David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Enlightenment to Engagement, to Complaint-Laziness

At the end of the previous parashah, Moshe enters the tent of meeting and hears “the voice” speaking to him. On the peshat, we assume that the voice that he hears is the voice of God, but an explicit statement of that fact is purposefully left out. The word for voice, QoL (קול), literally means “a(n audible) channeling (of information).”1 Since Moshe represents “our drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience,”2 all that channels toward him is not necessarily the direct encounter with God’s bringing forth of existence that is intended for him to ultimately draw out. At first, Moshe is simply covering the scene (כפרת kaporet),3 repetitively plucking information to bring to light (ארון Aron)4 what is evident in experience (עדות)5 between the acts of repetitively plowing through what can be gone over and over of experience (k’ruvim כרבים).6 Before, we can have a direct encounter with God’s bringing forth of existence, the information gathering process must be honed. Symbolically, this is accomplished by the lighting of the m’norah candles and by the purification of the Levites. Thereafter, one can leap toward God’s bringing forth of existence as represented by the performing of the Pesach.7 The trumpets; the traveling forward of the ark, mishkan and Israelite camps; and Moshe’s request of his father in law – all allegorically represent a person’s finding their way a midst the myriad of potential choices that are encountered in experience. However, the narratives about the complainers, the cravings for meat, Moshe’s complaint about the burden of carrying the people, and Miriam’s complaint about the Cushite wife – all express the emotional challenges that we face when overwhelmed by the task of threshing through experience in search of the encounter divinely intended for each of us.

Moshe is instructed to tell Aharon (our act of repetitively bringing things to light)8 that when he elevates (kindles) the candles of the M’norah that the seven candles should radiate their light toward the edge in the front of the M’norah. Since the M’norah is of solid metal whose lamps cannot be moved nor focused, this is a rather odd command. Allegorically, the M’norah represents the act of becoming enlightened about a scene.9 The seven candles represent the things bubbling up in experience10 that are illuminated11 as a result of this process. Since they represent the data about which one becomes aware, this bubbling up of things illuminated has the further responsibility to shed light toward the murky and nebulous extremes (מול)12 of what there is to become fully enlightened about (אל מול פני המנורה). That this is a progressive process involving a lot of individual data points can be seen from the statement that the becoming enlightened about a scene (M’norah) should be of an act of making firm and solid the many fleeting impressions (gold),13 unto its being made long (ירך),14 unto its blossoming (פרח).

Now that the ability to become enlightened about experience has been augmented what persists (את)15 of the Levites (acts of clinging to a scene in being mentally persistent so as to become aware of many startling things)16 must be made perfectly clear (טהור). To this end, a stirring and exposing (razor)17 must be passed over all of what is confidently driven into of them (flesh)18 and they must press into (wash)19 their acts of delivering up and revealing of basic facts about experience (clothes).20 The Levites (acts of clinging to a scene so as to become aware of many things) are brought before the act of becoming familiar with things in being enduringly mentally present (tent of meeting)21 where they maintain their hands upon the seeing (head)22 associated with the acts of scattering about experience (bull).23 Then Aharon (the act of repetitively bringing things to light) sifts (waves)24 them such that any of their veering off is corrected (התחטא).

Now that the means of acquiring information from experience has been made clear and redirected, they are ready to perform the Pesach, the act of making a leap into experience. Their making a Pesah offering on the fourteenth day represents their leaping into what is inundating (four)25 and bearing down of experience (ten),26 between the times of confusion (evenings).27 However, no matter how much we try to do what is demanded of us in its due time, there will be those times in our attempts to apply ourselves (men)28 that we are nevertheless mentally unavailable (impure)29 with regard to the spirit (נפש) of being thoughtfully absorbed with experience (אדם).30 Having missed the opportunity to make a leap to experience in the time of going over and over a scene (month),31 the one of seeing something (first);22 we are given the chance to make the leap to experience through an act of repetitively imposing oneself (second month).32 A careful parsing of the text indicates that were we to have made this leap upon seeing the first opportunity, then it would have been embraced (eaten):33 leaning in with persistence (roasted in fire)34 and acts of striving (matsahs)35 above the feelings of bitterness (מררים)(Ex12:8). However, in needing to repetitively impose oneself, this second opportunity is embraced (eaten): over and above the strivings and the feelings of bitterness.

Having made the leap into experience, we establish the act of dwelling upon experience (mishkan).36 Therefore, the overwhelming presence (cloud)37 of experience covers it with many impressions (כסה),38 to be regarded as an act of becoming familiar with the things that are evident in experience (לאהל העדות).39 There it hovers and looms large, in the time of confusion (evening) as a sight of persistence (fire),40 until the time of one’s making an investigation of it (morning).41 With the commencement of the cloud’s ascending from being upon the person’s becoming familiar with things (tent), the person’s behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel)42 move forward. When they come upon a new place (מקום),43 a new experience, they begin again to establish presence of mind, mentally attending to experience, by establishing camp.44 Of course, this metaphorical movement of a person’s mentally attending to aspects of experience depends fully on God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H). When the overwhelming presence of existence (cloud) was prolonged over the person’s dwelling upon it (mishkan), then the person’s behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel) would observe what there was to observe (משמרת)45 of God’s bringing forth of existence.

While many of the items in the mishkan were made of gold (fleeting impressions),13 the trumpets were made of silver (כסף), representing lasting impressions.46 The word for trumpet, HhaTsoTsoRot (חצוצרת), is a combination of HhaTsaH (חצה to wedge and push through) and TsoR (צור to squeeze into and narrow in upon). Therefore, the trumpets represent acts of driving in and narrowing in upon particular things in experience as a means of acquiring lasting impressions. Similarly, the word utilized for blowing the trumpet, TaQa\ (תקע) also means “to channel and thrust into something.” Furthermore, the honor and responsibility of thrusting into this act of driving in and narrowing in upon particular things (blowing of the trumpets) belongs to the behaviors of repetitively bringing things to light (sons of Aharon), the acts of giving things precise and mindful attention (priests). The different ways of blowing the trumpets represent different ways of engaging particular things in experience. For example, a single scattering note (תרועה) tells the many acts of mentally attending to aspects of experience (camps) to move forward, advancing forward into experience (קדמה eastward).47 A second scattering note, one that allegorically represents a repetitive imposition of one’s actions, tells the acts of mentally attending to aspects of experience to move toward the things in experience that are ever present (תימנה southward).48 While these first two examples move a person TOWARD engaging particular things, a single thrust blast (תקע), but without a scattering note (הריע), calls together what can be called together in experience (קהל) – enabling a direct encounter. One proof that this is all intended to be allegorical, there are no particular calls for moving west or north.

At last, on the twentieth day of the second month, representing many things bearing down in experience,26 the children of Israel are said to proceed on their journey, leaving the wilderness of Sinai (an act of filtering through so as to clarify things in experience)49 so as to make their way to the wilderness of Paran (an act of repetitively gushing forth and branching out so as to make distinctions between things).50 The significance of the order of the camps, the associations between tribes, and the names of their chiefs were described in the blog for parashat B’midbar. Coincident with this procession, Moshe asks his father-in-law, Hhovav (חובב) the son of R’uael (רעואל), to go forward with them to the place that HaShem will say “it, I shall give for you.”. Throughout the Torah, this character consistently described as Moshe’s father-in-law has been called various names: Yeter, Yitro, and Hhovav. What is common is that as Moshe’s father in law, the character’s role is to subdue (חתן)51 “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe).2” In this case, his name means “one’s embracing what he desires (חובב), a behavior that shepherds one’s advancing forward in experience with initiative (רעואל);52 the act of contemplating experience (המדיני Midianite).”53 At this point in the narrative, the question posed to him by Moshe is very appropriate – here is an allegorical synopsis: ‘we are to move into an overwhelming number of options for the purpose of eventually coming into the experience designated for us by God. Go with us.’ However, as a manifestation of our free will, Hhovav is only interested in going to the experience of his own disposition (land),54 of his own generating (birthplace).55 Nevertheless, it is our desires that acknowledge what we mentally attend to in experience (camps) and that act as our eyes.

They proceed forward, threshing through what was dangling of many stirring things in experience (three days).56 Meanwhile, the act of repetitively plucking and bringing into the light of what could be clearly understood (ארון הברית)57 of God’s bringing forth of existence sought out for them an experience upon which to come to rest. Nevertheless, the journey into all of what life has in store for a person is never easy. Allegorically, there are no external enemies, for all comes from HaShem. Therefore, Moshe says: “Remain firm HaShem and scatter those of you that are alarming (enemies)58 so that those of you that sharply impose themselves (haters)59 shall flee from before you.”

As we venture forth into life experience, so rear up our fears, especially those of brooding uncertainty (S’dom)60 and of becoming overwhelmed (Gamorrah).61 Thus begin our complaints against God’s bringing forth of existence that often feels to be flailing itself against us. Because of the way some animal’s ears rotate, the Hebrew word for ears, /oZNim (אזנים), literally means “things that flail about.”62 Almost immediately upon threshing through the innumerable opportunities dangling in experience (דרך שלשת ימים), the people become overwhelmed and begin to complain. Here they are described as: מתאננים רע באזני יי. This is often translated as “those complaining, (which was) bad in the ears of HaShem.” However, it can also be translated as “those asserting themselves weakly with the flailings of God’s bringing forth of existence.”63 God, not being one to let up, ignites against them a persistence (fire) of God’s bringing forth existence. However, the fire lets up when their Moshe (the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience) takes himself back and forth in consideration (התפלל)64 toward God’s bringing forth of existence.

Somewhat less severe then asserting oneself weakly is expressing reluctance (האספסף)65 in its approaching more closely (בקרבו)66 toward God’s bringing forth of existence – pointing out to oneself what it is that is desired from life.67 Although what is truly desired is something in experience to confidently drive into (meat),18 in its absence, one is content when decisions are instead being made for them. For they remembered the persistent blanketing of experience (fish)68 that they were embracing (eating) when in Mitsraim (feverishly focusing upon the many things in experience narrowing in),69 given freely: those that were mercilessly firm (cucumbers),70 and those that rashly welled up (watermelon),71 and that which besieged (leeks),72 and those unexpectedly bursting forth (onions),73 and those imposed (garlic).74 Their spirits were dried up because the Divine Providence (מן Manna)75 was like a scattering of randomness (seed of coriander).76 Therefore, the person’s many acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in (people)77 wandered about experience. And they gleaned. But they lost their way with it (ground it)78 by taking respites (mills),79 or they collapsed (beat it), in feeing crushed (under its weight),80 and they held it back (stewed)81 by being disengaged (pot).82 And they swirled around with it due to their neglect of it and their laziness (made cakes).83 In contrast, the experiencing (taste) of it occurred as a person vigorously pushed in as a result of one’s exuding into experience (oil).84

Needless to say, our mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)2 was also feeling burdened by this need to thresh through experience in search of the random morsels of experience to confidently drive into (flesh).18 So HaShem told Moshe to gather seventy men from the elders of Israel, each representing a separate act of being mentally persistent with something in experience (איש)85 while being clear minded (elder)86 in making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel).42 Yet Moshe still had his doubts, stating: “Would one’s contemplating experience (flock)87 or one’s making an investigation (cattle)88 to be leaned into (slaughtered)89 for them such that it will find for them? Were all of the things blanketing (fish)68 of what is stirred up in life (sea)90 to be gathered for them, such that it will find for them?”

In addition to utilizing our Moshe (the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience) and the seventy acts of being mentally persistent with experience (איש), being clear minded while making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (elders of Israel), Eldad (one’s advancing forward with initiative, plodding through experience with perseverance)91 and Maydad (one’s spreading out into experience, plodding through experience with perseverance)92 were able to pour forth with opportunities (prophesy)93 by mentally attending to experience (in the camp).44 Of course, the problem was not that it was too difficult for them to thresh through experience in search for something to confidently drive into (flesh).18 For the problem was solved when a spirit (wind) in alignment with God’s bringing forth of existence moved forward and cut off (ויגז) the acts of laziness (quail)94 as a result of what was stirred in experience (sea).90 There was so much for the people to do in experience that when the thing with which to drive into of experience (flesh)18 was still between their teeth (their ways of imposing themselves),32 God’s bringing forth of existence was incited again and struck them. The place was named the burial grounds of one’s indicating their desires (in opposition to following God’s guidance).

The final story is one that I am reluctant to tell. As a prophetess, Miriam is well respected and is lauded in the Torah, the book of Micah, and the Talmud. In the past decades, there has been a resurgence of enthusiasm for her in feminist circles – a community that I proudly support. However, based on etymology and context, her name is to be derived from the root MaRaR (מרר) which in Akkadian means “to chase away” and “to eject and throw out” in Ugaritic. Allegorically, Miriam means “a person’s rejecting what is stirred up in experience.” It is no wonder then that along with Aharon (the mental faculty repetitively bringing thing to light),8 she rejects Moshe’s Cushite wife. Of course, we know that Tsipporah was a Midianite, but like with the many names for her father, the text does not hesitate to contradict established facts in support of the allegory. Furthermore, whether or not the Cushite wife is in fact Tsipporah or another wife is irrelevant to the allegorically reading of it. Allegorically, the word Cush means “many badgering impressions.”95 It represents the kind of badgering impressions encountered when feeling besieged and beleaguered by experience (חצרות HhaTsaeRot)72 after one’s desire to do as they please is buried by God’s bringing forth of experience (קברות התאוה). These are the many badgering impressions that one experiences in life when their Moshe (their mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience) humbly takes on the overwhelm that is to be found in experience (ענו).96 These are the many badgering impressions that one’s Aharon (the act of repetitively bringing things to light)8 takes notice of simply when it is doing its job – hence the reason why Aharon is not punished.

However, it is our Miriam (our rejecting what is stirred up in experience), the one who rants and raves (prophetess),93 the subduer of our ability to repetitively bring things to light (sister97 of Aharon8), who comes out with tambourine (a covering over of one’s mouth)98 and inspires our acts of conducting oneself through experience (women)99 to writhe (dance)100. Feminist champion aside, it is Miriam as allegory, our rejecting what is stirred up in experience, that is thus narrowed in with Tsara’at101 and held in suspense as snow102 that slowly drifts downward from above. It was only after “our rejecting what is stirred up in experience” (Miriam) is gathered in (restrained) that we can move on from feeling besieged and beleaguered by experience (חצרות HhaTsaeRot),72 to Paran (פארן) – an act of repetitively gushing forth and branching out into experience so as to distinguish things.50

Notes:
1 – voice (קל – QoL) Allegorically: a(n audible) channeling (of information). It evolved from QaWaH (קוה – to channel).
2 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplied: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
3 – covering (כפרת KaPoRet) Allegorically: to visually cover a scene. The root KaPhaR (כפר) means covering or to cover in a variety of forms: to cover over, to line (Gn6:14); כופר pitch (Gn6:14); כופר henna (Ss1:14;4:13); כפור frost (Ex16:14)(Ps147:16); כפור (plated vessel? -Jastro) bowl (Er1:10)(CrI28:17); כפיר (palm s.th >) pounce and cover s.th > ) young lion; (piel) (wipe away and nullify the effect of) to pacify (Pr16:14), deny, renounce and atone
4 – ark (ארון /aRoN), a showcase from the verb /aRaH (ארה – to pluck, pick out) which evolved from /uR (אור – light) thus technically meaning to pluck out into the light.
5 – testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
6 – K’ruvim (Cherubim) (כרובים) Allegorically: things meditated over. From KaRaBh (כרב) Syriac – to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts, meditate over, Akkadian – pray constantly
7 – leaping (פסח – PeSaHh) see (KgI18:26)
8 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
9 – menorah (מנורה M’NoRaH) Allegorically: act of becoming enlightened about a scene. Related to Arabic: NuR (נור to light, illuminate, enlighten)
10 – seven (שבע Sheva/). Although with a shin, this word appears to have been derived from the similar root with a letter sin, SaBha\ understood as satiated, it derives from either NaBha\ (נבע – to swell or well up) or Ba\aH (בעה – to bubble up, boil). Perhaps it means the number seven because it fulfills a period of one week, although this too is not completely clear. Metaphorically, from context and this etymology it means “being satiated by what bubbles up” or just “a bubbling up of something.
11 – candle (נר – NaeR) Allegorically: what is lit up. Related to Arabic NWR (נור – to light, illuminate, enlighten; fire, light, ray of light, lamp), possibly originally from N + /uR (נ + אור).
12 – edge (מול MuL) literally means “frayed, threadbare, attentuated.” This word evolved from MahaL (מהל) to dilute, attenuate, (fray, make threadbare) and circumcise (Jastro). The associated verb MoL (מול) also means to circumcise.
13 – gold (זהב – ZaHaBh) literally means “of fleeting impressions.” From unattested ZaHaH (זהה – exude light), see Syriac cognate ZaHa/ (זהא – shining, glorious, splendid, resplendent) and in Arabic (radiant, shine brightly, be haughty). Also Arabic cognate of ZaHaBh means to take leave, vanish, to take with, lead or conduct, to allow the imagination to wander > think, believe; gold, going, passing, manner, opinion, belief, ideology, orientation
14 – shaft, beam, thigh (ירך – YaRaKh) literally means “long part.” It evolved from (ארך /aRaKh) to be long, prolong
15 – what persists, the persistent existence of (את /aeT). Technically this word usually has no translation. It is the marker of the direct object. The distinction between a definite object and an indefinite object is that the former “persist in reality.” It evolved from (אש fire, persistent existence) – from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
16 – Lewi – Levi (לוי) from LaWaH (לוה) to take around, escort to, to follow, to cling to, join company of, be attached. In naming him: עתה הפעם ילוה אישי אלי כי ילדתי לו שלשה בנים. Allegorically, the words Pa\aM implies startling, LaWaH implies clinging, \eeSh implies mental persistence, SheLoShaH implies dangling-suspending, BaNim implies activities. Therefore: mentally clinging to a scene, and thus generating an awareness of many startling things
17 – razor (תער Ta\aR) Allegorically: a becoming stirred up-agitated, exposing, laying bare. The word probably is derived from \aRaH (ערה lay bare, uncover, make naked), however an further allegory can be from the root \oR (עור to stir up).
18 – flesh, confidence (בשר – BaSaR). The word almost always means flesh, but literally “what is driven into with confidence,” probably alluding to removing meat from a bone. The Arabic cognate means “to peel, scrape / shave off, grate, shred, come in contact, sexual intercourse, apply oneself.” Also note probable mis-translation of (Ec2:3) תרתי בלבי למשוך ביין את בשרי Conventionally translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my flesh. But more correctly translated as: I sought in my heart to draw out with wine, my confidence
19 – wash (כבס KaBhaS) literally means: to push down-press into. Related to other roots with K.B. (כב) all meaning “to press down upon” such as KaBhaH (כבה) to extinguish, snuff out; KaBhaL (כבל) to fetter, shackle; KoBha\ (כובע) helmet; KaBhaR (כבר) compress, to press through a sieve, to press through; KaBhaSh (כבש) to subdue, conquer; footstool, furnace; KaBhaS (כבס) to wash; KaBhaD (כבד) be heavy-intense, honor, take seriously.
20 – clothing (בגד BeGeD) Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From the (probably unrelated) root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
21 – tent of meeting (אהל מועד /oHeL Mo\aeD) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar of being enduringly (mentally) present. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude).” The following roots all mean: “to endure in place or time.”testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD);
22 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh), first (ראשון Ri\Shon). The word for head (ראש Ro\Sh) probably evolved from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
23 – bull (פר PaR) Allegorically: to scatter about. The unattested root PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck. A bull or cow are described as PaR(aH) because it is disengaged from the rest of the herd.
24 – to wave (הניף HaeNyPh) – what is waved (תנופה T’NuPhaH) Allegorically: what is sifted through. From the root NuPh (נוף) to wave which evolved from the root NaPhaH (נפה) meaning “to fan, winnow, and sift.”
25 – four (ארבע /aRBa\) derived from RaBha\ (רבע – to lie down, spread out, make square). Allegorically it represents a spreading out in all directions; flooding / inundating hence 40 days and nights of flood, wandering in the wilderness and Moshe’s time with HaShem in the mountain.
26 – ten (עשרה – \aSaRaH), twenty (עשרים /eSRim) Allegorically means “what bears down (upon a person).” This Semitic root consists of two etymologically unrelated homonyms. The number ten evolved from the root that means “to be well supported.” But the other homonym means to urge, force, compel, bear down, plight, and predicament in Arabic; and to put pressure on, demand, exact payment, constrict, enclose, and confine in Akkadian
27 – evening (ערב – \aRaBh) derived from \aRaH (ערה – to pour) > \aRaBh (ערב – to mix, confuse), evening being a time of mixing of day and night. From \aRaBh > \gaRaBh (ערב)
28 – Men (/aNaShim – אנשים) from the noun /eNoSh (אנוש), evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Therefore the meaning is those applying-imposing themselves in experience
29 – impure, unclean (טמא TaMae/) The evolution of this root begins with TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast). From there, TaM (טם) means “flood, inundate, overwhelming” in Arabic; “stop up, block, closely packed, solid, dense, opaque, repress, restrain; repressed, coerced” in Syriac; plaited in Akkadian; and TaMaM (טמם) is “filled / crowded to capacity” in Amharic. Essentially, these roots mean squeezed in > overstuffed > overwhelmed.
30 – human (אדם – /aDaM) evolved from DaMAH (דמה – to make comparisons, to think) which evolved from DuM (דום – be still, silent). Also related ground (/aDaMah – אדמה) comes from the root DuM (דום) which means to be still. In Arabic אדם means to enrich bread with food / fat / condiment; fatty / shortening; dyed leather; hide; skin; surface, earth), In Akkadian אדם means to be engaged in conflict whereas in Amharic it means plot, conspiracy, coup d’etat, strike, boycott. Similarly, in Ugaritic the verb is used in the following line: “the cow lows for her calf (..) as they lament.” Based on comparitive Semitics, I believe lament is best replaced with “are intensely concerned, absorbed, preoccupied, obsessed, engrossed together.” Lastly, the related root דאם in Arabic means “to remain, persist, last, go on, continue, persevere, be devoted, permanence, incessant.”
31 – month (חודש – HhoDeSh) derived from the root DuSh (דוש) (flow / go over again & again) > to rake, tread, thresh, stampede. The root HhaDaSh means to renew (go over again and again).
32 – two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (שן ShaeN), year (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים) Allegorically: repetition, sharp, imposing. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
33 – eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
34 – roasted of fire (צלי אש – Ts’Ly /aeSh) Allegorically: “leaning in with persistence.” From TsaLaH (צלה – (to suspend from) to roast (SmI2:15)(Is44:16,19). Related roots mean to suspend > to hang off from the side > lean in. Example TsaLaBh (צלב – to crucify), TsaLaPh (צלף – caper bush (hangs off from cliffs)), TsaLa\ (צלע – side, to limp), TsaL (צל – shadow (hangs off the side of a thing)). Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
35 – unleavened bread, matsah (מצות – MaTsoT) The plural of MaTsaH, spelled without vowels the same as MiTsWoT-MiTsVoT (מצות) commandments. The words TsiWaH (צוה – to command) and MaTsaH (מצה – unleavened bread) evolved from the former, NiTsaH (נצה – to strive). TsiWaH (צוה) evolved from NiTsaH (נצה) by dropping the initial letter nun. Whereas the verb MaTsaH (מצה) evolved from NiTsaH (נצה) by converting the nun to the letter mem. Of the two forms of the noun MaTsaH (מצה), the one meaning unleavened bread comes from either the verb MaTsaH (מצה) meaning to wring out or MaTsaTs (מצץ) to drain, a derivative of the former. The noun MaTsaH (מצה) meaning strife / quarrel comes from the verb NiTsaH (נצה) to strive / struggle. Of course, the noun MiTsWaH (מצוה) commandment comes from the verb TsiWaH (צוה), to command. However, the essential meaning of all of these verbs is to strive.
36 – tabernacle, mishkan (משכן – MiShKaN) Allegorically: one’s (visually) dwelling upon a scene. From the verb ShaKaN (שכן to dwell), from the root KuN (כון to be fixed in place).
37 – cloud (ענן – \aNaN) is derived from \aNaH (ענה) to afflict, overwhelm, humiliate, rape, oppress. This root evolved from /aNaH (אנה to impose oneself).
38 – cover (מכסה MiKhSeh) from K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.”
39 – tent of (אהל /oHeL) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude).”AND testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
40 – Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro))
41 – morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation) AND cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigate). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
42 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
43 – MaQoM (מקום) Allegorically: what is firm, established, establishment, what arises, what confronts. From the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Note QaM (קם) enemy, foe, adversary (one who stands firmly before, standing up to).
44 – camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
45 – charge, custody, guarding (משמרת miShMeRet); Allegorically: an act of observation. From ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to guard, observe; from SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
46 – silver (כֶּסֶף – KeSePh) evolved from the root K.S.H (כסה) which means “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Over time, silver tarnishes. K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished)
47 – east side (קדם QeDeM) Allegorically: advancing forward in experience. From the verb QaDaM (קדם to be before, in front, to precede, advance forward, to do early. Hence east due to the early rising of the sun in the east.
48 – South, Yemen (תינן Taeman) Allegorically: what is ever present. From YaMyN (ימין) meaning “dominant side > right side.” For example: Tefillin are worn on a person’s non-dominant side – left for a righty and right for a lefty (in other words ימין means dominant side, not right). Which evolved from /aMaN (אמן – true, real, believe) means to trust in something’s being ever present. It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which literally means “ever present existence.” It also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence) and mother (/aeM – אם) which literally means “who or what that is ever present.”
49 – Sinai (סיני) Allegorically: showing restraint in filtering and clarifying experience. From SaNaN (סנן (impose >) to be bright, sharp & to filter, refine, strain) from ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach) &/or ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat), from /aNaH (אנה – to impose)
50 – Paran (פארן Pa/Ran) Allegorically: an act of repetitively gushing forth and branching out so as to make distinctions between things. From Pa/aR (פאר) meaning “to go to the edge, go over the edge, make an extreme effort with, branch out, set apart, be set apart, to distinguish, adorn, beautify.” Having evolved from Pae/aH (פאה edge); which evolved from PeH (פה mouth). In Akkadian: to seek, look for, search for; Arabic: boil over, flare up, gush forth, excite.
51 – ChoTaeN (חותן – father-in-law) / ChaTaN (חתן – groom). These are the signatories (ChoTaeM (חותם – signatory) of the marriage contract, the word from which it evolved. These roots are related HhaTaH (חתה – to push down) ChaTaT (חתת – broken down, to subdue, frighten). Allegorically “what subdues him.
52 – R’uael (רעואל R’\u/aeL) Allegorically: one’s shepherding one’s advancing forward in experience with initiative. From shepherd (Ro\eH – רועה) literally means one who scatters about. Rua\ (רוע) evolved from RuaHh (רוח), both mean to spread out across the horizontal plain. Therefore, haRya\ (הריע – to scatter sound), YaRa\ (ירע – to move back and forth (Is15:4)), and all verbs Ra\aX meaning vibrate > shatter (רעע), thunder (רעם), irritate (רעם), tremble (רעד), quiver (רעל) and quake (רעש). Some of these the ayin evolved into ghayin. Ra\aH (רעה) means to shepherd, lead, graze, to put out to feed. AND El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward; /aeLeH (these – what advances forward); /aL (אל) preclude; /aLaH (אלה) curse (what is brought forward).
53 – (Midian – מדין) Allegorically: contemplation. Based on the roots DuN (דון – to abide with) and דין (DYN – to judge, contemplate). Also Proverbs 19:13 מדיני אשה arguments-contentions of a woman.
54 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
55 – birthplace, heritage (מולדת moLeDeT) Allegorically: place of my generation-generating. The verb YaLaD (ילד – to bear a child) evolved from LuD (לוד – to cram or squeeze through). As can be seen in Arabic (to bear, generate, produce, cause occasion, conceive an idea / plan), it can also be used to refer to the generation of other things.
56 – “A way-journey of three days” (דרך שלשת ימים). Allegorically: threshing through what dangles of stirring things. From DaRaKh (דרך) to tread, trample, thresh, walk about, guide and aim. ShaLoSh (שלש – three) actually means suspend? This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust. YoM (יום – day), from HaMaH (המה – to stir up), literally means “time period causing a stirring.”
57 – ark of the covenant – From ark (ארון /aRoN) Allegorically: an act of repetitively plucking at things and bringing them to light. Technically: a showcase. From the verb /aRaH (ארה – to pluck, pick out) which evolved from /uR (אור – light) thus technically meaning to pluck out into the light. AND B’RiT (ברית) Usually translated covenant, technically it means “clear agreement.” Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening
58 – enemies (אויבים /oYaeBhim) Allegorically: those who cause a crying out (in alarm), those alarming. From YaBhaBh (יבב) to cry out, lament; in Syriac: to make a joyful noise, sound, shout, howl).
59 – hater, one who hates (שונא SoNae/) Allegorically: one who imposes upon harshly. From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose) and evolved into two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (sharp, imposing) (שן ShaeN), year (repetition) (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
60 – Sodom (סדם), brooding uncertainty. Based on allegorical context, DoM (דום) be still and silent, and SDM (סדם) in Arabic meaning affliction, sorrow, sadness, grief, nebula, and nebulous.
61 – Gamorah (עמורה), feeling overwhelmed. Based on allegorical context and Arabic copious, abundant, overflow, lavish, heap up, and to overwhelm emotionally.
62 – ear (אזן /oZeN) Allegorically: what flails back and forth. From ZuN (זון) which evolved into ZaNAH (זנה – (to flail) > prostitute), which evolved into ZaNaBh (זנב – (flail) > tail); sustenance (maZoN – מזון) literally means “what is thrown about > distributed.”
63 – מתאננים רע “those complaining, bad….” vs “those asserting themselves weakly.” From /aNaN (אנן) – an expansion of the root /aNaH (אנה to impose, assert onself) meaning both to assert oneself and to complain, It is cognate with the Arabic (אני) meaning to act slowly, proceed unhurriedly, bide one’s time, be patient, to take one’s time, wait, and hesitate. Additionally with a suffixed shin, it means aloofness and arrogance (שאנן). AND Ra\ (רע) which can mean fragile > Weak > faulty > bad > evil; from the verb Ra\a\ (רעע) to vibrate > shatter. Realted to verbs Ra\aX meaning vibrate > shatter (רעע), thunder (רעם), irritate (רעם), tremble (רעד), quiver (רעל) and quake (רעש). Some of these the ayin evolved into ghayin. Ra\aH (רעה) also means to move back and forth ( = vibrate) to shepherd, lead, graze, to put out to feed.
64 – to pray (התפלל hitPaLaeL) Allegorically: to go back in forth in consideration. Derived from the root PaLaL (פלל to pray, to consider, to judge) but the essential meaning is “to go back and forth.” whose niphal form means “to stagger and fall” in Ezekiel 28:23. This is the root, from which to fall (נפל NaPhaL) evolved.
65 – riffraff, rabble (אספסף /aSaPhSuPh). Allegorically: reluctant ones, reluctance (those withdrawn). From /aSaPh (אסף) to gather in, collect, take away, remove, withdraw; According to Klein, related to Arabic safsaf (something poor-inferior).
66 – its approaching closely (קרבו QiRBo). Technically this means “within its midst.” However, the root means “to approach closely.” This is often how it is used allegorically.
67 – pointing out to oneself what it is that is desired (התאוו תאוה hit/aWu ta/aWaH). From the verb /aWaH (אוה) whose full meaning is “to point out what exists that one desires.” Hence: (piel) to point out, designate (Ps132:13). From thus evolved words about pointing-advancing-radiating, existence, and wanting: /uL (אול – advancing forward), /uM (אום – ever present existence), /uR (אור – light, emanation, radiation), /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)), HaWaH (הוה – to be / exist), and /aBhaH (אבה – to be willing). Also consider /oT (אות sign, indicator), /iy (אי) (pin point) an island, תאוה peak (Gn49:26), /aey (אי) (indicate…) where.
68 – fish (דג DaG) Allegorically: blanketing of things. From the verb DaGaH to be / become numerous (Gn48:16). This root evolved from DuKh (דוך to pound, crush > particles). It evolved into verbs meaning covering and staying in one place: DaGaN (דגן) grain (Arabic: dusky, murky, gloomy; remain, stay, get used / accustomed; Syriac: to cloud or inflame eyes); DaGa/ (דגא) veil, cover, shroud, blanket, dark, gloomy, dusky, cajole, flatter; DaGaL(דגל) (veil) to dupe, deceive (Jastro); be conspicuous; banner-standard (Syriac: to lie, deceive, deny, disappoint, defraud, cheat, be unfaithful; Akk: wait, obey, await s.o, show reverence, put attention on, look repeatedly, have at one’s disposal); DaGaSh (דגש) a Hebrew punctuation mark indicating that one is to remain on a consonant longer, thus plosive or geminated, (Syriac: to stab, pierce, transfix); DaGaR (דגר) to brood.
69 – Mitsraim (מצרים). Allegorically, one’s feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in. This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s visually narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh (chaos, disorderly).
70 – cucumbers (קשאים Q’Shu/im) Allegorically: those that were mercilessly firm. Derived from QaShaH (קשה) to be firm, stiff, hard; and Arabic cognate QaSa/ קשא stern, cruel, harsh, austere, severe, merciless.
71 – watermelon (אבטחים /aBhaTiHhim) Allegorically: those that rashly welled up. From the root BaTaHh (בטח) to be-feel secure, trust, confident. Which evolved from BuT – BaTaH (בטה – בוט) to burst forth with words without restraint (Pr12:18); which in turn evolved from BuTs (בוץ) to swell and split open, bubble, burst forth, shine.
72 – leeks (חציר HhaTsyR) Allegorically: that which besieges. From the root (חצר), Heb. Noun: enclosure; to enclose around. Derived from TsuR (צור – narrow in). Related to Arabic: narrow down, ring, surround, enclose, confine, detain, besiege, beleaguer. Perhaps leeks surround, ring around things as they grow like grass.
73 – onions (בצלים) Allegorically: those unexpectedly bursting forth, which evolved from BuTs (בוץ) to swell and split open, bubble, burst forth, shine.
74 – garlic (שומים ShuMim) Allegorically: those imposed. Perhaps literally meaning “put forth, there > just below the surface, easily accessible.” From SuM-SYM (שום – שים to put, place, impose, label). It has the allegorical meaning of the applying or application of something or what is put forth of something. Related roots: ShaMa\ (שמע) (stay put) > to listen; ShaMaR (שמר) (stay put) > to observe; ShaM (שם) (put) there > ShaMayim (שמים) two arrangements > sky (nighttime and daytime); ShaMaSh (שמש) to wait upon, attend to, serve, minister, officiate, be in attendance as a disciple to a scholar; SuM (סום) means to bind, mark, to serve as a mark for / indication of, (bind up, wrap up) to finish, end with. The derived noun SaM (סם) means “(something applied, an application) spice, paint, drug, medicine, poison.”
75 – Manna – from MaNaH (מנה – distribute, count, reckon, assign, class), which evolved from MaHaH (מהה – dissolve, dissipate), MaNaH (מנה) originally meant to draw off from hence the related words MiN (מן – from) and SheMeN (שמן – oil); also T’MuNaH (תמונה – likeness) is something that is drawn off from an original thing, but not quite the same as it, a reckoning, a likeness, an approximation.
76 – seed of coriander (זרע גד Zera\ GaD) Allegorically: a scattering of luck, fortune, randomness. From seed (זרע – ZeRa\) meaning to scatter. Coriander (גד – GaD). Allegorically: spontaneously occurring development, From the root GaDaD (גדד – to draw off from). The Arabic: new (factor), innovative, luck, recent development, recently become fact, grave, take something seriously, strive earnestly. Amharic: luck, strange, monster, flutter about, group.
77 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
78 – to mill, grind (טחן TahhaN) Allegorically: to stretch > prolong > lose one’s way. Derived from the root Tu’aHh (טוח) (stretch over) to spread over. Related to Arabic (טוח טאח) to get lost, go astray (arrow), lose one’s way.
79 – mills (רחים RaeHhayim) Allegorically: taking respites. From RaWaHh (רוח) horizontal movement, expanse, distance, space, wind > spirit > respite.
80 – they beat (it) with morters (דכו במדכה) Allegorically: they collapsed, in feeling crushed. Along with meaning to crush, this verb also means to collapse (Ps10:10).
81 – and they stewed (it) (ובשלו uBiShaLu) Allegorically: they held back. From the verb BaShaL (בשל) to hold back in > steep > boil > cook. It evolved from BuSh (בוש hold back-delay > to be embarrassed) and BaShaSh (בשש – to hold back-delay). Related Ba/aSh (באש to rot, go bad (over a delay in time)); (יבש YaBhaeSh) to be dry, withered (over a delay in time) > dry land (יבשה YaBaShah).
82 – pot (פרור PaRuR) Allegorically: disengaged. From PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-roaming around. Which evolved from the unattested root PaRaH (פרה) meaning to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck.
83 – cakes (עוגות \uGoT) Allegorically: (they performed it) negligently, lazily. From \uG (עוג) to make a circle, go about in a circle. Related to (עגו egu) Akkadian: to be negligent, lazy.
84 – cake of oil (לשד השמן L’ShaD haShaMeN) Allegorically: a person vigorously pushed in as a result of one’s exuding into experience. From L’ShaD (לשד) vigor (Ps32:5), which evolved from LuSh (לוש) to knead (to tongue). AND oil (שמן – SheMeN) – eight (שמונה – Sh’MoneH) literally mean “what exudes outward.” It evolved from the verb MaNaH (מנה) – to distribute, count, assign, classify. The number is possibly based on the image of putting the two hands together palms down, with the thumbs tucked under the palms with eight fingers splayed out like the exuding of oil (or maybe not).
85 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
86 – elder (זקן) allegorically “the acts of clearly visualizing things” from (זקן – (be clear) beard, old), related to ZuQ (זוק – (Arb- (make clear in the mind) to visualize) and ZaQaQ (זקק – (to make clear / purify) to distill)
87 – Tso/N (צאן – flock) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
88 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, one who investigates) or morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
89 – slaughter (people or animals) (שחט – ShaChaT) from HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). Compare cognates: Ugaritic: butcher, slaughterer; Arabic: be annoyed / displeased / angry, to resent, wrath; exasperation; Syriac: to harm, mar, abuse, impair, vitiate, infringe, violate (law / woman)
90 – YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up)
91 – Eldad (אלדד /eLDaD) Allegorically: one’s advancing forward with initiative, plodding through experience with perseverance. From El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward; /aeLeH (these – what advances forward); /aL (אל) preclude; /aLaH (אלה) curse (what is brought forward). AND DaDaH (דדה) to plod along with constant and monotonous perseverance (Is38:15)
92 – Maydad (מידד MayDaD) Allegorically: one’s spreading out into experience, through experience with perseverance. From May (מי) from MaHaH (מהה) to dissolve, dilute > spread out. AND DaDaH (דדה) to plod along with constant and monotonous perseverance (Is38:15).
93 – prophet (נביא NaBy/), prophetess (נביאה NaBhy/a), to prophesy (נבא NiBa/) Allegorically: to rant. See: to mutter to oneself, ramble at the mouth to oneself, to rant, gripe (SmI18:10)(Jr29:26)
94 – quail (שלו – S’LaW) Allegorically: feelings of ease and serenity. The allegory comes from ShaLaeW (שׁלו) at ease (Jb16:12), relaxation (Jb20:20). Both come from ShaLaH (שלה) (to hang suspended) to be relaxed (Jr12:1), lazy, to be negligent (CrII29:11)
95 – Cush (כוש KuSh) Allegorically: many badgering impressions. Related to KaSaS (כשש) to strike into repeatedly, frighten through knocking (Jastro); KaSKaeS (כשכש) to repetitively knock, strike, to move to and fro, to knock about (Jastro). Also KuSh(כוש) evolved into to cover (כסה KaSaH) meaning “to make marks, cuts, impressions and to cover over.” Consider: throne (KiSae/ – כסא) literally means what is marked up with many impressions > covered. From (KaSaH – כסה) to cover over. Which also evolved into (KaSaS – כסס) to mark > count > consider; K.S.Ph. Silver, literally means “that which is marked up (tarnished).
96 – humble (ענו \aNaW) Allegorically: one who humbly takes on the overwhelm that is to be found in experience. From \anaH (ענה) to afflict, overwhelm, rape, humiliate etc.
97 – sister (אחות – /aChoT) technically derived from (אח – /aCh, brother). However, the allegorical use is not related to this etymology. Instead, it is based on the root ChaTaT (חתת) meaning to press down upon, to subdue, and to frighten. Therefore, the allegory means “what subdues in experience.”
98 – tambourine (תוף ToPh) Allegorically: a covering over of one’s mouth, of allowing something to come in. From mouth (פה – PeH) “place of going in” evolved from B.. (ב.. – to force inward) from which come Bo/ (בוא – to come-go in), BaHaH (בהה – (to break into) > make disorderly), BuM > BuN (בום – to force in between > בון to force in between). This root (פה – PeH) thereafter evolves into meaning edge, periphery, distinction etc
99 – women (נשים NaShim). This word is related to NaSa/ (נשה) which like NaSa/ (נשא) means to lift up and carry along. Thus wife-woman (/eeShaH -אשה) could mean “one who lifts up and carries.” Allegorically, based on this and context, it means “one’s conducting oneself through experience.”
100 – The allegorical meaning of “writhing with experience” comes from M’ChoLaH (מחולה = מחלה) from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), evolving into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth.
101 – leprous (צרעת – TsaRa\aT) Sabaic cognate: to damage, defeat, humiliate, bring s.o to submission; related to TsuR (צור – narrow in)
102 – snow (שלג – SheLeG) Literally means “what suspends.” The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate.

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Hans Wehr. Ed by J Milton Cowan (1979) Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, NY: Published in the United States by Spoken Languages Services, Inc with permission of Otto Harrassowitz

Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, eds., A Concise Dictionary ofAkkadian, 2nd corrected printing (Santag Arbeiten und Untersuchungen Zur Keilschriftkunde, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000)

Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.

Judaic Classics by David Kantrowitz version 3.4, 1991 – 2009. Institute for computers in Jewish Life. Davka Corp and /or Judaica Press Inc.

About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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