaM (רחם) womb, compassion, intestines – means facilitating width-expansiveness for someone or something; RaHhaBh (רחב) wide; RaHhaPh (רחף) to move back and forth, hover; RaHhaL (רחל) Arabic – to roam, wander about, set out from a place, without direction; ewe (one who wanders off when pregnant); RaHhaQ (רחק) to be-go far; RaHhaSh (רחש) to move, stir, flutter (heart); frying pan; Akk- to move, to set in motion; to wash (רחץ RaHhaTs); /aRaHh (ארח) to travel > YaRaeHh (ירח) (traveler) > moon. MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out
76 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) and first, beginning of (ראשית Rae\ShyT) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
78 – east side (קדם QeDeM) Allegorically: advancing forward in experience. From the verb QaDaM (קדם to be before, in front, to precede, advance forward, to do early. Hence east due to the early rising of the sun in the east.
79 – hill (גבעה – GiBh\aH) Allegorically: what is heaped up, compelling. This root means to heap up, therefore > hill, goblet. In Sabaic, the verb GaBa\ (גבע) means to impose and force, to compel. Related roots of G.B. mean to heap up or hover over. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
80 – early times, universe, world, eternity (עולם \oLaM) Allegorically: what is bound up-unknown-(what is known).
In Hebrew \LM (עלם) means “hidden, secret, world, ancient, forever.” In Ugaritic \LM (עלם) means “be hidden, unknown, unnoticed; eternity, perpetuity.” In Arabic, \LM (עלם) means “known, to know / be aware, discern, perceive, distinguish, world, universe, worldly, lay, secular, characteristic > token, a sign, a distinguished person.” The root \LM = עלם evolved / developed from the root /LM = אלם which means “to bind / tie together.” The meaning depends on one’s frame of reference. If from within what is bound together, then what is known. If from without, then what is unknown or hidden. There is similar root with a letter ghayin (not ayin) meaning “young man-woman.” In Ugaritic, “page, servant, messenger, boy, youth, prince, noble” and in Arabic, “boy, youth, lad, slave, servant; youthfulness, be excited by lust; wanton, lewd;” and in Syriac, “be youthful, grow young, possess youth / vigor, invigorate, renew.”
81 – thorn bush (סנה – S’NeH) literally meaning sharp thing, related to SaNaN (סנן – sharp, bright, (to sharpen) to refine, filter, strain).
82 – crown of head (קדקד QaDQoD) Allegorically: bringing forward. Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward: QaDaD (קדד – to bow), and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
83 – crown (נזיר NaZyR) Allegorically: what surrounds. From NaZaR (זרה) to go around.
84 – first born (בכור – BaKhuR) from BaKhaR (בכר – to bud (well up), to be born first), which evolved from BaKhaH (בכה) to cry, weep, vent and trickle; which evolved from NaBhaKh (נבך) (welling up) spring, source (Jb38:16)
85 – ox (שור – Shur) Allegorical: fixing one’s gaze. This root (ShuR – שור), like with Yisrael, means to be fixed either physically or visually. Hence, physically (wall, ox, umbilical cord) and visually (to get a fix on (see) (Nm23:9,24:17)(Hs14:9))
86 – sign of dignity, majesty, distinction (הדר HaDaR) Allegorically: the thing that distinguishes itself surging around him. The root HaDaR (הדר) means “to honor, dignify and show favor” and also “to have a distinct or visually appealing look or appearance.” The Arabic cognate means “swirling, rushing, surging, boil, bubble, rage, rant, make noise, rumble, roll, make an excessive and ineffective effort, abandon, relinquish” because the root evolved from /aDaR (אדר to surround > cloak) as can be seen to cloak with favor, to dignify glorify (Is42:21); which evolved from DaRaH (דור > דרה (DuR)) to go around.
87 – horn (קרן QeReN) Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. (קר) essentially mean “to get in very close”: KaRaH (קרה to come upon, happen occur); QaRa/ (קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read); QaRaBh (קרב to approach); QaRaM (קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate); QaRaN (קרן horn, to project); QaRa\ (קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner); QaRaSh (קרש to contract, gnash, bite into); QaRaS (קרס to stoop, clasp); QaRaTs (קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse); NaQaR (נקר to gouge, chisel); ShaQaR (שקר to gouge > deceive, lie).
88 – wild-ox (ראם R’/aeM) Allegorically: attaining greater heights. Having evolved from RuM (רום) to be high.
89 – Ephraim means “one’s disposing oneself to an overwhelming amount of G-d’s Guidance, being scattered about experience.” From: כי הפרני אלהים בארץ עניי “Because G-d’s Guidance made me to scatter about (unattested root PaRaH (פרה) evolved into PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around) in the disposing of oneself (RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to dispose, show favor) > /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition) BUT (RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצץ to run upon / crush) > /aRTs (ארץ earth)) to all that overwhelms me (עוני from ענה which means to afflict, overwhelm, rape, humiliate etc).
90 – lead oxen, thousands (אלפים – /aLaPhim). Allegorically: becoming familiar with what trains through. From the root /aLaPh (אלף – to train, tame, domesticate, lead) which evolved from LuPh (לוף to join together, be connected). The idea of training through can be seen in the related word ChaLaPh (חלף pass by, sweep through). The progression: join together > lead > train / teach; train > pass through.
91 – M’nasheh (מנשה) is “one’s slipping through what is taken notice of G-d’s Guidance found in experience, deferring it for a later time.” From כי נשני אלהים את כל עמלי ואת כל בית אבי “Because Elohim (G-d’s Guidance) caused me to forget (defer) all that I occupy myself with (in experience) and all that comes in (בוא husband, allegorically: one’s mental persistence) and Pa\aM (פעם) “to startle / be startled.”
93 – to be happy, joyful (שמח) Allegorically: joyfully and enthusiastically exude. From MaHhaH (מחה) “to spread, rub, wipe, to hit / strike upon, stretch out / extend over-across.” In Akkadian,MaChaH (מחה) – to rave, become frenzied; In Ugaritic, MaCh (מח) – with exuberance and SaMaCh (שמח) – be glad, rejoice, light up, be happy; In Arabic, SaMaHh (שׂמח) – to be magnanimous, authorize, show good will.
94 – Yisaskhar (יששכר) “taking in a hulking handful of enticing things found in going back and forth by tenaciously examining a scene of God’s Guidance with mental persistence.” In this story, R’ubhaen (tenaciously examining in feeling overwhelmed) finds דוּדָאִים בַּשָּׂדֶה “things that are enticing in the place of frenzied going back and forth” but Rachel (explore while roaming-wandering about) trades these enticing things with Leah (exhaustively taking in a scene) who claims that she is rewarded (שכר) with a fifth son (taking in hand – חמש, from מוש) or allegorically an act of taking things in hand that are enticing.
95 – tent, aloe (אהל /oHeL) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude)
96 – From SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
97 – offering (זבח – ZaBhaHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
98 – righteousness (צדק TseDeQ) Allegorically: to be particular in one’s behavior. From the verb DaQaQ (דקק to beat into particles > to crush > be-make thin) which in turn evolved from the root DaQ (דק to pound, beat, powder, particulate, particular, punctilious, examine carefully).
99 – abundance (שפע ShePha/) Allegorically: what pours forth. From ShePha/ (שפע) to incline, slide, pour out, run, discharge, overflow (Jastro), from SaPhaH (שפה to pour, lip).
100 – sea, ocean, west (ים YaM) Allegorically: what is stirred up. From HaMaH (המה – to stir up)
101 – treasure, what is hidden (שפוני SaPhuNay) Allegorically: things glossed over. Cognate with Amharic: SaPhaN (שפן)(to conceal, enshroud, gloss over, cover slightly); from SaPhaH (שפה to pour, lip).
102 – sand, common (חול HhoL) Allegorically: what is thrown about, goes on and on enduringly, pervasive, ubiquitous. from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about)
103 – Gad (גד) “taking seriously a new thing that breaks through to the surface in exuberantly trickling through a scene.” From GuD (גוד) (to cut across) to split off, draw away from, to form a faction (Gn49:19) which is related to GaDaD (גדּדּ) Which in Arabic means: “new (factor), innovative, luck, recent development, recently become fact, grave, take something seriously, strive earnestly. The mother was Zilpah which from ZaLaPh (זלף) means to exuberantly trickle. She being a maid (pouring forth) of Leah (exhaustively taking in a scene). Also she says: בגד B’GaD (which is somewhat obscure – perhaps meaning, “with luck,” but the root means: Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
104 – lioness (לביא LaBhy/) Allegorically: one who is ablaze with courage. From LaBhaH (לבה heart, courage). See (heartily) encourage (Tal Nd73a), make blow ablaze, fan a fire, kindle (BbKm59b)
105 – arm (זרוע ZaRoa\) Allegorically-literally: the scatterer. Related to seed (זרע – ZeRa\) meaning to scatter, but practically also suggests implantation > engagement. Evolved from ZaRaH (זרה) to scatter; which expanded into: ZaRaHh (זרח to shine, break out), ZeReD (זרד be brave, valiant) and ZaRaZ (זרז to speed up, urge and stimulate).
106 – revered (ספון SaPhuN) Probably meaning: added to, heaped up, laid up, ?pervasive (Dt33:21) Allegorically: that which is layered in a scene (ספן SaPhaN) to lay flat, cover, line, wall, floor (KgI6:9)
107 – Dan (דן) “by abiding in contemplation of God’s Guidance being presented in experience – scanning, feeling out and glancing – when mindfully intermingling, awaiting for what rears up.” From DuN (דון to abide in contemplation) which evolves into DyN (דין) to contemplate > judge. But also from adding in some details found in his blessing at the end of Genesis. His mother is Bilhah (בלהה intermingling).
108 – whelp (גור GuR) similar to whelp (שגר SheGeR) Literally: “one drawn inward (toward mother)” Allegorically: drawn in > incited, kindled, develops. From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon.
109 – lion (אריה /aRYaeH) (ארי /aRy) Allegorically: one who throws himself into the light. From the verb /aRaH (ארה to pick out), but literally meaning to bring out into the light, from /oR (אור light). Related roots: /aRaBh (ארב to jump out into the light > ambush; squeezing through of light); /aRaS (ארש to designate a bride, bring out into the light); YaRaH (ירה (throw out into the light) > aim, teach); HaRaH (הרה (bring out into the light) > to conceive).
110 – Bashan (בשן BaShaN) Allegorically: repetitively driving in upon something so as to visually fix upon it, yet holding oneself back from engaging. Based on context and (BaShu) Akkadian: (drive in, be close, intimate >) be at hand, available, exist, be on task; be fixed on / attentive; be owned.
111 – Naphtali (נפתלי) “being beset upon and entangled by the many subduing aspects of God’s Guidance found in experience when mindfully intermingling with experience.” From נַפְתּוּלֵי אֱלֹהִים נִפְתַּלְתִּי עִם-אֲחֹתִי גַּם-יָכֹלְתִּי “twistings of God’s guidance, I have become twisted with my sister, also I have prevailed.” But allegorically אחות sister means “what is subduing” from חתה to subdue, be afraid. His mother is Bilhah (בלהה intermingling).
112 – South (דרום DaRoM) Allegorically: go around and around in experience. From From DoR (דור to go around), from ZuR (זור to go around).
113 – Asher (/aShaeR – אשר) There are two unrelated Semitic roots spelled /aShaR (אשר). One, meaning “to go directly,” evolved from ShuWR (שור – to see, get a fix on). The other, meaning “to confirm, be supportive of, validate and congratulate” evolved from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent). When naming Asher, the peshat uses the latter meaning, while the allegory utilizes the former. Allegorically Asher (/aShaeR – אשר) means “a person’s intently driving into experience, taking stock of what exists” from the Hebrew, “to go or drive directly with intention;” and the Akkadian, “to review and take stock.”
114 – oil (שמן – SheMeN); eight (שמונה – Sh’MoneH) literally mean “what exudes outward.” It evolved from the verb MaNaH (מנה) – to distribute, count, assign, classify. The number is possibly based on the image of putting the two hands together palms down, with the thumbs tucked under the palms with eight fingers splayed out like the exuding of oil (or maybe not).
115 – lock, shoe (מנעל MiN/aL) Allegorically: one’s holding back. The root NW\ (נוע) means to sift, but secondarily to restrain, hence the verbs derived from it נעל to lock, נעם be precious (held back) and מנע to restrain
116 – iron (ברזל BaRZeL) Allegorically: what penetrates, act of penetrating. From BaRaZ (ברז) to bore, perforate, transfix Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening), ברץ (Syr- to pierce, transfix; to make clear / apparent); ברז (go clear through) to bore, perforate, transfix; ברד (what bores into) hail שבר to break, literally means “to go clear through,” hence it means to break, break apart, shatter, smash, crash, to distribute-buy-sell provision (?broken pieces); and for a wave to break. However, its secondarily evolved form SaBhaR (שבר) means to contemplate, look to and hope for. There is an identical noun SheBheR (שבר) meaning “interpretation” or more correctly break down > analysis that indicates the transition between the two.
117 – NaHhoSheT (נחשת) means cooper (probably literally means) what was hastened-coaxed out. Which is related to snake (נחש NaHhaSh) Allegorically: feeling about. From the verb NaHhaSh (נחש) meaning snake, derived from the verb HhuSh (חוש) to sense, feel, experience, and hasten and in Arabic, to grope. The verb NaHhaSh (נחש) in biblical Hebrew means to divine and in modern Hebrew, to guess. Additionally: נחושה (that which is coaxed out from within / hastened) carnal desire, lust, sexual arousal, licentiousness (Ek16:36)
118 – effort, strength, outflow (דבא DoBhe\). The root evolved from the unattested root DaBhaH (דבה) whose meaning “to flow (?vigorously?)” can be seen in (דבדב)(Amh- attack, beat, slam, pound; (דוב)(Amh- tumble down, thud; (דבא) (force, effort) strength, prime (Dt33:25)(דּבּ)(Arb – crawl, creep, move slowly, go on all fours, fill, pervade, invade, stream in, rush in; bear, sand hill, tiny animal, insect)(דּאבּ)(Arb – (extend outward) persist, persevere, tireless, apply / devote o.s, practice eagerly, addicted)
119 – YoM (יום – day) Allegorically: what causes a stirring of experience. From HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.”
120 – El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; El (אל) G-d (=one advancing forward experience); ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward etc
121 – one who rides (רכב – RoKhaeBh) Allegorically: one engaging things in experience. From the verb RaKaBh (רכב – to hitch or latch on, mount > to ride)
122 – majesty (גאוה Ga\aWaH) Allegorically: swelling (as in גאוה swelling (Ps46:4)0. From the verb to swell, rise (Ek47:5)
123 – clouds (שחקים Sh’HhaQim) Allegorically: the grindings (of experience). From the verb ShaHhaQ (שחק) to grind to dust (Ex30:35)(SmII22:43)(Ps18:43)
124 – habitation, den, lair (מענה M’\oNaH); eye, well (עין \ayin) Allegorically: to eye, make observations. From \oN (עון to eye > observe) and related to \aNaH (ענה) to turn (unclear if eye is based on the curved shaped of the eye or the turning one does to see or both).
125 – to incite (גרש GaRaSh) Allegorically: to drive into and stir up. Usually, the root GaRaSh (גרש) literally means “to drive into something” however it is used to mean to drive into so as to drive out > divorce. Also related is the noun for “pasture land” (מגרש miGRaSh) and GaRaS (גרש grits). From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon
126 – enemies (אויבים /oYaeBhim) Allegorically: those who cause a crying out (in alarm), those alarming. From YaBhaBh (יבב) to cry out, lament; in Syriac: to make a joyful noise, sound, shout, howl).
127 – destroy, extirpate (שמד ShaMaD) This root originates in MaDaD (מדד to extend out, draw out > measure). Essentially it means “to draw away from” hence it also means “to force to apostasy.” Although related the cognates have different meanings. In Syriac: mislead, allow to be inattentive / idle, excommunicate, weakened, divided, repudiated; be idle, dissipated. Arabic: (stretch out >) raise one’s head proudly; (spread out >) to dung, manure, fertilize)
128 – grain (דגן DaGaN) Allegorically: hovering about and become acquainted. (Arabic: dusky, murky, gloomy; remain, stay, get used / accustomed; Syriac: to cloud or inflame eyes). It evolved from the verb DaGaH to be / become numerous (Gn48:16). This root evolved from DuKh (דוך to pound, crush > particles). It evolved into verbs meaning covering and staying in one place: DaGa/ (דגא) veil, cover, shroud, blanket, dark, gloomy, dusky, cajole, flatter; DaGaL(דגל) (veil) to dupe, deceive (Jastro); be conspicuous; banner-standard (Syriac: to lie, deceive, deny, disappoint, defraud, cheat, be unfaithful; Akk: wait, obey, await s.o, show reverence, put attention on, look repeatedly, have at one’s disposal); DaGaSh (דגש) a Hebrew punctuation mark indicating that one is to remain on a consonant longer, thus plosive or geminated, (Syriac: to stab, pierce, transfix); DaGaR (דגר) to brood.
129 – juice, wine (תירש TyRoSh) Allegorically: driving in, taking possession. Related to possession (ירשה Y’RaeShaH) Allegorically (literally): what is driven into. Its evolution: YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRaSh (ירש – to penetrate-drive in, take possession, to dispossess). Also from YaRaH (ירה – to throw into the light > aim > penetrate) > YaRa/ (ירא to be penetrated > in awe > afraid).
130 – shield (מגן MaGaeN) Allegorically: what draws in around. From GaNaN (גנן) to defend which evolved from GuN (גון) and GaN (גן garden) literally to draw in upon. Hence: GaNaH (גנה)(piel) to overshadow, obscure, put to shame (Jastro); GaNaN (גנן) to defend; GaNaBh (גנב) to steal, obscure, deceive, abduct. GaNaZ (גנז) cover over, save, treasury; carpet. Arabic: Jinn (a spirit that takes possession (draws in upon) of a person). G.N.(גן) Syriac: descend upon, cover, protect, over shadow. basin (אגן – /aGoN) and in Syriac /aGoN (אגון) means “contest, trial, struggle, perplexity, and discipline.”
131 – sword (חרב – CheReBh) the verb means to be hot, heat, dry, but also to make desolate, to devastate (Jd16:24)(KgII19:17)(Is42:15) and to be devastated (emotionally) (Jr2:12), therefore allegorically: ravaging of experience.
132 – You, I (אתה את אתם אתן /aTaH /aT /aTeM /aTeN)(אני /aNy) Allegorically: You or I, in applying-imposing oneself in experience. Derived from the verb /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose and apply oneself. Many other Semitic cognates preserve the elided letter nun. The other word for I (אנכי /aNoKhy), allegorically meaning “I, in my making my impression,” comes from the verb NaKaH (נכה) literally meaning “to make an impression,” it is used to mean “to strike down.”Although most other Semitic cognates are similar, NaK (נך) in Amharic means “to touch, bear upon, impinge upon, involve (affect), reach (top of wall).”
133 – haunches, heights (במות BaMoT) possibly from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
134 – plains (ערבות \aR’BhoT) Allegorically and literally: expanses. Mostly based on allegorical context and the fact that one of the forms of \aRaBh (ערב) evolved from RaBh (רב) large > expansive.
135 – Pisgeh (פסגה) Allegorically: many branching paths (upon which one could go). Realted to PaSaG (פסג)(piel) to wander (Ps48:14); (spread apart) to break through branches (Jastro).
136 – face, lit: faces (פנים PaNim) literally meaning faces because a person has many presentations in one’s face), from the root PaNaH (פנה – to face > turn). Allegorically meaning: many faces > aspects > presentations.
137 – Jericho (ירח YaRaeHh) Literally: his wanderings, traveling, going back and forth. It evolved from /aRaHh (ארח) to travel. Allegorically: to move back and forth. Roots with R.Hh. (רח) essentially mean “to move back and forth on the horizontal plain > wide. RaWaHh (רוח – wide) > RuWaHh (רוח) wind > breath > spirit. RaHhaM (רחם) womb, compassion, intestines – means facilitating width-expansiveness for someone or something; RaHhaBh (רחב) wide; RaHhaPh (רחף) to move back and forth, hover; RaHhaL (רחל) Arabic – to roam, wander about, set out from a place, without direction; ewe (one who wanders off when pregnant); RaHhaQ (רחק) to be-go far; RaHhaSh (רחש) to move, stir, flutter (heart); frying pan; Akk- to move, to set in motion; to wash (רחץ RaHhaTs); /aRaHh (ארח) to travel > YaRaeHh (ירח) (traveler) > moon. MaRaHh (מרח) to spread out
138 – Gilad (גלעד GiL\aD) Allegorically: one’s revealing what is evident. From GiL (גל to roll up > reveal) + \aD (עד evidence). The verbs derived from GuL (גול) have meanings related to “to roll up / around” and “to turn over.” GyL (גיל rejoice), GaLGaeL (גלגל to roll down, whirl about), GaLaH (גלה to roll out, remove, to go into exile), GaLaL (גלל to roll, roll up, remove); GaLaBh (גלב (reveal) to scrape, shave); GaLaHh (גלח (reveal) shave); GaLa\ (גלע (reveal) disclose); GaLaM (גלם to roll, bundle up); GaLaSh (גלש to roll down > slide); SaGaL (סגל to roll up, save, treasure); ShaGaL (שגל (reveal) to rape) AND \aD (עד evidence), related to testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
139 – Negev (נגב NeGeBh) Allegorically: to hover over and pick, choose, select, distinguish (from the Arabic). Akk: to pile up; In Aramaic and Hebrew to be dry (probably because the NeGeB is dry); in Arabic – highborn, high minded > noble; (hover over) > to pick, choose, select, distinguish. Related roots of G.B. mean to heap up or hover over. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
140 – a circuit, labyrinth, maze (ככר KiKaR) Allegorically: an act of going around and around. From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
141 – valley of (בקעת BiQ\aT) Allegorically: an act of getting profoundly into and investigating, searching deeply. Related: BaQaH (בקה)(to go deeply into) to search, investigate, to become familiar with. BaQa/ (בקא) which in Syriac: to try, search, prove, examine, inquire into
142 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
143 – date trees (תמר – TaMaR) meaning “to stand still and upright,” which evolved from the root TaMaH (תמה) meaning “to stand still in amazement, to wonder, to be stunned and undecided.” However, in Arabic TaMaR also means “to bear fruit, make a profit, utilize, and avail oneself of an opportunity.” So allegorically Tamar means “one’s standing firmly in wonderment, yet able to avail oneself of an opportunity.”
144 – Tso’ar (צוער) Allegorically: the feeling discouraged in feeling small in being narrowed in by experience. From Tsa\aR (צער) to be smaller, younger; from TsoWR (צור – narrow in)
145 – Avraham (אברהם) a person spreading out into experience so as to take notice of and willingly give forth of oneself to what is stirred up in experience, from /aBhaR or /eBaeR (אבר – to extend outward, spread wings, take flight) + HaMoN (המון), those that are stirred up, from HaMaH (המה – to stir up) Also father /aBh (אב) derives from /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.” All together Avraham means “one’s spreading out so as to take notice of and willingly give forth of oneself to things stirred up.
146 – YiTsHhaq (יצחק): derived from the root TsaHhaH (צחה) meaning to be bright or clear. Unlike most roots in Hebrew, the root Ts.Hh.Q. (צחק) exhibits consonantal fluidity in both Hebrew, Ugaritic and Arabic. In more than half the cases, this root is spelled with a letter Sin (ש) instead of a Tsade (צ) in Hebrew. Similarly in Arabic can be found S^aHha/ (become clear, bright, aware, alert); D^aHha/ (become visible, appear, bring to light); D^aHhaK (to jeer, scoff, mock, scorn, fool, laugh). As an archetypal behavior, it results from one’s ability to focus (Sarah) with one’s spreading out so as to take notice of and give forth to things stirred up (Avraham) – meaning “one’s bringing things to light in being meticulously alert to what is around.”

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

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Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

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About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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