La Befana – Why Southern Italian Jews love this whimsical character

On the night of January fifth children throughout Italy (especially in Calabria)  hang their stockings from the fireplace mantle or place their shoes by the bedroom door, all in anticipation of a beloved old lady who will slide down the chimney or squeeze through the keyhole to bring gifts to the sleeping boys and girls.

Her name is “La Befana,” possibly derived from the Greek word, “Epiphany,” referring to a Christian holiday that marks the arrival of the three kings who brought gifts to the baby in Bethlehem.  But over the years La Befana has taken on a persona all her own and for us Jewish parents, she is a special part of southern Italian folklore that includes our children in the gift giving tradition while offering a distinct separation between the religious celebration of Christmas and the arrival of a charming mythical figure.

For Italian Christian families the evening of December 24 includes a sumptuous meal followed by midnight mass and here in Calabria, elaborate bonfires that sometimes can be seen by the space shuttle crews! Christmas day is spent with friends and family, sharing traditional foods, homemade wine and once-a-year sweets like “pignolata” and “torrone.”  But in a historical maneuver that would make many a rabbi proud, the “sacred” portion of the holiday is separated from the “profane” in that the religious aspect is distinct from the material world of exchanging gifts.

Here in Calabria there is no Santa in the local mall, no photos on Santa’s knee, no visit from a robust, red-suited grandfatherly figure on Christmas Eve.  For us it’s an impressive 12 days after the religious holiday when La Befana, a diminutive “Bubbe,” dressed in a peasant “shmata,” flies from house to house on her broom bringing the long awaited gifts to the kids.  Thanks to La Befana Jewish children can comfortably enjoy the anticipation of what has become a secular tradition and easily join in the fun.

The name Befana appeared for the first time in 1549 in a poem by an Italian Florentine author, Agnolo Firenzuola. Later it was Shakespeare’s comedy, “Twelfth Night” that celebrated the night of January fifth as the most magical night of the year. In the peasant culture of Calabria and Sicily this night was a time to make predictions and forecasts for the coming year while family elders recounted fantastic stories of years gone by. As midnight approaches, parents cart their little ones off to bed, but not before setting out a plate of La Befana’s favorite snack – smoked fish, pickled onions and a glass of dark red wine – a surprisingly Jewish treat for an Italian cultural icon that Italian Jewish families have come to appreciate and enjoy.

About the Author
Rabbi Barbara Aiello is the first woman and first non-orthodox rabbi in Italy. She opened the first active synagogue in Calabria since Inquisition times and is the founder of the B'nei Anousim movement in Calabria and Sicily that helps Italians discover and embrace their Jewish roots
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