In the chapter before parashat Sh’mini (chapter 8 of Leviticus), Moshe anoints not only Aharon, but also all that is in the mishkan, the altar, the basin and its base. The verb for anointing, MaShaHh (משח), is a direct descendant of the verb MaShaH (משה to draw out). An anointing is a drawing out of oil upon an object or person indicating that that person or thing has been drawn out to fulfill a special function. Allegorically, the Torah is designed to bring us closer to God’s bringing forth of existence in order for us to mentally process and engage what is made available to us in experience. In order to achieve this, we utilize our mental faculty of bringing things to light (Aharon),1 our ability to dwell upon a scene (משכן mishkan),2 our ability to flow forth of oneself (מזבח altar),3 and our ability to go around and around through experience (כיור K’YoR, basin)4 and its associated fixing or establishing of things (כן KaN, base).5 Because the word for oil (שמן SheMeN) literally means “what exudes,”6 the oil of anointing represents what exudes (of experience) that is drawn out from experience. The initiation of a person’s mental faculty of bringing things to light (Aharon) is drawn out and made functional by giving it a substrate to work on. That substrate is what exudes of experience that is drawn out to be mentally processed.
In contrast, in parashat Sh’mini, the word for eight – Sh’MoNeH (שמונה) – although etymologically related to the word for oil (שמן SheMeN) – represents a person’s exuding out into experience.6 By employing the act of bringing things to light (Aharon) and the behaviors associated with it (his sons),7 and the acts of seeing things clearly (elders)8 and the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Yisrael)9 it becomes possible to see a fuller intensity (כבוד glory)10 of God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H). In contrast to Aharon and his sons who make a more focused examination of a scene, situation or experience; the elders of Israel and the children of Israel make a broader examination or survey of the experience. This is represented by the literal meanings of the different offerings that they are commanded to bring forward and the animals or foodstuffs associated with those offerings. In general, a ChaTa/T (חטאת sin offering) represents a less directed act of veering about experience;11 whereas an OLaH (עולה ascension offering) represents a more directed and exhaustive act of becoming mentally engaged with particular things encountered in experience.12
In order for God’s bringing forth of existence to appear to them, they must bring:
For the act of bringing things to light (Aharon):1 an act of rushing about experience in order to swiftly descend upon things (עגל calf)13 of an act of making an investigation (בקר cattle)14 for a sin offering (חטאת) – an act of veering about experience.11 On the other hand, for an ascension offering (עלה Olah) – an act of meandering about things so as to mentally busy oneself with them12 – he is to bring an act of advancing forward into experience with initiative (איל ram).15
For the behaviors of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (בני ישראל children of Israel):7,9 an act of taking notice when being stirred by things that are intense (שערי עזים)16,17 for a sin offering (חטאת)11 – an act of veering about experience; and repetitive acts (בני שנה)7,18 of rushing about experience in order to swiftly descend upon things (עגל calf)13 and of pressing into things (כבש sheep)19 for an ascension offering (עלה Olah)12 – an act of meandering about things so as to mentally busy oneself with them; and an act of staring fixedly (שור ox)20 and an act of advancing forward into experience with initiative (איל ram)15 for peace offerings (שלמים) – acts of yielding to things,21 for the sake of flowing forth of oneself (לזבח making offerings),3 regarding the many things being presented (faces) of God’s bringing forth of existence (before HaShem). And lastly, an act of leaning in (מנחה meal offering),22 mixed with what exudes in experience (שמן oil).6
After leaning into (slaughtering)23 the various activities represented by the making of these offerings, the act of bringing things to light (Aharon)1 elevates the power of its reach (hands)24 toward the being mindful of what crowds in of experience (עם people).25 Then our mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)26 – and of bringing things to light (Aharon)1 – comes into the act of becoming familiar with things by being enduringly mentally present (ohel moed).27 They then come out and make the being mindful of what crowds in of experience excel (bless the people).28 Having done these things, the intensity of God’s bringing forth of existence appears. A fire comes out from before HaShem and consumes the offerings. However, allegorically the fire is our fire, our ability to be mentally persistent.29 It comes out upon our flowing forth of ourselves (the altar),3 such that we embrace (eat) the act of meandering about things so as to mentally busy ourselves with them (oleh)12 and the many things that are captivating (fats)30 in experience.
The chapter concludes with: “And all of the people were seeing, such that they were shouting (וירנו) and falling (ויפלו) upon their faces.” The root of the word for shouting, RaNaN (רנן) most probably means “a raised monotonous ringing tone.” It is etymologically related to the root RaNa/ (רנא) which in Syriac means to meditate and reflect and in Arabic, it means to gaze or look at something intently. The word for fall (נפל NaPhaL) literally means “to have moved back and forth.” Since it is etymologically related to the root PaLaL (פלל to go back and forth > consider), it represents a person’s moving back and forth and vacillating over a large amount of data in consideration of it. Therefore, allegorically the above sentence means: “Such that all of the being mindful of what crowds in from experience sees, and they stare intently, but they vacillate moving back and forth, concerning the many things (faces, aspects) being presented to them.”
And so begins the problem………
How does a person see the intensity of God’s bringing forth of experience? It simply is not possible. But, of course, we can try. Utilizing behaviors of the mental faculty of bringing things to light (בני אהרן, son’s of Aharon) – the ability to devote attention to a scene (Nadav)31 and the ability to take notice of what exists (pl.) (Avihu)32 – each can take up its ability to scoop things up from experience (מחתתו).33 And putting the ability to be mentally persistent (אש fire)29 with them and an ability to engage and make an inspection (incense),34 they can approach more closely to the many faces of God’s bringing forth of existence. But how does one know which aspect of God’s bringing forth of existence is intend for them? What if they scoop up the wrong thing? Would this not be an act of being mentally persistent that is estranged from the reality that is intended for them, an act of bringing a strange fire? What if while scooping up the wrong thing, the thing intended for them suddenly appears? Would its appearance not create another fire, another act of being mentally persistent? This other fire, “coming out from before HaShem,” is instead directed toward what God brings forth. At that point, one’s devoting attention to a scene (Nadav) and one’s taking notice of what exists (Avihu) are no longer needed to examine the scene – the act of being mentally persistent (fire) destroys them.
After Nadav and Avihu no longer exist, Moshe tells Aharon: “Through those close to me, I shall be brought forward (sanctified),35 such that upon the faces of all of the being mindful of what crowds in, I shall be taken seriously.” In other words, the bringing forward of God’s bringing forth of existence, the experience that is intended by God in any given moment for each individual, cannot be encountered when a person is of an estranged and distant mindset. A distracted mind that is looking elsewhere for God’s bringing forth of existence, cannot see the experience intended for them. A distracted mind cannot take God’s bringing forth of experience seriously. In response, Aharon – representing the person’s act of bringing things to light – appropriately stands still and silent. This mental faculty ceases to search through experience and to bring new things to light, because the intended experience has already be brought to light.
It now becomes necessary to engage the intended experience. In order for this to happen, the things in experience that point the way and give instruction must be approached. We must find the strength within us to advance forward with initiative toward the many aspects of what has been brought forward by God so as to engage with the experience. The uncle of Aharon, Uzi’el meaning “one’s showing strength is of advancing forward into a scene with initiative,”36 represents this for us. His sons empower us to engage with experience more closely: Mishael from the verb MuSh (מוש to grope at and draw out) means “one’s drawing out the act of advancing forward with initiative,”37 whereas Eltsaphan means “one’s advancing forward with initiative toward looking over what lay on the surface.”38 Moshe calls them closer and instructs them to take up your brothers (אחיכם) allegorically symbolizing “the things in experience pointing things out to you”39 from before the Qodesh, representing “the many faces-aspects of what has been brought forward in experience.”35 For the sake of greater concentration, they took them up, through the consolidating of them40 (בכתנתם into their felt-coats), to a mental perspective that is “outside the camp,” outside of the being mindful of what is prosaic and common.41
Having identified and advanced toward what can be found in experience intended for us, Moshe reiterates the importance of avoiding distractions. He tells Aharon (our mental faculty bringing things to light), El’azar (our advancing with initiative toward what surrounds)42 and Itamar (our indicating what opportunity to avail oneself of in standing firmly in wonderment)43 to preclude from trying to attend to their seeing of things in experience (their heads)44 excessively and chaotically (תפרעו), nor should they mangle their ability to bring forward and reveal basic facts about experience (פרם בגדים).45 Were either of these to happen, they would be completely drawn away from the relevant and intended experience (die) and all of the being enduringly mentally present (congregation)46 would be born down upon by too much informtion (קצף). Additionally, since what exudes of what is drawn out from the experience (oil of anointing) is upon them, they cannot abandon it by going out from the opening (embarking) of the act of becoming familiar with things as a result of being enduringly mentally present (the ohel moed). Were that to happen, they would also be completely drawn away from the relevant and intended experience (die).
Not only is it imperative that one engaging a particular aspect of experience not become distracted, it is also important that they not bite off more than they can chew. Here HaShem admonishes Aharon not to come into the ohel moed after drinking wine or an intoxicating drink. The word for wine, YaYiN (יין), literally means “that which overwhelms”47 and the word for intoxicating drink, ShaeKhaR (שכר), means “that which hedges in.”48 Otherwise, not only would they be completely drawn away from the experience (die) by being overwhelmed or hedged in by it, but also they would not be able to distinguish between what is brought forward in experience (holy) and what is commonplace (חול); nor would they be able to distinguish between the being mentally overwhelmed (טמא)49 and the being mentally clear (טהור).50
Following this Moshe instructs Aharon and his remaining sons to eat the remaining meal offering and peace offerings of the children of Israel. In this parashah, the themes of exuding into experience, avoiding becoming distracted, and avoiding becoming overwhelmed are to be found repeatedly. Unlike Nadav and Avihu, Elazar and Itamar represent behaviors of the act of bringing things to light (Aharon) that are less generalized and more focused. From the acts of yielding to things in experience (peace offerings), as a result of the acts of making a sustained survey of the many things advancing forward in experience (Israel), they are to embrace (eat) what is channeled (שוק)51 and what sticks out of what is sifted through (chest of what is waved).52,53 These are to be embraced (eaten) with a firmness of mental clarity (a pure place)54 and upon the acts of being mentally persistent with those things that are captivating (upon the fires of the fats). These things represent a large amount of data carved out (חקק) for them as their due (חוק due, allowance, entitlement) from experience. Nevertheless, Moshe admonishes them for neglecting to embrace (eat) the goat of the sin offering, for it too is considered to be especially holy. While the S’eer (שעיר goat) represents an act of taking notice of things in becoming stirred up by them, a sin offering represents an act of veering about experience. When it is performed, it constitutes a very large amount of data obtained from experience. As Moshe says, its purpose is to lift up the twistings and turnings (עון iniquity)55 of the act of being enduringly mentally present (עדה congregation).
In this conversation, both Moshe and Aharon use the word HaeN (הן). Generally translated as “here,” it means so much more than that. The word HaeN (הן) evolved from the word HoeN (הון) meaning what is substantial (and wealth). In Syriac, the associated verb means “to have presence of mind and to be mindful.” Many Semitic linguists believe that HaeN (הן) is the prefix that acts as the definite article meaning “the.” The letter heh forms the prefix and the elided letter nun is represented by the dagesh placed in the following consonant. As such the definite article, HaeN (הן) means “the (thing that is here),” and “the (thing of substance or substantial).” Allegorically, the presence of HaeN (הן) indicates that the referent is “too substantial” or too much. In this case, both Moshe and Aharon are acknowledging that the amount of information that would be obtained by veering about experience and taking notice of whatever is stirring would be too much. Furthermore, alluding to the deaths of his sons, Aharon says: ותקראנה אתי כאלה “And what has met me as these.” The word for these, /aeLeH (אלה), literally means “what is advancing forward” or “what is of advancing forward.”56 Allegorically, Aharon (our taking notice of things) is pointing out that he has mentally processed all of what has advanced forward in experience and whatever else that would be required of him would be too much.
The parashah concludes with a description of which animals are to considered kosher. Having written two blogs on this topic previously, I will include their links: https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/fish-out-of-water-kashrut-part-1/ and https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/ruminating-over-kashrut/. As has been true of the allegory of Torah, the animals and their associated traits represent behaviors. More specifically, they represent behaviors that either promote or inhibit a person’s ability to engage with aspects of experience and the information encountered there. The parashah concludes with: זאת תורת הבהמה והעוף וכל נפש החיה הרמשת במים ולכל נפש השרצת על הארץ להבדיל בין הטמא ובין הטהר ובין החיה הנאכלתובין החיה אשר לא תאכל “This is the teaching of the herd-animal and of the fowl and all souls of the living-creature, the one arching – wriggling and squirming – in the waters and regarding all of souls that teem upon the earth. In order to distinguish between what is impure and what is pure and between the living-creature, the one to be eaten and between the living-creature that shall not be eaten.”
Here it is allegorically:
This is the teaching of the way of pushing inward toward experience57 and the way of feeling weary and averse to experience,58 and of all untamed spirits59 that are lively that arch – wriggling and squirming – with what is stirred up in experience60, and regarding all untamed spirits that run rampant61 upon one’s disposing oneself to experience62 – in order to distinguish between the being squeezed in and overwhelmed and the being mentally clear; and between the way of being lively that is to be embraced and the way to be lively that shall not be embraced.
1 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
2 – tabernacle, mishkan (משכן – MiShKaN) Allegorically: one’s (visually) dwelling upon a scene. From the verb ShaKaN (שכן to dwell), from the root KuN (כון to be fixed in place).
3 – altar (מזבח – miZBae’aHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
4 – basin (כיור K’YoR) Allegorically: an act of going around and around through experience. From the root KuR (כור) which in Arabic means “to be / become round, to wind around, roll up). Related roots also mean either to be round or to go around, such as: KaRaH (כרה) prepare a feast; KiRKaeR (כרכר) to dance > KiKaR (ככר) a circuit, labyrinth, maze; KaRaBh (כרב) to plow, turn over and over in one’s thoughts (Syr), to worry (Arb), to constantly pray (Akk); KaRaKh (כרך) to wrap around > make a sandwich wrap, garment; KaRaM (כרם) surrounded > vineyard; to set apart (Amh), to stock up (Akk); MaKhaR (מכר) to go around > to sell; NaKhaR (נכר) to go around > to be barely acquainted, to become acquainted, to recognize.
5 – its base (כן KaN) Allegorically: fixing or establishing of things. From the root KuN (כון to be fixed in place), from which are derived KoNaeN (כונן) to establish; HaeKhiN (הכין) to be precise, be correct; and KaHaeN (כהן) to do-perform with precise, mindful intention.
6 – eight (שמונה – Sh’MoneH) and oil (שמן – SheMeN) literally mean “what exudes outward.” It evolved from the verb MaNaH (מנה) – to distribute, count, assign, classify. The number is possibly based on the image of putting the two hands together palms down, with the thumbs tucked under the palms with eight fingers splayed out like the exuding of oil (or maybe not).
7 – sons (בנים) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
8 – elders of Yisrael (זקני ישראל) allegorically “the acts of clearly visualizing things of the making of a sustained survey of what advances forward in experience” from (זקן – (be clear) beard, old), related to ZuQ (זוק – (Arb- (make clear in the mind) to visualize) and ZaQaQ (זקק – (to make clear / purify) to distill).
9 – Yisrael (ישראל) from the verb Sarah (שרה), from which comes the name Yisrael (ישראל). It does not exactly mean to wrestle, nor does its associated noun exactly mean princess. It means to fix on something either visually or physically. When to fix on something physically, it could be used to mean wrestle. When to fix on something visually, its male counterpart, Sar (שר), means an overseer, a member of the court. Additionally, El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
10 – intensity, heaviness, glory (כבוד KaBhoD). From the verb KaBhaD (כבד – be heavy, honor, respect, take seriously).
11 – sin offering (חטאת ChaTa/T) Allegorically: an act of veering about experience. From HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). See also HhiTaH (חטה) wheat = what leans, inclines; and ChiTae\ (חטא) to re-aim, rectify from veering off-going astray
12 – ascension offering (עולה OLaH) Allegorically: an act of meandering about things so as to mentally busy oneself with it-be mentally occupied with it. The peshat is derived from \aLaH (עלה to be about > above > ascend) which is etymologically related to \aLaL (עלל to go about, meander, busy oneself), from which is derived the allegorical meaning.
13 – calf (עגל \eGeL) Allegorically “meandering, wallowing and rushing about experience in order to swiftly descend upon things.” Related to the Arabic: rush, urge, hurry, impel, expedite; catch up, descend upon swiftly, wheel; cart, calf, worldly & Syriac: to roll round / away / about violently, writhe, wallow.
14 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigates) & morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
15 – ram (איל ayil) Literally: one who rams forward; allegorically: one’s advancing forward with initiative. Originally from the root /aWaL (אול) from which are derived: El (אל) G-d, meaning “one initiating or advancing forward experience;” el (אל) to, toward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward etc
16 – goat (hairy one) (שעיר), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up)
17 – goats, \iZim (עזים) is derived from the word \aZ (עז) meaning strong and intense. This is related to the Akkadian \eZeZu meaning to be / become angry or full of rage.
18 – year (שנה ShaNaH) Allegorically: “what repetitively imposes-is imposed” from ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat), from /aNaH (אנה – to impose)
19 – sheep (כבש KeBheS) literally means: pushed down upon > matted; as opposed to KeSeBh (כשב sheep; lit: fluffy). Related to other roots with K.B. (כב) all meaning “to press down upon” such as KaBhaH (כבה) to extinguish, snuff out; KaBhaL (כבל) to fetter, shackle; KoBha\ (כובע) helmet; KaBhaR (כבר) compress, to press through a sieve, to press through; KaBhaSh (כבש) to subdue, conquer; footstool, furnace; KaBhaS (כבס) to wash; KaBhaD (כבד) be heavy-intense, honor, take seriously.
20 – ox (ShuR – שור) This root means to be fixed either physically or visually. Hence, physically (wall, ox, umbilical cord) and visually (to get a fix on (see) (Nm23:9,24:17)(Hs14:9))
21 – peace offerings (שלמים) Allegorically: yielding to or submiting oneself to things; from the root ShaLaM (שלם suspend, complete, submit, make peace, make restitution). The most roots Sh.L.literally mean “to suspend, dangle.” For example, שולים – skirt, train, abdomen; שלה – to be lax, relax; שלל to let fall; שלח – to let loose (Syr – slough off) > send forth > שלך to cast; שלם – to suspend > complete, submit to > peace, compensate.
22 – meal or MinHhaH offering (מנחה MiNHhaH) etymologically comes from the verb MaNaHh (מנח) Ugaritic: “to deliver; delivery, contribution, tribute; offering” & Arabic “to grant, give, accord, bestow, confer; gift, present, grant, and donation.” MaNaHh (מנח) evolved from NaHhaH (נחה), has a sense of leaning in or inclining toward something. Cognate with NaHhaH (נחה) is the Arabic (נחא – to wend one’s way, go, move, walk, turn toward > follow, imitate; BUT Also (incline >) lean, push aside, remove, yield, withdraw), Also from NaHhaH (נחה) is NaHhaL (נחל (to push toward) inherit) and NaHhaT (נחתּ to take down, put at the disposal of, bring, reach for ((Ugaritic)).
23 – slaughter (people or animals) (שחט – ShaChaT) from HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). Compare cognates: Ugaritic: butcher, slaughterer; Arabic: be annoyed / displeased / angry, to resent, wrath; exasperation; Syriac: to harm, mar, abuse, impair, vitiate, infringe, violate (law / woman)
24 – hand (יד YaD) Allegorically: the power of one’s reach. The noun evolved from /aDaH (אדה) which literally means to extend outward (from DaWaH (דוה) to flow) hence: /aeD (אד extending mist) and /UD (אוד poker, firebrand). Therefore: YaD (יד hand) literally means “what extends outward.”
25 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
26 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplified: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
27 – tent of meeting (אהל מועד /oHeL Mo\aeD) Allegorically: the act of becoming familiar of being enduringly (mentally) present. In Arabic, the root /aHaL (אהל tent) means “take a wife, be familiar, inhabited; enable, qualify, competence, aptitude).” The following roots all mean: “to endure in place or time.”testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD);
28 – bless (BaRaKh – ברך) quite literally means “to make excel” or “shower with abundance.” BaRuKh – although generally translated as blessed, the most accurate translation would be excellent in the sense of exceeding all bounds, both in regard to esteem and material aspects. Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening)
29 – Fire /aeSh (אש, fire, persistent existence) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Allegorically, it can be used to mean persistence or “mental persistence.”
30 – fat (חלב – HhaeLeBh) from the Arabic root (חלב = ChaLaB – to seize with claws, cajole, coax, beguile, fascinate, captivate; gripping, captivating, attractive, tempting).
31 – Nadav (נדב) one’s devoting attention to an aspect of a scene; from (נדב) in Hebrew: to give willingly or volunteer, in Arabic apply / devote o.s, be willing, stand ready.
32 – Avihoo (אביהוא) one’s taking notice of what exists; from /aBhaH (אבה) which in Hebrew means “to be willing to give forth of oneself,” whereas in Arabic it means “to take notice of.” + Hu/ (הוא) derived from HaYaH (היה – to be, exist).
33 – fire pan, censer (מחתה MaHhTaH) Allegorically: scoop things up from experience. From the verb HhaTaH (חתה) to scoop up.
34 – incense (קטרת QaToReT) Allegorically: to engage with and inspect. From the verb QaTaR (קטר) to shrivel (from QuT קוט to shrivel, be disgusted), but also means to tie a knot, interlace, couple together, stiffen; In Amharic: tie a knot, keep secret, engage a worker, encircle; engagement > appointment, to rank > number, count >> encircle, regard, consider, supervise, inspect, oversee and reckon
35 – The piel of QaDaSh literally means to dedicate to move forward, hence it is commonly used to mean both to sanctify something or commit to move it into a more forward, holier position, and to betroth. Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use).
36 – Uziel (עזיאל) one’s showing strength is of advancing forward into a scene with initiative; from \uZ (עוז – strength, power) and El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
37 – MiyShaEl (מישאל) from the verb MuSh (מוש to grope at and draw out) means “one’s drawing out the act of advancing forward with initiative.” and El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.”
38 – ELTsaPhaN (אלצפן ) Allegorically: “one’s advancing forward with initiative toward looking over what lay on the surface.” El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.” The root TsaPhaH (צפה to cover over, to plate) evolved into TsaPhaN (צפן to cover > hide, store) and (צפן TsaPhoN) probably means North because the mountains in the North (Lebanon) are frequently covered with snow. Additionally from the idea of having something covered visually, TsaPhaH (צפה to cover > to guard, watch, look for) evolved into the Arabic cognate of TsaPhaN (צפן to ponder).
39 – brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way.
40 – into their felt-coats (בכתנתם) “through the consolidating of them.” k’tonet (כתנת) is specifically a coat made out of felt, one that is compressed and matted togetherץ All KaTa* verbs essentially mean to press-impress-compress; such as KaTaBh (כתב – to write), KaTaL (כתל wall; Arabic – to press into, compact, mass),KaTaR (כתר – huddle, croud in on), KaTaPh (כתף – shoulder joint), KaTaSh (כתש – crush, compress); KaTaT (כתת – to pound, smash together)
41 – outside the camp (מחוץ למחנה) Allegorically: outside of the being mindful of what is prosaic and common. camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (חן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
42 – El’azar (אלעזר) one’s advancing toward the things that are around; from El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward allegorically can be used to mean “what advances forward” and “one’s advancing forward.” + \aZaR (עזר) surround, around.
43 – Itamar (איתמר) one’s indicating what opportunity to avail oneself of in standing firmly in wonderment; from (אי – where) derived from (אוה – to point, indicate) see (piel) to point out, designate (Ps132:13) and consider /oT (אות sign, indicator) + TaMaR (תמר) meaning “to stand still and upright,” which evolved from the root TaMaH (תמה) meaning “to stand still in amazement, to wonder, to be stunned and undecided.” However, in Arabic TaMaR also means “to bear fruit, make a profit, utilize, and avail oneself of an opportunity.” So allegorically Tamar means “one’s standing firmly in wonderment, yet able to avail oneself of an opportunity.”
44 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well.
45 – clothing (בגד BeGeD) Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From the (probably unrelated) root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
46 – congregation (עדה \aedaH) Allegorically: an act of being enduringly mentally present. Related to testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
47 – YaYin (יין), wine, an overbearing substance. Is related to YWN (יון) to mean overbearing (mud). According to Jastro, the root YNH (ינה) means to be undecided / waver. However, the root evolved from אנה which means “to impose or apply oneself,” so it means “one who asserts himself in a way that is wavering.” YaYin (יין), wine, is a substance that is overbearing and makes a person undecided with wavering assertiveness.
48 – strong, intoxicating drink from (שכר ShaKhaR – to become drunk), which is to become hedged in. Evolved from the verb ShuKh (שוך – to cordon off), from SuKh (שוך – to hedge in).
49 – impure, unclean (טמא TaMae/) The evolution of this root begins with TsuM (צום wrung out > squeezed in > to fast). From there, TaM (טם) means “flood, inundate, overwhelming” in Arabic; “stop up, block, closely packed, solid, dense, opaque, repress, restrain; repressed, coerced” in Syriac; plaited in Akkadian; and TaMaM (טמם) is “filled / crowded to capacity” in Amharic. Essentially, these roots mean squeezed in > overstuffed > overwhelmed.
50 – pure (טהור TaHuR) . This root evolvedfrom TsaHaR (צהר). The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing (TsuR צור) in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the related words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. This root essentially means “so narrow > thin so as to be visually clear > pure.”
51 – shoulder-foreleg (שוק ShoQ) Allegorically: what is channeled. This root evolved from QaWaH (קוה to channel, gather water, a line (channel)). It has a variety of meanings all essentially meaning to channel: alley > market; channel water > overflow; channel toward > desire. I am not entirely sure why it means leg, perhaps because of its channel like shape?
52 – chest (חזה HhaZae) Allegorically: what sticks out of. The etymology of this root is unclear. It is probably related to Arabic חז notch, nick, indent; eruption and Arabic חזן rugged, rough, hard ground.
53 – what is waved (תנופה T’NuPhaH) Allegorically: what is sifted through. From the root NuPh (נוף) to wave which evolved from the root NaPhaH (נפה) meaning “to fan, winnow, and sift.”
54 – place (מקום MaQoM) from the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes).
55 – iniquity (עון) Allegorically: twistings and turnings. This root evolved from \aWaH (עוה – to twist, twist away)
56 – these (אלה /aeLeH), literally means “what is advancing forward” or “what is of advancing forward.” It is related to El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward.”
57 – herd animal (בהמה – B’HaeMaH) This word evolved from an unattested root BoowM (בום) whose approximate meaning was to push into / between. Related to this root: BaMaH (במה) most often translated as height, but more specifically means bulge, protrusion, or haunches (as in Psalms 18:34); YaBaM (יבם) which in a very loose sense means to push in or intercede in behalf of (if one could intercede in behalf of a deceased brother in order to ensure progeny in his name); B’HaeMaH (בהמה) meaning one who pushes in or herd-animal, (which explains why the related word behemoth has come to mean brutish). From allegorical context, it tends to mean to push in so as to observe.
58 – fowl (עוף \oPh) The root from which this word evolved is not entirely clear to me. It could have come from HhaPhaH (חפה to bend, curve) > Syriac: (עף – to fold over, double, multiply, increase); OR from /aPhaH (אפה (to cover the face) > to bake; which evolved to אפף to smother (the face)). The allegorical meaning comes from the related verbs: Arabic (עף – to shrink from, refrain, abstain, abstinent, modest, chaste, decent, pure) and (עאף – to loathe, have an aversion, feel disgust, proud, disdainful) which are related to the Hebrew עיף tired, weary.
59 – spirit, soul (נפש NePheSh) Allegorically: an untamed spirit. The word evolved from NaPhaH (נפה to fan, winnow), which itself evolved from PeH (פה mouth (implying a moving back and forth of air)). Like NaPhaHh (נפח to blow), NaPhaSh (נפש) means to breathe in Syriac, Akkadian and Arabic, while in Hebrew the passive means “to be refreshed.” Because breathing involves chest expansion, in Akkadian it also means “be / become / make wide, spread, be abundant,” whike a non-cognate but related root in Arabic means “puff up, swell out, ruffle, comb, card, tease wool.” For this reason, the root PuSh (פוש spread out) evolved by dropping the nun. The Ugaritic and Arabic cognates also mean: “force, appetite, desire.” In Hebrew NePheSh is also used to refer to a dead body, not just a living spirit.
60 – water (מים – maYiM) from YaM (ים – sea, what is stirred up) from HaMaH (המה – to stir up).
61 – teem (שרץ – SheReTs) evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor).
62 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor)
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