Roy Jankelowitz

Meet the Professional Oppositionists: Part 2

Georgian colour revolution, named Rose revolution.

Credit: Zaraza - Zaraza
Tbilisi, Rose Revolution 2003.,_Tbilisi_-_Rose_Revolution_(2003).jpg
Georgian colour revolution, named Rose revolution. Credit: Zaraza - Zaraza Tbilisi, Rose Revolution 2003.,_Tbilisi_-_Rose_Revolution_(2003).jpg

List of Those Who Stand Straighter

It is clear that among the “oppositional elite,” there is active competition for resources. This raises questions about the extent to which Nevzlin’s IIARH in Israel and Khodorkovsky’s Anti-War Committee compete with each other. Prominent members of the committee include Yukos CEO Mikhail Khodorkovsky, gallerist Marat Gelman, former Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov, former world chess champion Garry Kasparov, economists Sergey Aleksashenko and Sergey Guriev, historian Vladimir Kara-Murza, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Yuri Pivovarov, politician Dmitry Gudkov, entrepreneurs Boris Zimin and Evgeny Chichvarkin, writer Viktor Shenderovich, journalist Evgeny Kiselyov, and writer Julia Latynina.[1]

When studying modern “professional oppositionists,” whether in Russia, Ukraine, or Israel, it is necessary to accurately understand their financial source in order to determine their level in the “pyramid of protests” and their influence on the “managed chaos of color revolutions.”

We present to your attention a list of top-level “professional oppositionists,” many of whom are currently present, including in Israel. Their financial history is an important source of information for understanding how the “pyramid of protests” is organized and who its main beneficiaries are.

№ 1. Mikhail Khodorkovsky

Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky, 60 years old. The founder of Yukos Oil Company, the founder of “Open Russia” and a number of political and media projects (“Open Elections”[2], “Open Media”).

The former head of Yukos was convicted in 2005 for fraud and tax evasion, and in 2010 for embezzlement, money laundering, and fraud related to Yukos shares. Putin signed a pardon decree for Khodorkovsky on December 20, 2013.

In 2015, Russia issued an international arrest warrant for Khodorkovsky in connection with the murder of Nefteyugansk Mayor Vladimir Petukhov and the attempted murder of entrepreneur Yevgeny Rybin. Since 2015, he has been living in the United Kingdom, from where he leads protest activities.


Directly and through proxies, he controls 17 legal entities in the UK, Lithuania, France, the Czech Republic, and the USA. Through them, he sponsors Russian-speaking opposition and conducts business. The average annual turnover of related NGOs: $21 million per year.

The total size of assets based on public data alone: $1.12 billion.

They consist of:

  • an endowment fund in Britain,[3]
  • the value of real estate in London,[4]
  • a deposit in an Irish bank,[5]
  • a 1/7 share in the Quadrum group of companies, investing in real estate.[6]


False conflict. For almost 10 years, MBK has been in dispute with the Anti-Corruption Foundation (FBK). As early as 2016, supporters of Navalny criticized Khodorkovsky’s “Open Elections” project. With the onset of the Russian-Ukrainian armed conflict, the confrontation intensified — FBK refused to participate in MBK’s events, criticized Khodorkovsky for hiring pro-government activists (Rostislav Murzagulov). The groups actively distanced themselves from each other. However, the American entity FBK (ACF International) received almost half a million dollars in donations from structures and individuals associated with Khodorkovsky, and paid for the production of a YouTube channel to a Lithuanian firm Posterum, founded by Khodorkovsky’s associates.


Politicization of the apolitical. An example of Khodorkovsky’s use of relocaters and the “lower caste” of the opposition. In 2022, Khodorkovsky launched projects Reforum and “Ark”, which offered assistance to Russians who fled the country — promising them shelter, legal assistance, and help finding jobs. Assistance is provided only to those willing to participate in protest activities — writing letters to political prisoners or attending rallies at Russian embassies. Potential residents of the “Ark” are surveyed and questioned about their protest activities — for example, the presence of administrative penalties for participating in rallies.[7]


Function. Khodorkovsky serves as a money hub through which Western donors distribute money — in particular, those recognized as undesirable in Russia, such as NED, EED, and other structures associated with the State Department.

№ 2. Leonid Volkov

After Alexei Navalny death, Leonid Volkov rose to the second position in the hierarchy of the Anti-Corruption Foundation (FBK) and competes for the first place with Maria Pevchikh. He has many followers on social media, and the financial condition of FBK depends heavily on him (cryptocurrency donations are sent to his accounts). Additionally, he interacts with the American establishment on the “Russian issue” and advocates for sanctions against the Russian Federation.[8]

Deception for Hype. Volkov publicly and harshly berates Khodorkovsky, calling him a scoundrel, accusing him of playing dirty, and alleging that MBK hires former government officials. This is a fiction intended to assure the very “bottoms” that form the basis of the opposition that Khodorkovsky and the FBK are two different forces. In reality, they are two heads of the same “protest pyramid”.

Volkov receives money from Khodorkovsky. Members of MBK’s Anti-War Committee donate funds to the American company Anti-Corruption Foundation, whose top manager is Volkov. Thus, in 2021, they donated almost half a million dollars to the ACF.

Then ACF itself paid a Lithuanian company, founded by Khodorkovsky’s confidants, almost $400,000 for producing a YouTube channel. (Confirmation – screenshot from ACF’s annual report)

Finally, the “Navalny Shop” website, through which FBK merchandise is sold, is also registered to Khodorkovsky’s company – Magna Futura. In 2022, it sold FBK t-shirts worth 170,000 euros.[9]

The Letter Scandal. In March 2023, Leonid Volkov, on behalf of the Anti-Corruption Foundation (ACF) and without the foundation’s approval, signed a letter to the European Commission requesting the lifting of sanctions against the founders of “Alfa Group,” Mikhail Fridman and Petr Aven. Initially, he tried to deflect by claiming it was a forgery, but when several respected figures in the opposition (such as former editor-in-chief of “Echo” Alexey Venediktov) provided a copy of the document, Volkov was forced to admit and publicly apologize.

Fake Pause. After the letter scandal, Volkov publicly announced that he was taking a “pause” in his work at the ACF. However, in reality, he remained a leading employee of the organization and assumed a similar position in the newly created structure – ACF International.

Income. Volkov was the treasurer of the Anti-Corruption Foundation for a long time. He owned the main cryptocurrency wallet of the ACF in bitcoins, which received 186 million rubles in just 2018-2019.

Various sources claimed that due to the opacity of transactions, Volkov could misappropriate donations from supporters – ordinary people who sincerely believed in Volkov’s promises and political course with Navalny. Thus, the official annual report reflected amounts significantly smaller than the actual inflows. According to individuals who reported this to the Investigative Committee, more than 60 million rubles were misappropriated in this way.

Subsequently, this episode formed the basis of a criminal case against Volkov and other top managers of the ACF, who were accused of laundering 1 billion rubles using cryptocurrency and dummy legal entities.

№ 3. Boris Zimin


The son of the founder of “Beeline” was one of the main sponsors of the Russian opposition. According to his own words, Boris Dmitrievich Zimin annually gave FBK $1,000,000.[10] It was he who paid Alexei Navalny $5.5 million per year, as the opposition figure himself admitted, as almost gratuitous support.[11] Zimin sponsored the journalistic award “Redkollegia,” supported cultural projects, and educational institutions.

He is currently a member of the “Anti-War Committee” founded by Khodorkovsky.

Double standards. In 2022, he sharply reduced support for the Russian opposition “due to lack of funds,” as he said in an interview.[12]

Cost-cutting by Zimin affected only the Russian opposition. With the start of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, Zimin began donating to Ukrainian NGOs and, as he assures, to civil initiatives in Ukraine.[13]

Sanctions against the Russian Federation helped Zimin’s business. He is a fervent supporter of anti-Russian sanctions. In 2023, it became clear why. In January 2023, former Bulgarian Finance Minister Milen Velchev and his brother Georgi bought a Swiss raw materials business from one of the Russian state banks that fell under sanctions for a pittance. The Velchev brothers are business partners and neighbors of Zimin in London.[14] Thus, by cultivating sanctions, Zimin facilitated a profitable deal with his affiliated persons.

Wealth and sources. $182,000,000 is the amount Zimin cannot spend without the permission of the managers of the family trust.[15] Additionally, $30,000,000 in personal funds. Capital sources include funds from his father, accumulated in the Sreda Foundation and the family trust BMT, registered in Bermuda,[16] and income from his own business (a hotel chain in Bulgaria, formerly dividends from a stake in the car-sharing service Belka).

Real estate and movables.

The total value of assets exceeds £17 million.

  • Apartment in London, 1 Wycombe Square. Price £3,000,000. (Photo: _
  • House in Kensington (£6,260,000)
  • Greenley Farm in East Somerset, on the Bristol Channel coast (£1,000,000) (document – proof)
  • Two combined penthouse apartments in Limassol, Cyprus (£4,500,000)
  • Yacht (£3,500,000).
  • Helicopter (£850,000).

Biography. His brother is Sergey Zimin, one of the leaders of the criminal gang “Koptevsky” nicknamed “Zyoma.” He disappeared without a trace in Spain in the early 2000s.[17] His nephew is Roman Zimin, who served a sentence for complicity in robbery and burglary.[18]

№4. Vladimir Ashurkov

Former executive director of the Anti-Corruption Foundation, after being forced to move to London, embarked on a more discreet path and rarely appears in the public sphere. With the onset of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, his work, which initially seemed somewhat invisible, became in demand by Western governments.

He assists European countries and the USA in locating Russian assets abroad and freezing them within the framework of sanctions. He also investigates the connections of Russian businessmen and oligarchs to facilitate their inclusion in sanction lists. To do this, he opened two companies in London — Sloane Services and Zorge Partners. He employed his longtime acquaintances there — former Anti-Corruption Foundation investigation department employee Nikita Kulachenkov and former lawyer from Pepeliaev Group Vadim Insarov.

Finances. According to the financial report of Zorge Partners, which deals with asset tracing for sanctions, it generated revenue of £114,000 in 2021 (8 million rubles at the current exchange rate).

His other company, Sloane Services, annually receives an average of £420,000 from an anonymous company in Cyprus (more than 50 million rubles at the current rate).

Law. In Russia, in June 2014, a criminal case was initiated against Ashurkov for embezzlement and misappropriation of 10 million rubles in donations from voters during Alexei Navalny’s mayoral campaign in Moscow. Baltic International Bank (BIB), where accounts of Ashurkov’s Cypriot partner are held, was fined $1.72 million by the Latvian financial intelligence for “lack of adequate control” in anti-money laundering.

Meeting. Ashurkov was establishing contacts with British MI6 and American CIA. In 2012, he met with James Ford, the secretary of the British Embassy in Moscow, who was an undercover MI6 agent. These and other data suggest that his London-based firms, engaged in expanding sanctions, collaborate and exchange information with British intelligence.

Assets. The average annual income of the family, including through Ashurkov’s and his wife Alexandrina Markvo’s companies, could reach £1 million per year. The family resides in a house in central London on Fillbich Gardens, in apartments valued at £800,000.

№5. Evgeny Chichvarkin

The former owner of “Euroset,” who fled to London, is experiencing significant financial problems but still exerts media influence on the political opposition field.

Political Activity: He organizes “charity dinners” in support of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and delivers humanitarian aid to Ukraine. He is part of the “Antiwar Committee” founded by Khodorkovsky.

Assets: After fleeing to London to escape a criminal case suspected of kidnapping, Chichvarkin had £95,000,000 left.[19] Subsequently, he halved this amount due to a divorce settlement with his first wife, who received a £15 million estate in Surrey. Investments in the restaurant business, warehouse purchases, and real estate acquisitions depleted a significant portion of his wealth. Journalists estimated that by 2020, he had personal funds of no more than £7.9 million.

Debts: Since the mid-2010s, Chichvarkin has consistently taken out loans from London banks for business development and to repay previous obligations. He owes nearly £7.5 million on six loans from Metro Bank, which must be repaid by 2027.

In 2022, almost all of the family’s personal and commercial real estate became collateral for loans from banks:

  • A two-story apartment at Little Boltons, 25
  • Premises of the Hide restaurant (proof)
  • Premises of the Hideaway bar
  • Premises of the Hedonism Vines wine shop.


Failure. The Chichvarkin family loudly announced charitable assistance to cultural sites in Ukraine that could suffer from military actions. Chichvarkin’s common-law wife, Tatiana Fokina, registered a legal entity in London to preserve Ukraine’s museum valuables called Save The Spot on June 21, 2022. However, the idea ended with a whimper: already on June 24, Fokina submitted a statement for the exclusion of the company from the register.[20]


Politics are crucial for Chichvarkin to maintain his public image and financial standing: as long as he, as a Russian citizen, publicly supports Ukraine and criticizes his own country, London authorities will turn a blind eye to his credit problems.

№6. Leonid Nevzlin

Leonid Nevzlin has been actively involved in political projects in recent years, predominantly with an anti-Russian orientation. He criticizes Russia’s actions in the conflict with Ukraine and spends money to aid the Ukrainian Armed Forces. Additionally, he actively influences Israeli internal politics through his media resources and structures, attempting to make it pro-Ukrainian.


Assets: His fortune is estimated at $1 billion. He owns a stake in the investment group Quadrum, which invests in the construction of commercial and residential properties worldwide. He may also have a share in the Haifa oil refinery.

He is a co-founder of the NADAV Foundation, which supports Israeli education.

Nevzlin is the founder of the Israeli news portal “Details,” which is published in Russian.

Quote: “I cannot find any love or sympathy — neither for Russia nor for its people… My attitude towards this territory is disgust, revulsion. There is no separate Russian people and Putin; it is a mafia fascist state,” — Nevzlin characterizes all Russians in this manner. Lawyers may find extremist connotations in this phrase, which diminishes human dignity based on nationality.[21]

Nevzlin’s racial hatred towards Russians is palpable, as he denies even the existence of the Russian people as a nation. It’s surprising that the main Israeli custodian of the Museum of the Jewish Diaspora has so categorically resolved the “Russian question” for himself, as if the characters from his museum exhibitions had not themselves experienced the catastrophe of the “Jewish question.”

Funding for “Azov”: The Jewish community has repeatedly expressed concerns about Nevzlin and even demanded that he be removed from leading the Museum of Israeli Diaspora. Museum staff were concerned that the businessman was accused of serious crimes (he was convicted in Russia for organizing a contract killing) and is wanted by Interpol.

It turns out that the diaspora was not unjustified in its efforts to distance itself from Nevzlin. As an ethnic Jew, he donates money to the nationalist, recognized terrorist Azov Battalion in Russia.

In September 2023, journalists discovered that he was involved in creating the public organization “Azov One” in Ukraine, “to provide and financially support the brigade.” The co-founders of “Azov One” are officers of the NGU “Azov” brigade: Major Bohdan “Tavr” Krotevich, Major Nikita “Raz-Dva” Nadtochiy, Major Sergiy “Molfar” Tsisaruk, Junior Lieutenant Ilya “Gendalf” Samoylenko, Lieutenant Lev “Horos” Pashko, all of whom are Ukrainian neo-Nazis.

It is precisely to them that Nevzlin calls for donations in his Telegram channel and actively promotes them on social media.

Additionally, Nevzlin sponsors the “Action 4 Life” foundation, recognized as undesirable in Russia, which also donates funds to the benefit of the Ukrainian Armed Forces.

№7. Garry Kasparov

Garry Kimovich Kasparov left Russia more than 10 years ago when the protest on Bolotnaya Square showed its inefficiency. And although by 2024 both Russia and its socio-political situation had changed significantly, Kasparov continues to be considered an expert in the Russian political arena among American Democrats. He is invited to round tables, delivers lectures, and with each passing year becomes more detached from the state he represents abroad. Moreover, he took on the role of representing this state himself—no one asked him, no one elected him as the leader of the “American Russian” opposition.

Self-proclaimed. In an interview with Yuri Dud, Kasparov announced his amazing idea: since citizens are leaving Russia in large numbers against the backdrop of SVR, it is necessary to introduce a filtration of “good” and “bad” Russians. According to Kasparov, the latter are people associated with the state or benefiting from connections with state institutions. At the same time, he modestly took on the role of “filterer,” promising to issue “good Russian passports”—documents that would grant holders in the EU the same civil rights as everyone else. “Bad Russians,” obviously, are proposed to be stripped of their rights. Even Dud was taken aback by this scenario.[22]

If anyone thinks that Kasparov’s arguments are just empty rhetoric, they are mistaken. He has spent quite substantial sums to register as a lobbyist in the EU registry and has attempted to promote his ideas at the EU legislative level.[23]

Double standards. On his website and in public speeches, Kasparov refers to SVR as a “criminal war,” discrediting the Russian military. He criticizes the methods of warfare, always trying to find signs of war crimes. But when it comes to controversial actions by the American army—such as in Iraq, where the United States itself admitted to entering troops into Iraq based on false evidence of weapons of mass destruction—Kasparov immediately becomes cautious in his assessments. Why? It’s simple—he is a citizen of the United States by “acquired citizenship,” receives millions in grants from both Republicans and Democrats, and does not want to lose them due to careless criticism of his adopted country.

To better understand how Kasparov changes his point of view within the framework of a single conversation, just watch this three-minute fragment of an interview with Dud.[24]

Income. Kasparov is a vivid example of a “professional oppositionist.” He was one of the first infobloggers in Russia. Since the 2010s, he has been giving lectures on “achieving success,” which later transformed into political themes, which can generally be described as lectures on the difficult path of Russian democracy. One lecture from him already cost no less than $50,000.

In 2017, Grandmaster Kasparov came up with another combination to capitalize on American political fears. He decided to save American democracy. According to Kasparov, it is under threat due to foreign influence and demagogy. To save democracy, he founded the Renew Democracy Initiative (RDI) in New York and received a grant of $644.6 thousand for this rescue mission. However, the bulk of the grant was spent on flights, awards, and salaries for the leadership—real, publicly known projects of the fund were not found by journalists.

Beneficiary of War. If until 2022 his charitable foundation could not boast truly significant income, then in the year of the start of the Russian-Ukrainian armed conflict, Kasparov’s rhetoric found resonance in the ears of wealthy Americans—in 2022, one of the largest NGOs in the USA issued him $2.5 million in grants.

Assets. In 2009, he bought a penthouse in New York for $3.4 million.

Trading on his Name. In recent years, Kasparov’s role can be described as a challenge expert—thanks to his last name, a very expensive expert. “The average bureaucrat from Brussels poorly understands how the Russian economy works. And this bureaucrat invites an expert on Russia who will explain everything to him in writing. It’s one thing if such a certificate is signed by an unknown expert, and quite another when the signature belongs to the world-famous Grandmaster Harry Kasparov,” says Professor Marat Bashirov of HSE.[25]

№8. Ekaterina Shulman

One of the most media-famous ideologists of the opposition, the critic of Russian authorities most adequately perceived by the public, and, it must be admitted, a favorite expert for the majority. But as is often the case, a person’s public image often diverges significantly from the reality of their private life.


Assets. Ekaterina’s husband, Mikhail Shulman, owns 40 real estate properties in Moscow and the region with a total value of about 1 billion rubles. They rent them out, receiving no less than 3.5 million rubles in payments per month.


Raider Takeovers with Intellectual Faces. The ways in which the Shulmans acquired their real estate assets may raise questions of both ethical and legal nature. Most of the properties were obtained through pledge auctions or dubious schemes. In 2023, it became known that they seized premises in the center of Moscow from the daughter of the Hero of the Donbass of the Great Patriotic War, Nikolay Gerasimenko, taking advantage of document chaos in the 1990s when ownership was being formalized.[26] In the same year, they received an advance of 1.5 million rubles from the “Kalinka” children’s dance ensemble for premises on Bauman Street but evicted the tenants in favor of a more profitable client, and did not return the advance. Now the ensemble is suing the Shulmans, and a significant part of the students left them due to the lack of premises.[27]


Connections with the Anti-Corruption Foundation (FBK). It may seem that Shulman is independent of other opposition groups or that her spouse is solely involved in business without delving into politics. This is not the case. In 2019, Mikhail Shulman rented out the basement of his residential building, where he was the chairman of the HOA, to Navalny’s headquarters. Moreover, he did this without the consent of the other residents of the building. The rent, 4.7 million rubles, was paid to him by one of the legal entities of the FBK.[28]

№9. Ilya Ponomarev


In February 2024, former State Duma deputy Ilya Ponomarev ranked fourth in the rating of influence of the Russian opposition abroad, according to Bild newspaper. He did not make it to the top five in our rating because his actual influence on the opposition agenda is less than commonly thought.


Lots of PR, little action. Ponomarev takes credit for others’ achievements in the opposition sphere; much of what he claims is either fake or not his own:


  • Most of the projects he claims as his own have no relation to him. For example, his alleged association with terrorists who killed Daria Dugina or the terrorist group “RDK”. Previously, Ponomarev claimed to have a connection with the “Utro Dagestan” channel, which called for anti-Semitic pogroms, but it turned out he wasn’t associated with it.
  • Ponomarev has become toxic even to his own people: other opposition groups don’t miss a chance to criticize his radicalism and unreliability. He doesn’t pay salaries to his media holding employees but buys an expensive house near Washington. His press secretary and the editor-in-chief of his media outlets have left him.

Escape to the USA. In 2016, Ponomarev received Ukrainian citizenship by a special decree. He often reminded everyone that he was no longer Russian. However, when rockets flew over Ukraine in 2022 and an armed conflict began, Ponomarev hurriedly left his new homeland. In April 2022, he bought a house near Washington for $1,000,000. This fact was confirmed by independent journalists ( and opposition political analyst Fyodor Krasheninnikov (


American bubble. In 2016, he founded the company Trident Acquisitions in the USA. The Trident company was created to attract investments from American big business to Ukrainian deposits—it was a so-called blank check company (essentially a shell company that raises money from investors for future, yet-to-be-realized projects).


Initially, Ponomarev promised investors access to Ukrainian subsoil and raised money for it. In 2020, Ponomarev’s company even won a 50-year contract for oil and gas extraction in Ukraine. However, a month later, the results of the competition were canceled—according to the Prime Minister of Ukraine V. Groysman, the project “did not meet expectations in terms of attracting major global players to the Ukrainian market”.[29]


Then Trident Acquisitions turned to the lottery business, finding a partner in the lottery ticket distributor But they faced claims there too: just a year after starting operations, minority shareholders sued the company, accusing it of hiding information from investors and falsifying financial statements. It was proven in court that Ponomarev and his partners artificially inflated the revenue of the lottery business by $30 million and actually took out a loan to cover current expenses.


№ 10. Julia Latynina


Activist, investigative journalist, writer, Caucasus researcher, now known as a blogger.

Since 2022, she has been a member of the “Anti-War Committee” of the MBK Media. Julia Latynina has been earning a living from protest rhetoric for 20 years. Her status as a foreign agent was found to be justified: in 2021-2022, she received funds from foreign sources for two of her open companies in Estonia.

Earnings. In 2018, Julia Latynina emigrated to Tallinn, where she founded two companies with producer and video editor Darya Vorontsova. Their total income in 2022 amounted to over €260,000. Through them, she receives advertising revenue, donations, and grants.


MTÜ LatyninaOrg brought Latynina €9,000 in donations and grants in 2019. In 2021, the amount of gratuitous assistance amounted to €54,000. In 2022, the company recorded revenue of €220,400  Experts linked the revenue growth to increased grant activity after the start of the armed conflict.


Assets. In 2020, when registering an LLC, the journalist indicated a Russian residential address: a two-level apartment in Moscow on Malaya Bronnaya Street. After the start of the armed conflict, this apartment in Patriarch’s Ponds with an area of ​​313 square meters was put up for sale for 240 million rubles. Before that, the apartment was rented out for 1.5 million rubles per month.


Before emigrating to Estonia, the journalist’s family owned a two-room apartment in the VDNKh area for 12 million rubles, and a three-room apartment on Kutuzovsky Prospekt worth 25 million rubles, as well as two country houses.[30]


Expertise. Latynina’s forecasts have a tendency to be the opposite of reality.


In the fall of 2023, she claimed that the IDF was fighting in the most humane way. Subsequently, even American officials pointed out to the Israel Defense Forces methods of warfare that did not comply with international law.[31] Mexico and Chile even filed a complaint with the International Criminal Court regarding the crimes of the Israel Defense Forces in the Gaza Strip.[32]


In the first months of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict, Latynina predicted the collapse of the Russian economy and the transition to subsistence farming. She claimed that the “land corridor to Crimea is doomed.” Now, almost 2 years later, the successes of the Russian army have been noticed even in the USA.[33]




[3] — отчет



[6] Through the Corbiere Trust offshore, Khodorkovsky controls a stake in the Quadrum group of companies, which invests in real estate assets worldwide. Quadrum’s asset size amounts to $2 billion. Control is distributed among former shareholders of Yukos, with no less than 1/7 of the beneficial ownership stake attributed to MBK.




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About the Author
Hebrew University Masters Graduate in the sports journalism industry for Israel Sport with a passion for Political Science.
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