David Kolinsky
David Kolinsky

Spying Out What Oppressively Draws in of Experience

In parashat Sh’lah (שלח), the people are instructed to send men to spy out the land of Canaan. Starting out from Paran (פארן), “one’s repetitively branching out so as to distinguish things found in experience,”1 the acts of applying oneself in experience (men)2 are sent to explore the many things oppressively drawing in of experience (Canaan).3 Allegorically, the word for land, /eReTs (ארץ), represents “a person’s disposing oneself in experience.”4 Therefore, in spying out the land, their initial goal is to determine how the people will respond to the many things oppressively drawing in of experience (Canaan). Moshe asks the questions: Is the way of disposing of oneself (land) immersive (טוב good)5 or one of weakness (רע bad)?6 Is it effusive (שמנה rich)7 or mostly hovering, very slowly creeping along (רזה lean)?8 Regarding the situations that are stirred up (ערים cities)9 and the act of being mindfully present (with them) (הנה)10 – are they through the acts of mindfully attending to particular scenes (מחנים camps);11 would it be through acts of isolating things for investigation (בצרים fortresses)?12 Regarding the way of being mindful of what crowds in from experience (people)13 – is it firm (strong), perhaps fleeting (weak)?14 Is it slipping away (little),15 might there be too much? And finally, regarding the way of disposing of oneself (land)4 – does there exist within it the means by which the person will urge himself and strive harder (trees)?16 “If not, then you must strengthen yourselves and remain firm.”

After delineating how a person might dispose oneself to experience (land),4 the spies begin their journey. They endeavor from a place of holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable (צן Tsin);17 but they move toward being wide open (רחב R’HhoBh) so as to come into a state of being churned up by experience (חמת HhaMaT).18 Then they ascend into a place of making distinctions between things so as to make a selection (נגב NeGeBh),19 unto the act of repeatedly being bound with a scene so as to get to know it well (חברן HheBrRoN).20 While there, in being overwhelmed (ענק)21 by experience, they notice about themselves: “what points things out to me regarding experience are going off in every direction (אחימן Achiman),”22 “my frequently getting carried away with things (ששי ShaeShai),”23 and “my frequently getting laid up in suspense (תלמי Talmai).”24 Despite their feeling overwhelmed, they come into what swirls around (נחל)25 as a result of one’s inspecting the scene (אשכל).26 There they selected what was trimmed off in being favorably disposed to it (זמורה branch),27 what was inspected of things intricately entangled (אשכל ענבים cluster of grapes),28 things resulting from the many acts of skillfully taking something on (pomegranates),29 and things resulting from the many acts of asserting oneself (figs).30

Despite their successful jaunt through the land (disposing of oneself),4 they were returning after becoming cut off (מקץ) by what was inundating of the experience (forty days).31 Therefore, they reported that the need to be mindful of the many things crowding in (people)13 were intense, that the situations that were stirred up (cities) required a person to isolate things for investigation (בצרות fortified), and that due to what was generated in being overloaded by experience (giants) they seemed as grasshoppers – those with their backs up,32 (in being fearful and intimidated).

Not surprisingly, facing a challenge to their ability to drive into, conquer and take possession (ירש) of the act of disposing oneself in experience (land);4 the people again desired to return to a less demanding way of engaging experience – to the acts of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim).33 Because being forced to deal with what is thrust upon you, relieves a person from having to skillfully take something on or to engender experience by asserting oneself. However, of the ways of applying oneself in experience (men),2 there were two behaviors that were so emboldened to drive into the act of disposing oneself to experience (land)4 that they tore their clothes. This symbolic act – still performed today as a way of acknowledging the reality and permanence of an event – represented their tearing into the basic realities to be found in experience.34, 35 These two behaviors that rejected the things in experience narrowing in upon them and instead followed after God’s bringing forth of experience (HaShem) were “the act of dwell upon the extensiveness of God’s bringing forth of existence, a behavior of endurance and persistence (Y’hoshua bin Nun)”36 and “the act of doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something (Kalaebh ben Y’phunah).”37 They recognized that it was best not to be afraid of the acts of being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)13 and not to rebel against God’s bringing forth of experience.

Allegorically, whenever the Israelites seek to return to Mitsraim, they are rejecting not the reality of HaShem, but rather the effort required to find God’s bringing forth of existence in the midst of the innumerable aspects of life that narrow in upon a person (Mitsraim). Their error is one of rejecting God’s bringing forth of existence in behaving hastefully (נאץ)38 and one of not being ever presently mindful (האמן believing)39 with all of the signs that God makes for them in their every day experience. It is for this reason that God proposes to destroy the people (the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience)13 and instead to make Moshe (the ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience)40 into a nation (a way of drawing into experience).41 The question becomes whether HaShem is able to relieve the being mindful of the many things crowding in from experience (people)13 of their turning away (iniquity)42 through the strength of deliberation (כח אדני),43 consideration (חסד)44 and presence of mind (הנה).45 Or whether instead, HaShem must make his intentions known to them by directly barreling experience forward – symbolically by striking it with pestilence (דבר)46 or slaughtering them in the wilderness (מדבר).46

HaShem’s punishment for their melting away from him was that their corpses (פגר) would fall in the wilderness. Because the word for corpse, (פגר PeGeR), also means to be slack or faint, allegorically it is this behavior that is to be made to fall away through experiences that barrel down and drive directly at a person (מדבר wilderness).46 Furthermore, they expressed concerns that their dependents (their mincingly roaming around experience (טף TaPh),47 would be regarded as those plundered (בז BaZ). In contrast, their being trampled and dug into by experience (plundered),48 would instead be the means of bringing them into the way of disposing oneself to experience (land)4 intended by God. Through their activities (children),49 they will be made to scatter (רעה)50 throughout what barrels down of experience (מדבר wilderness),46 inundations of what is imposed (forty years),31 bearing their flailings (זנותים),51 until their slackness (corpses) is brought to an end.

In response to this decree, the Israelites sought to ascend to the experience (מקום place)52 that HaShem had made explicit to them. But God’s bringing forth of existence was not in their midst because they had rejected (נאץ), failed to remain ever present with (האמן), and melted away (מאס) from it. Despite Moshe’s warning, they heedlessly ascended to the seeing associated with the act of bringing to light what was coming into view (head of the mountain).53,54 However, this impulsive attempt to remedy the situation failed because the repetitive act of plucking into the light what could be clearly understood of God’s bringing forth of existence (ark55 of the covenant56 of HaShem) and the ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe)40 were not with them. In other words, they were unable to see the particular aspects of experience; they could see the forest of experience, but no individual trees. Therefore, an eclipsing of the ability to be mindful of what crowds in (Amaleq)57 and the being subdued by the many things oppressively drawing in from experience (Canaanite)58 struck them, and pounded away at them until the draining of enthusiasm led to a becoming restrained and cut off (חרמה HhoRMaH).59

Libation Offerings:
It is within the previously mentioned context of their having been cut off by the inability to be mindful with the enormity of potential within experience that a number of ritual offerings are commanded by HaShem. The first, often referred to as the libation offering because it adds an offering of wine to other previously mentioned offerings, is in fact an offering to be made when a person is confronted by an enormity of opportunities with which to engage. The text says: “when you come into the land of your settlements that I am giving to you.” This represents a person’s coming into an act of disposing oneself to a settling in of many opportunities given by God. In order to observe these many opportunities, they are to make an investigation (cattle)60 or contemplate them from a distance (flock)61 by meandering about things so as to be mentally occupied with them (עלה)62 or by flowing forth to things (זבח);63 for the purpose of an act of exclusive devotion (נדר),64 or an act of freely devoting attention (נדבה),65 or in being enduring mentally present with things (מועד).66 Next, the person is to approach more closely with a minchah offering, an offering of leaning in67 toward the thing observed. Depending on which animal is being offered, the minchah offering consists of a specified amount of flour, a specified fraction of a HyN (הין) of oil, and is accompanied by a specified fraction of a HyN (הין) of wine. The word HyN (הין), representing a little less than six liters of liquid, possibly evolved from the word HoN (הון) meaning a substantial amount. Etymologically, that would make it related to HaeN (הן here) and HiNaeH (הנה see here),45 which have allegorical meanings of being substantially present and mindfully present, respectfully.

With an act of pressing into something in experience (כבש sheep),68 a person’s leaning in (minchah) must consist of an act of bearing down (tenth),69 mixed with an inundating amount (fourth)31 of mental presence (hin), of exuding outward (oil),7 and of becoming overwhelmed (wine)70 regarding one’s pouring forth.

With an act of ramming in with initiative (איל ram),71 a person’s leaning in (minchah) must consist of repetitive acts of bearing down (two tenths), mixed with an act of exuding into experience (oil),7 a suspending (third)72 of mental presence (hin), and of becoming overwhelmed (wine)70 regarding one’s pouring forth.

With an act of making an investigation (בקר cattle),60 a person’s leaning in (minchah) must consist of one’s suspending acts of bearing down (three tenths), mixed with an exuding into experience (oil),7 a driving in (half)73 of mental presence (hin), and of becoming overwhelmed (wine)70 regarding one’s pouring forth.

It is further stipulated that with other offerings a similar procedure shall be done, according to the impression made (ככה as so)74 and according to the recounting (number).75 This applies to an act of visually fixing upon something (ox),76 the one of being mentally sharp (one);77 or for an act of ramming into something,71 the one of being mentally sharp (one);77 or for an act of longing for something (שה)78 from among the many things pushing in (sheep)68 or among the many things that are intense (goats).79 The degree of one’s being mentally present and the degree to which one becomes overwhelmed depends on the manner in which an experience is approached.

Challah:
After a person approaches experience in various ways and with various degrees of mindfulness, it becomes necessary to take up a thing with which to engage. The word for bread (לחם LeHheM) literally means “what is closely gotten into.”80 It represents an engagement of experience in a similar way to how the word miLHhaMah (מלחמה) represents an engagement on the battle field. The taking up of a piece of dough is an allegory for one’s taking on and engaging something particular in experience. When a person comes into the disposing of oneself to experience (land)4 that God’s bringing forth of experience is bringing them into and with one’s embracing (eating)81 from what is closely gotten into (bread) as a result of one’s disposing of oneself (land),4 it is necessary to lift up what can be lifted up from experience (terumah) with respect to God’s bringing forth of experience. What is lifted up from experience is to be of the act of seeing (ראשית)53 resulting from the many things driven into of experience (ערסת dough),82 of an act of mingling and permeating the experience (חלה Challah),83 and of repetitively threshing through experience over and again (threshing floor).84

Accidental Sin:
The following two paragraphs involve an accidental committing of an error with regard to the keeping of a commandment. Allegorically, this represents an accidental missing of what is demanded of a person (commandment)85 of what comes forward in experience (האלה).86 In the first case, symbolic offerings are performed in order to make amends for the error of missing what is demanded of a person in experience. For the sake of meandering about things so as to become mentally occupied with them (ascension offering),62 one’s entire capacity to be enduringly mentally present (עדה congregation)87 will perform an act of scattering about a scene (bull),88 one of making an investigation (cattle).60 With regard to an act of veering about experience (sin offering),90 they shall perform an act of taking notice of the things that are stirring (male goat)89 of the things that are intense (goats).79 In such a way, a person can give a scene precise and mindful attention (priest)91 and can approach God’s bringing forth of experience more closely.

If such errors occur because one’s spirit is subdued (אחת),92 resolution can be achieved by strengthening oneself (עז goat),79 an act of decisively pushing in of its being repeated (בת שנתה).93 However, if such errors occur due to a person’s being of a spirit with an exalted hand, such that he shall revile, disrespect, and therefore, just barely scrape through94 God’s bringing forth of experience, then that particular spirit shall be cut off from the experience entirely. Of course, being cut off is not really a punishment, but rather a natural consequence of being of a spirit with an exalted hand, hence missing what God brings forth in experience.

Gathering Wood on Shabbat:
So what is to be done in the case of a person who is engaging experience with mental persistence (איש),95 but is having difficulty firming up (מקשש)96 the many things that are elusive (עצים wood)16 of the experience that he is settling into (Shabbat)?97 According to the Torah, it must be brought to the person’s ability to draw out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience (Moshe),40 and to the person’s ability to repeatedly bring things to light (Aharon)98 and to all of the person’s ability to be enduringly (mentally) present with reality (congregation).87 Allegorically, the solution coming from HaShem is for all of one’s being enduringly mentally present (congregation)87 to completely draw out (make manifest)99 that capacity to be mentally persistent with the experience (man)95 by pelting it with the things prominently sticking out in the experience (stones).100 This is to be done through a mental state that is outside of one’s attending to what is common and prosaic (outside of the camp).101

Allegorically, the intent of this parashah is to encourage us to enter into and engage with the numerous possibilities found through God’s bringing forth of experience. Of course, by its nature this will feel very intimidating and overwhelming and we will likely fail in the absence of our doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something (Kalaebh ben Y’phunah).37 Nevertheless, we must make every effort not to miss the opportunities being presented to us in experience nor the demands made upon us by God’s bringing forth of existence. To this end, we are instructed to wear TsiTsiT (ציצת) which represent “little acts of striving.”102 These are to occur upon our frequent acts of drawing in (כנפי wings)103 the basic facts about reality that our minds are able to deliver up and reveal for us (clothes),35 as we go around and around in experience (לדרתם).104 Furthermore, we are to put upon the little strivings of drawing in from experience, an act of twisting with and engaging of what can be embraced from experience (blue105 thread106). In looking upon this symbol, we can be clear minded (זכר)107 with and perform all of the demands made upon us by God’s bringing forth of existence. In order for us to be brought forward to experience (holy),108 we must not seek (תור), nor flail (זנים)51 after the desires of our hearts or eyes. Because it is God’s bringing forth of existence (Y-H-W-H), God’s guidance being presented to us in experience (אלהים),109 that removes us from the disposing of oneself to the acts of feverishly focusing upon the many things narrowing in from experience (Mitsraim).33

Notes:
1 – Paran (פארן Pa/Ran) Allegorically: an act of repetitively gushing forth and branching out so as to make distinctions between things. From Pa/aR (פאר) meaning “to go to the edge, go over the edge, make an extreme effort with, branch out, set apart, be set apart, to distinguish, adorn, beautify.” Having evolved from Pae/aH (פאה edge); which evolved from PeH (פה mouth). In Akkadian: to seek, look for, search for; Arabic: boil over, flare up, gush forth, excite.
2 – Men (/aNaShim – אנשים) from the noun /eNoSh (אנוש), evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Therefore the meaning is those applying-imposing themselves in experience
3 – Canaan – from the root KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. A comparison with related roots such as KaNaS (כנס to enter), KaNaPh (כנף wing, (what is drawn in)), KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon. So Canaan allegorically means one’s being subdued by the many things drawing in from experience from context.
4 – land (ארץ – /eReTs) evolved from RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush), which evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה to run toward, show favor). The allegory comes from a related noun /aRTsuT (ארצות one’s disposition, how a person runs-shows favor). Related roots evolved from RuTs (רוץ to run) > RaTsaH (רצה (to run toward) > show favor); RaTsaHh (רצח) (run through) > kill; RaTsa\ (רצע) to run > bore through; RaTsaD (רצד) (run with the eyes)(Arb, keep one’s eyes upon) > to spy out, observe with envy (Ps68:17); RaTsaPh (רצף)(to run into > crowd together) to inlay; MaRaTs (מרץ) to make run > go quick > hasten, provoke; RaTsaTs (רצץ to run upon / crush); \aRaTs (ערץ) to charge at > be terror driven, startled, frightened off, panicked
5 – good (טוב ToBh) Allegorically: immersive > overflowing. Evolved from TsaBhaH (צבה to swell), hence to well up > be good. Evolving from there TaBhaHh (טבח) slaughter (welling up of blood); TaBhaL (טבל) to immerse; TaBha\ (טבע) immerse > sink into-drown > make an impression.
6 – bad (רע Ra\) which can mean fragile > weak > faulty > bad > evil; from the verb Ra\a\ (רעע) to vibrate > shatter. Realted to verbs Ra\aX meaning vibrate > shatter (רעע), thunder (רעם), irritate (רעם), tremble (רעד), quiver (רעל) and quake (רעש). Some of these the ayin evolved into ghayin. Ra\aH (רעה) also means to move back and forth ( = vibrate) to shepherd, lead, graze, to put out to feed.
7 – rich (שמנה – Sh’MaeNaH) slowly creeping along > hovering. The evolution of this root begins with RaShaH (רשה) to lose liquid, to drip, flow down, ooze fluid; which evolves into RaSaH (רסה) > RaSaS (רסס) to moisten; and then to RaZaH (רזה) which represents a liquid creeping across a surface. Hence: R.Z.R.Z. Amharic – flowed slowly, dripped out; Due to the thinness of this creeping liquid > lean.
9 – city (עיר \yR) Allegorically: stirred up situation. It evolved from the verb \uR (עור – to stir up, awaken)
10 – in them (בהנה BaHaeNaH) from HaeN (fm. them). But written the same as Behold, see here (הנה HiNaeH). Allegorically: in being mentally present. It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)).
11 – camp (מחנה MaHhaNeH) Allegorically: the mentally attending to what is common and prosaic. From camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
12 – fortresses (מבצרים miBhTsaRim) Allegorically: splitting off to make individual observations, discern things. The root that gives us fortress means “to split off.” However, there is a similarly spelled root BaTsaR (בצר) (Arabic – (branch out) to look, see, realize, discern, observe, reflect, be rational); Ugaritic – to watch, observe.
13 – people (עם – \aM) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.
14 – weak RaPhaH (רפה) Allegorically: fleeting. From the root RaPhaH (רפה) to release, dissipate, loosen, let down, make lax > relax, make weak, to leave, forsake, abandon.
15 – little (מעט M’\aT) Allegorically: a slip of (=small amount) or a slipping away. The root evolved from MuT (מוט) to slip. The verb means “to diminish, exclude (slip away).”
16 – tree, wood (עץ – \aeTs) derived from the root \uTs (עוץ) which derived from /uTs (אוץ hasten). Literally meaning “to hasten, force, push through” it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel.” Allegorically, it is used to mean “one’s striving, one’s urges or things that are difficult or elusive – the later from the Arabic cognate and context.
17 – (צן Tsin) Allegorically: a place of holding back, expressing doubts, and yet thinking oneself capable. From Arabic cognates: Ss/N (צאן) to protect, guard, safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste; ThyN (ד’ן) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider presume; think s.o capable of doing s.th, opinion, belief, doubts; suspicion.
18 – (חמת HhaMaT) Allegorically: being churned up by experience. From HaMaH (המה – to stir up) > HhaMaH (חמה – to stir, heat, churn).
19 – Negev (נגב NeGeBh) Allegorically: to hover over and pick, choose, select, distinguish (from the Arabic). Akk: to pile up; In Aramaic and Hebrew to be dry (probably because the NeGeB is dry); in Arabic – highborn, high minded > noble; (hover over) > to pick, choose, select, distinguish. Related roots of G.B. mean to heap up or hover over. Related to GaBh (גב back) and G’BhiNaH (גבינה cheese (Jb10:10)(?lumpy). Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
20 – Chevron (חברון) repeated acts of sticking with particular things so as to get to know them well; In Hebrew חבר means to join together. That idea is expanded in Arabic: (stick with s.th) to try, experience, know well, inform, communicate, negotiate, seek information.
21 – Giant (ענק \aNaQ) Allegorically: overwhelming. The verb means: (hiphil) to load one’s neck, give in abundance (Dt15:14)). Arabic: grab by the neck, to collar; embrace; be converted.
22 – Achiman (אחימן /aChyMaN) Allegorically: “what points things out to me regarding experience are going off in every direction.” Combination of brother (אח – /aCh) most probably was derived from the root ChaWaH (חוה) which in Arabic means to join someone and to join the company of. Usually the allegorical meaning of a word is based on this type of etymological connection. However, sometimes the Torah makes up an artificial folk etymology. Because Hebrew uses the same letter symbol, ח, for two different consonantal sounds (Hhet and Chet), there is another חוה in Hebrew, (HhaWaH) which means to point out and instruct. Based on context, the allegorical meaning of the word brother (אח) comes from the similarly spelled root HhaWaH (חוה) and not the etymologically correct root ChaWaH (חוה). Allegorically, a brother is one who points something out or points the way. AND from MaNaH (מנה – distribute, count, reckon, assign, class), which evolved from MaHaH (מהה – dissolve, dissipate),
23 – (ששי ShaeShai) Allegorically: “my frequently getting carried away with things.” From six (שש – ShaeSh) Allegorically: being elated and getting carried away. The probable literal meaning of six is “carried over (to other hand (when counting)).” It is related to other roots meaning “to lift and carry” originally from NaShaH > NaSa/ (נשה > נשא). They are ShuS (שוש – to lift something, to rob) ShuS (שוס – to lift > plunder), SuS (שוש – uplifted, joyful) > SuS (סוס – horse, one who rears upward).
24 – (תלמי Talmai) Allegorically: “my frequently getting laid up in suspense.” Related to תלמי furrow, raised embankment (Hs10:4;12;12)(Ps65:11)(Jb31:38)(Jb39:10). Having evolved from TaLaH (תלה) to hang, suspend.
25 – brook (נחל NaHhaL) Allegorically: what swirls around Related to NaHhaL (נחל) (Arb- (swarm around) bee; (spin around) top, dreidel). Probably from HhaLaL (חלל – to throw about), which evolved into ChoL (חול) / ChaLaL (חלל) to dance, tremble, writhe in giving birth.
26 – cluster, Eshkol (אשכל /eShKoL) Literally: a containing of something, or a complete set. Allegorically: an inspecting of the scene. From Sh (ש) + KaLaH (כלה) to contain, restrain, hold back; which forms a few different roots: ShaKhaL (שכל) (contain > end) to be bereaved / deprived, miscarry; (contain > capacity > capable) success, prosper, skilled; SaKhaL (שכל) to contain in mind, understand, be wise; (Syriac – be known, understood, make understand, explain, inspect, consider closely, recognize, perceive); (Akkadian – acquire, hoard, acquire possessions)
27 – branch (זמורה Z’MoRaH) Allegorically: what was trimmed off in being favorably disposed to it From ZaMaR (זמר) to cut off, prune. Related to DhaMaR(דמר) (Ugaritic – (cut off / set aside) guard, protect, warrior; Sabaic – (cut off / set aside) protect, defend, be favorably disposed, judge in favor of, initiate a grievance).
28 – vines of grapes (ענבים \aNaBhim) Allegorically: convoluted entanglements. Related to \aNaBh (ענב)(twist) to intertwine, fasten with a loop (Jastro), possibly from \aNaH (ענה) to turn away, possibly from \aWaN (עון)(to twist away) iniquity, possibly from עוה to twist.
29 – pomegranate (רמון RiMoN) Allegorically: acts of skillfully taking something on. The root is an expansion of RaMaH (רמה) be high > arch over, archings. But related RyMaH (רימה) (arch over > deceive). In Akkadian: RaMaN (רמן) to convert to one’s own, to appropriate to oneself; self.
30 – fig (תאנה T’/aeNaH) Allegorically: an act of asserting-imposing oneself. Evolved from the root /aNaH (אנה) meaning to impose or apply oneself. Probably based on a variety of strangler fig trees that wrap themselves around other trees, strangling them and using them as scafolding.
31 – four, forty, forth (ארבע /aRBa\) derived from RaBha\ (רבע – to lie down, spread out, make square). Allegorically it represents a spreading out in all directions; flooding / inundating hence 40 days and nights of flood, wandering in the wilderness and Moshe’s time with HaShem in the mountain
32 – grasshopper (חגב HhaGaBh) Literally: what shows the back. Arabic cognate: veil, cover, hide, screen, shelter, obscure, seclude, eclipse, outshine, over-shadow, make imperceptable, disguise, conceal oneself, flee from sight, become invisible. Roots with גב G.B: GaB (גב) – back (arched, humped); platform; GaBaH (גבה) – high, tall, lofty – In Arabic: to meet, face, confront, show a bold front, oppose, defy; GaBaHh (גבח) – forehead (Arb – hive); GaBaL (גבל) – (arched up-high) boundary, mold, form; GaBa\ (גבע) – (arched up) goblet, hill, turban; GaBaR (גבר) – to prevail over; \aGaB (עגב) – to dote over; ShaGaB (שגב) – well fortified, secure. The allegory is based on context and GaBaH (confront) / NaGaBh (distinguish, select) and \aGaBh (dote over). hump backed (גבן GiBaeN).
33 – Mitsraim (מצרים). This word for Egypt probably was derived from there being two narrow (צר) strips of arable land on either side of the Nile river. The allegory is based on the idea that narrowing in upon something can have a visual component. Evidence for this can be seen in the evolved words צוהר window; צהרים (time of clarity) before and after noon; יצהר (transparent) oil and the related Arabic ד’הר to be / become visible, perceptible, distinct, clear, apparent, appear, know, learn, noon. Therefore, MiTsRi (מצרי – Egyptian) allegorically represents one’s visually narrowing in upon something. The doubling in Mitsraim (מצרים) suggests a person’s viusally narrowing in upon what narrows in upon the person. I added “feverishly” because the king of Mitsraim is Pharaoh (choas, disorder).
34 – to tear into (קרע QaRa\) Allegorically: to get closely into. Roots based on the biliteral root Q.R. (קר) essentially mean “to get in very close”: KaRaH (קרה to come upon, happen occur); QaRa/ (קרא to call closer, call out to, meet, call and read); QaRaBh (קרב to approach); QaRaM (קרם to cover closely, membrane, encrust, plate); QaRaN (קרן horn, to project); QaRa\ (קרע (get closely into) to tear into, to put on eye liner); QaRaSh (קרש to contract, gnash, bite into); QaRaS (קרס to stoop, clasp); QaRaTs (קרץ to pinch off, squint, purse); NaQaR (נקר to gouge, chisel); ShaQaR (שקר to gouge > deceive, lie).
35 – clothing (בגד BeGeD) Allegorically: to deliver up basic facts and information. From the (probably unrelated) root BaGaD (בגד) meaning “root, source, what is real, basic fact in Arabic; to betray, give up information, be a traitor, unfaithful, faithless, in Hebrew.
36 – Joshua bin Nun (יהושע – Y’HoShu\a). Allegorically: dwelling upon the extensiveness of G-d’s bringing forth of existence. From: Ya (Y-H-W-H, God’s bringing forth of existence) + HoShu\a (הושוע) from YaSha\ (ישע) the Arabic cognate: (dwell upon / linger with) comprehend > comprehensive, hold accommodate, house, seat, encompass, include, be large enough, wide, roomy, spacious, be capable to do something. From Sha\aH (שעה – to dwell, linger). Nun (נון) to persist, endure (in the same spot) (Ps72:17).
37 – Calaev son of Yiphunah (כלב בן יפונה Kalaebh ben Y’phunah) Allegorically: a person’s doggedly closing in upon something in experience, seizing it and not letting go; a behavior of being directed to face something. From the root KaLaBh (כלב) from which evolved כילבית barnacle and כלוב cage (Jr5:27) (closed ??) basket (Am8:1,2). The root evolved from KaLaH (כלה) meaning “to contain” and “container,” and כָלָה certitude, conviction, decision, and resolution (SmI20:33). Yiphunah (יפונה) is the pual of PaNaH (פנה) to turn, to face; (piel) literally meaning “to rapidly change the face of s.th / s.o” > to prepare a surface > to clear or empty out; (pual) “one who is made to rapidly turn to face s.th.”
38 – to reject, spurn (נאץ Na/aTs, Ni/aeTs) Allegorically: to behave hastefully. Derived from /uTs (אוץ to hasten).
39 – to believe (האמין He/eMyN) From /aMaN (אמן) which literally means “to be ever present,” hence it means to trust in something’s being ever present. It evolved from /uM (אום – substance, bulk) which literally means “ever present existence.” It also evolved into /iM (אם – if or the possibility of presence) and mother (/aeM – אם) which literally means “who or what that is ever present.” /aMaN (אמן) evolved into YaMyN (ימין) meaning ever present or dominant side.
40 – Moshe (משה) allegorically complex, with all of the details of the story, the archetype of Moshe means: “A behavior of being mindfully present with many startling things coming in from experience, in mentally clinging to a scene, sucking up some details and looking them over, considering the many possible directions that one particular thing may go, being more mindful of it, channeling this one particular thing while subduing the thoughts about the others, and in showing resolve and being decisive in attending to this one particular thing, making it a priority, thus drawing it out from a midst the many other stirring things found in experience.” Simplified: “the mental faculty drawing out particular things from a midst the many stirring things encountered in experience.” The verb MaShaH (משה) simply means “to draw out.”
41 – nation (גוי – GoY) literally to draw inward, arch inward; Arabic cognate passionately stirred (love / grief)
42 – iniquity (עון) Allegorically: twistings and turnings. This root evolved from \aWaH (עוה – to twist, twist away)
43 – lord, Adon (/aDoN – אדון) Allegorically: acts of contemplation. From the verb DuN (דון) to abide (in contemplation) which comes from DuM (דום – to be still, silent). Furthermore, from DuN (דון) to abide (in contemplation) comes DYN (דין) to judge.
44 – kindness (חסד HheSeD) Allegorically: consideration. From HhaSaD (חסד) that gives such disparate meanings as taunt, envy, kind, shameful indulgence and loyalty? In order to unravel this discordance of meanings, we need to peel back a few layers of the etymological onion. The root ChaSaD (חסד) evolved from the verb ChooS (חוס) which when associated with the preposition \aL (על) means to show concern / shower consideration upon. However, when joined with the preposition b’ (ב), it means to have trust in or rely upon. The word ChooS (חוס) evolved from the root ChooSh (חוש) which has an essential meaning of to spend time with or persist with someone or something by experiencing, sensing, feeling or considering.
45 – Behold, see here (הנה HiNaeH). Allegorically: in being mentally present. It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (הן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)).
46 – miDBaR (מדבר) In most Semitic languages the root DaBaR (דבר) means to drive at and to direct. Even in Hebrew, the same piel form of the verb that usually means to speak means “to drive over, barrel down, to kill” (CrII22:10). The word DeBheR (דבר) means plague for this reason. Although miDBar may simply mean “a place requiring direction or guidance,” the fact of geography and the frequent occurrence of flash floods suggests to me otherwise. Another thing to consider is that Akkadian has a cognate for midbar the associated verbs duppuru “to go away” and tuppuru “to drive away.” (William L. Moran (Harvard Univ.) – FB discussion, Semitic Etymology group). In Akkadian, it means Steppe, a plain devoid of tall plant life. So perhaps it means “barreled over.”
47 – dependent, young children (TaPh – טף) Allegorically means “one’s mincingly and fastidiously roaming about” from TaPhaPh (טפף) to make the rounds, go about in a delicate affected manner, walk mincingly (Is3:16)
48 – plunder (בז BaZ) Allegorically: trampled, dug into and thrown out > rifled through. From BuZ (בוז to plunder), but literally meaning to dig into and throw out > rifle through. Evolved from BuS (בוס) to trample, spurn.
49 – sons (בנים) – From the root BuWN (בון) to push between. The masculine Ben (בן) is used to express belonging to category of, or of the characteristic of: such as בן הכות deserving of death penalty, בן לילה of the night, expressing one’s age, בן חיל one of endurance. Allegorically, a son is a subsidiary behavior and from context daughters are ways of endeavoring.
50 – wandering, scattering about – literally means one who scatters about. Rua\ (רוע) evolved from RuaHh (רוח), both mean to spread out across the horizontal plain. Therefore, haRya\ (הריע – to scatter sound), YaRa\ (ירע – to move back and forth (Is15:4)), and all verbs Ra\aX meaning vibrate > shatter (רעע), thunder (רעם), irritate (רעם), tremble (רעד), quiver (רעל) and quake (רעש). Some of these the ayin evolved into ghayin. Ra\aH (רעה) means to shepherd, lead, graze, to put out to feed.
51 – flailings (זנותים) from ZaNAH (זנה – (to flail) > prostitute), which evolved into ZaNaBh (זנב – (flail) > tail) and distribution > sustenance (maZoN – מזון) and ear (אוזן – /oZeN) literally meaning “what turns back and forth > flails” initially referring to the movements of a non human ear such as a dog.
52 – place, establishment (מקום MaQoM) Allegorically: what is firm, established, establishment, what arises, what confronts. From the verb QuM (קום) meaning to be fixed in place > to stand / arise / establish. See Samuel I 4:15 to be fix in place / stand in place (one’s eyes). Note QaM (קם) enemy, foe, adversary (one who stands firmly before, standing up to).
53 – head (ראש – Ro/Sh) possibly derived from Ra/aH (ראה – to see) which explains the vestigial aleph. Contextually, this always works allegorically as well
54 – HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective. It comes from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb).
55 – ark (ארון /aRoN), a showcase from the verb /aRaH (ארה – to pluck, pick out) which evolved from /uR (אור – light) thus technically meaning to pluck out into the light.
56 – B’RiT (ברית) Usually translated covenant, technically it means “clear agreement.” Most of the roots with BaR (בר) literally mean to make a clearing, to clear away, or to go clear through, hence בור (clearing > pit), באר (clearing > well, to clearly elucidate), בער (to clear away > clear a field, burn), ברר (to clear away > sift), ברא (to clear away > to sculpt, create, carve, cut down), ברח (to go clear through > escape, bar), ברך (to go clear through > to excel, be / declare excellent; to make a clearing > kneel, pool), ברק (to go clear through > lightening
57 – Amalaeq (עמלק). \aM (עם) allegorically means “being ever presently (mindful) of what crowds in.” It comes from the related roots \aMaH – \aMaM (עמה – עמם) literally meaning to be ever present with. However, when something is ever present with something else, it can be close or too close. Therefore, the words derived from this root reflect closeness: with (עם – \iM), people-crowd (עם – \aM), and connecting (עמה – \uMaH); and those representing being too close: covered over, suppress, ignorant, dim, dark, and blind. In ancient Hebrew and in those Semitic languages retaining the ghayin variant of ayin, the latter words are spelled with ghayin, but are nevertheless etymologically related.LaeQ (לק), comes from the verb LaQaH (לקה) meaning to suffer, be afflicted, smitten, stricken, and eclipsed.
58 – Canaan – from the root KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. A comparison with related roots such as KaNaS (כנס to enter), KaNaPh (כנף wing, (what is drawn in)), KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon. So Canaan allegorically means one’s being subdued by the many things drawing in from experience from context.
59 – (חרמה HhoRMaH) Allegorically: being exhausted (petered out – see Arabic). The roots HhaRaM (חרם) with a secondary (evolved) form of ChaRaM (חרם) evolved from the hiphil of RuM (רום to lift up), HaRyM (הרים) meaning to lift up > remove. In Arabic which still distinguishes between the two forms HhaRaM (חרם) means “take away, deny, exclude, prohibit, declare sacred” while ChaRaM (חרם) means “to carry away / off destroy, annihilate, come to an end, peter out.” The Akkadian means :to cut off, to separate.” To complicate matters more, there is another ChaRaM (חרם) that evolved from ChaRaH (חרה to poke, prod, poke through and perforate) where ChaRaM (חרם) means “net.”
60 – cattle (בקר – BaQaR, those who investigates) & morning (בוקר – BoQaeR, time of investigation). From the root meaning “to investigate, search.”
61 – flock (צאן – Tso/N) essentially means “what holds back”. Cognate with Arabic S^WN-S^/N (to protect / guard/ safeguard, preserve, conserve, sustain; seclude o.s, protect o.s, be chaste); Th^N ((regard = re – guard >) to think, believe, deem, suspect, suppose, consider, presume); and D^N (to keep back, be stingy, thrifty, meager >) in due consideration of
62 – ascension offering (עולה – \oLaH) Allegorically: an act of meandering about mentally busying oneself with things. From \aLaL (עלל) to meander about, to busy oneself, even though the peshat is from \aLaH (עלה) to be about > above > to ascend.
63 – offering (זבח – ZaBhaHh) Allegorically refers to the way in which a person flows forth. The verb ZaBhaHh (זבח – make an offering, sacrifice) evolved from ZaBhaH (זבה – to flow), perhaps due to the flowing of blood that occurs with ritual offering.
64 – vow (נדר NeDeR) Allegorically: an act of extreme devotion, one of devoting oneself exclusively (ignoring all else). This root evolved from NaZaR (נזר) to turn away from, separate from.
65 – free will offering (נדבה N’DaBhaH) Allegorically: devote oneself > an act of dedicating attention. The root NaDaBh (נדב) (to be flowing forth vigorously) > give willingly / generously, volunteer, In Arabic: bewail, scar over, assign (task), apply / devote o.s, be willing, stand ready. The root evolved from the unattested root DaBhaH (דבה) whose meaning “to flow (?vigorously?)” can be seen in (דבדב)(Amh- attack, beat, slam, pound; (דוב)(Amh- tumble down, thud; (דבא) (force, effort) strength, prime (Dt33:25)(דּבּ)(Arb – crawl, creep, move slowly, go on all fours, fill, pervade, invade, stream in, rush in; bear, sand hill, tiny animal, insect)(דּאבּ)(Arb – (extend outward) persist, persevere, tireless, apply / devote o.s, practice eagerly, addicted)
66 – appointed time, meeting (מועד Mo\aeD) Allegorically: being enduringly (mentally) present. The following roots all mean: “to endure in place or time.”testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD)
67 – meal or MinHhaH offering (מנחה MiNHhaH) etymologically comes from the verb MaNaHh (מנח) Ugaritic: “to deliver; delivery, contribution, tribute; offering” & Arabic “to grant, give, accord, bestow, confer; gift, present, grant, and donation.” MaNaHh (מנח) evolved from NaHhaH (נחה), has a sense of leaning in or inclining toward something. Cognate with NaHhaH (נחה) is the Arabic (נחא – to wend one’s way, go, move, walk, turn toward > follow, imitate; BUT Also (incline >) lean, push aside, remove, yield, withdraw), Also from NaHhaH (נחה) is NaHhaL (נחל (to push toward) inherit) and NaHhaT (נחתּ to take down, put at the disposal of, bring, reach for ((Ugaritic)).
68 – sheep (כבש KeBheS) literally means: pushed down upon > matted; as opposed to KeSeBh (כשב sheep; lit: fluffy). Related to other roots with K.B. (כב) all meaning “to press down upon” such as KaBhaH (כבה) to extinguish, snuff out; KaBhaL (כבל) to fetter, shackle; KoBha\ (כובע) helmet; KaBhaR (כבר) compress, to press through a sieve, to press through; KaBhaSh (כבש) to subdue, conquer; footstool, furnace; KaBhaS (כבס) to wash; KaBhaD (כבד) be heavy-intense, honor, take seriously.
69 – ten, tenth, twenty (עשרה – \aSaRaH) metaphorically means “what bears down (upon a person).” This Semitic root consists of two etymologically unrelated homonyms. The number ten evolved from the root that means “to be well supported.” But the other homonym means to urge, force, compel, bear down, plight, and predicament in Arabic; and to put pressure on, demand, exact payment, constrict, enclose, and confine in Akkadian.
70 – wine (יין YaYiN) Allegorically: what overwhelms, overbearing substance. Related to YWN (יון) to mean overbearing (mud). According to Jastro, the root YNH (ינה) means to be undecided / waver. However, the root evolved from אנה which means “to impose or apply oneself,” so it means “one who asserts himself in a way that is wavering.” YaYin (יין), wine, is a substance that is overbearing and makes a person undecided with wavering assertiveness.
71 – ram (איל ayil) Literally: one who rams forward; allegorically: one’s fervently advancing forward with initiative. Originally from the root /aWaL (אול) from which are derived: El (אל) G-d, meaning “one initiating or advancing forward experience;” el (אל) to, toward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward
72 – three (שלש – ShaLoSh) actually means suspend, dangle. This root evolved from the root שלה meaning to be relaxed and at ease. A doubling of that root formed ShiLShaeL (שלשל) meaning to let down, to lower toward, hang down, chain, couple, relax, and loosen the bowels. ShaLaL (שלל) to let fall. Sh.L.Sh. also means to deposit and entrust.
73 – half (חצי HhaTsy) Allegorically: to drive or wedge in. From HhaTsaH (חצה) to half, divide in two parts, from HhuTs (חוץ) (to push through) to rush, urge; from \uTs (עוץ) meaning “to hasten, force, push through” it is used to mean “to advise, give counsel;” from /uTs (אוץ hasten).
74 – so, thus, as such, here (כה KoH) Allegorically: impression. From KaWaH (כוה) (to impress a point, make an impression >) cauterize, burn; which evolved from HhaWaH (חוה) to point out, instruct.
75 – number, count (מספר miSPaR) Allegorically: counting, recounting. From SaPhaR (ספר to cut, trim, count, recount).
76 – ox (ShuR – שור) This root means to be fixed either physically or visually. Hence, physically (wall, ox, umbilical cord) and visually (to get a fix on (see) (Nm23:9,24:17)(Hs14:9))
77 – one (/eHhaD – אחד) Allegorically: mental sharpness. This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen
78 – youngling (שה – SeH) from the verb ShaHaH (שהה – to stay, remain, stand still, dwell, tarry, pause). The Arabic cognate means: “desire, wish, covet, crave, long, arouse greed, whet the appetite; sensual, sensuous, libidinous, lustful, uninhibited.”
79 – goats (עזים \iZim) is derived from the word \aZ (עז) meaning strong and intense. This is related to the Akkadian \eZeZu meaning to be / become angry or full of rage.
80 – bread (לחם) is related to the word MiLHhaMah (מלחמה – to engage in battle). Both words derive from LaWaHh (לוח – to join together and to be well joined > escort). In Arabic, לחם means to cling, join, solder, get stuck, engage in battle.
81 – eat (אכל – /aKhaL) the verb evolved from KaLaH (כלה – to contain); allegorically to embrace, encompass.
82 – dough (ערסת \aRySoT) Allegorically: things driven into of experience. From \aRaS (ערס)(drive into) to knead in, make compact; intertwine, braid, form an arbor; from RaSaH (רסה drive in, strike) > RaSaS (רסס) to crush, crack, make fragments > HaRaS (הרס) to break down, destroy; from RaShaH (רשה)(to drive into another > to exert power over >>>). Hence RaShaM (רשם) to mark; RaSha\ (רשע) to exert power over > be wicked; RaShaSh (רשש) to crush, pummel; RaShaPh (רשף) to penetrate, insinuate > lightening, arrow, flare.
83 – Challah (חלה HhaLaH) Allegorically: act of mingling and permeating experience. From HhaLaL(חלל)(piel)
cast away, throw about; > HhaLaL (חלל)(piel) to break up, to dissolve; > HhaL (חל) (Arabic – (throw about > permeate) dissolve, resolve, analyze, release, break up, overwhelm, replace); > ChaL (חל) (Arabic – pierce, transfix, break, violate, pass through, permeate, mix, mingle, pickle).
84 – threshing floor (גרן GoReN) Allegorically: repetitively threshing (drawing into) through experience over and again; From the root GuR (גור – sojourn) literally meaning “to draw into something, somewhere, somebody.” גור to sojourn, gather together, be afraid (draw inward), incite; GaRaR (גרר) to drag along, saw, draw up cud; GaRaBh (גרב) to scrape; GaRaPh (גרף) to scrape up, sweep away; GaRaM (גרם) to draw along, carry with, to gnaw on or crush bones; GaRa\ (גרע) to drag away, reduce, diminish; Ga\aR (גער) to draw into, rebuke; GaRaSh (גרש) to drive into so as to drive out / divorce; SaGaR (סגר) to close in upon.
85 – commandment (מצוה – MiTsWaH) Allegorically: striving > making a demand. From the verb TsiWaH (צוה – to command), evolved from NiTsaH (נצה – to strive), by dropping the initial letter nun. The essential meaning is to strive.
86 – these (אלה /aeLeH), literally means “what is advancing forward” or “what is of advancing forward.” It is related to El (אל) G-d, meaning one advancing forward with initiative such as in el (אל) to, toward; ayil (איל) ram forward; Ya/aL (יאל) to endeavor to advance forward.”
87 – congregation (עדה \aedaH) Allegorically: an act of being enduringly mentally present. Related to testimony (עדות – \aeduT); enduring (עד – \aD); evident-witness (עד – \aeD); endure, meet, appoint (יעד Ya\aD) > meeting (מועד Mo\eD); these related terms all essentially mean “to endure in place or time.”
88 – bull (פר PaR) Allegorically: to scatter about. The unattested root PaRaH (פרה) means to divide off from or disengage from. Thus PaRa/ (פרא) wildly (disengaged) being > to go wild; PaRaR (פרר) as seen in Akkadian: dissolved-broken up-powerless-confused-disperse-scatter-smash-distributed-roam around; PeRy (פרי) fruit (that disengages from the tree); PaRPaR (פרפר) to crumble, throw about, convulse; PaRa\ (פרע) to be-make disorderly, chaotic; PaRaKh (פרך) to divide > crush > rub; PaRaQ (פרק) to break off, loose; PaRaM (פרם) to shred; PaRaSh (פרש) to separate, scatter; PaRaS (פרס) to split, tear apart; PaRaZ (פרז) to set apart, detach (Arb) > open village; PaRaD (פרד) to divide, separate, set apart, dislocate; PaRaTs (פרץ) to scatter, burst forth > breach; PaRaT (פרט) to break off from > pluck. A bull or cow are described as PaR(aH) because it is disengaged from the rest of the herd.
89 – goat (hairy one) (שעיר), related to the roots Sh\R (שער), S\R (סער), and Sae\aR (שער – hair) which all mean “to stir up” in one way or another. Also related to a similar Arabic root meaning to take notice of things (in being stirred up)
90 – sin offering (חטאת ChaTa/T) Allegorically: an act of veering about experience. From HhaTaH (חטה – to incline, lean into) > ChaTa/ (חטא – to veer off, sin). See also HhiTaH (חטה) wheat = what leans, inclines; and ChiTae\ (חטא) to re-aim, rectify from veering off-going astray
91 – priest (כהן – KoHaeN) related to the noun KaWaNaH (כונה – mindful intention); used as a verb not related to priestly duties (piel) to set / fix in place precisely (Is61:10).
92 – one (אחת /aChaT) Allegorically: subdued OR scooping up. Actually from /aChaDT (אחדת) > /aChaT (אחת) from one (/eHhaD – אחד) This word evolved from the root HhaDaD (חדד – to sharpen), literally meaning “one (sharpened point);” allegorically it means “mental sharpness” from the related root HhuD (חוד) meaning to test one’s mental acumen. HOWEVER, the allegorical use is not related to this etymology and is instead could be based on one of two roots: ChaTaT (חתת) meaning to press down upon, to subdue, and to frighten. > therefore, the allegory means “what subdues in experience.” OR the allegory of /aChaT is from the verb HhaTaH (חתה) to scoop up.
93 – a daughter of its year (בת שנתה) Allegorically: an act of decisively pushing in of its being repeated daughter (BaT – בת) Allegorically: decisive. Technically comes from the feminine of son (BeN – בן), hence (BeNt – בנת). Although the letter nun (נ) drops out. However, the allegorical meaning for daughter comes from a different, rarely used root BuT (בות) which in Arabic means “cut off, sever, complete, finish, achieve, carry out, fix, settle, decide, determine; final decision.” AND From ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) which evolved from Shin + /aNaH (אנה – to impose) and evolved into two (Sh’Naey – שני), second (שיני ShayNy), tooth (sharp, imposing) (שן ShaeN), year (repetition) (ShaNaH – שנה), two years (שנתים); also ShaNaH (שנה – to sharpen > repeat) evolved into ShaNaN (שנן – to sharpen, hone, teach).
94 – dishonor, revile, disrespect (גדף GaDaePh) Allegorically: just barely scrape through. From GaDaPh (גדף) to draw off, scrape, hollow out, scrape the dregs, drag through. From GaD (גד) to draw across, draw off, draw away from > cut across. Hence GuD (גוד) (to cut across) to split off, draw away from, to form a faction, GaDaD (גדד) (cut off >) form a troop; GaDaL (גדל) (cut across >) weave > build up > great; GaDa\ (גדע) to lop off; SaGaD (סגד)(cut across oneself) to bow; GaDaSh (גדש) to stack up; NaGaD (נגד) to draw out > tell a story; be drawn across from > opposite.
95 – husband > man (איש – /eySh) from /uSh (אוש – to make persistent, to go on and on, be lengthy, make a steady noise (Jastro)). Initially meaning husband (one who persists with a wife), it later came to mean man. Allegorically, it is always used to mean “mental persistence.”
96 – assemble, gather (קשש QaShaSh) Allegorically: having difficulty firming up, straighten, firm up. From QaShaH (קשה) to be hard, stiff, severe, difficult.
97 – Sabbath (שבת – Shabbat). This verb evolved from ShaBhaH (שבה – to settle back a captive) which evolved from ShuBh (שוב – to settle back > return, do again, stay, remain). It is related to YaShaBh (ישב – to settle back > sit, settle) and ShaBhaHh (שבח – to settle down, still). So the root (שבת – ShaBhaT) means (to settle down) > cease, rest, but allegorically also has a meaning of settling in.
98 – Aharon (אהרן) “the mental faculty bringing things to light;” from the verb HaRaH (הרה – to conceive), but like the related verb HaRHaeR (הרהר), it refers to one’s ability to conceive of something in mind (not in the womb). Also related to these words is the noun HaR (mountain – הר) which literally means “the place of bringing things to light,” a place where one can see and conceive of what is coming due to its elevated perspective.
99 – die > kill (MuT – מות) has the paradoxical meaning of “to be completely drawn out,” or fully manifest. Its essential meaning of extending something in space or time can be seen by examining the related roots MaTaQ (מתק – to savor), MaTaiy (מתי – (drawn out to) when), and MaTaHh (מתח – to draw, spread out)
100 – stone (/eBheN – אבן), from the root BuN (בון – to be or project between), literally means “what sticks out prominently.”
101 – outside the camp (מחוץ למחנה) Allegorically: outside of the being mindful of what is prosaic and common. camp (חנה – HhaNaH), essentially meaning “to establish a presence” and allegorically “a mental presence.” It evolved from HoN (הון – substantial > wealth) and its hiphil (ההין to make/be present, make/be ready; (Dt1:41)), HaeN (חן – here) and HiNaeH (הנה – see here (be present)). Evolved from (חנה – HhaNaH) is HhaNaN (חנן – presence > grace).
102 – TsiTsiT (ציצת) which represent “little acts of striving.” From TsuTs (צוץ) to bud, blossom, flourish > (hiphil) הציץ (striving to see) to look, gaze (Ss2:9); From the root TsaWaH (צוה – to strive with > command), evolved from NiTsaH (נצה – to strive), by dropping the initial letter nun. The essential meaning is to strive.
103 – wings (כנף KaNaPh) Allegorically: what is drawn in, what draws in. Many K.N. (כנ) roots mean “to draw in” – KaNa\ (כנע) meaning to subdue or oppress. KaNaS (כנס to enter), , KaNaN (כנן to wind around), and KineReT (כנרת the lake, ?drawn into) suggest that literally it means to draw in upon.
104 – for their generations (לדרתם L’DoRoTam) Allegorically: go around and around in experience. From From DoR (דור to go around), from ZuR (זור to go around).
105 – blue (תכלת – T’KhaeLeT) “what can be embraced” from KaLaH (כלה – to contain). From the dye made from Hexaplex Trunculus, which may defensively surround / contain said creature or its predators)
106 – thread (פתיל P’TyL) Allegorically: twisting, engaging. Evolved from PaTaH (פתה) (open wide >>>>>>>>
(?? rend in opening.) Consider: NiPhTaL (נפתל) to be twisted together, become entwined (Gn30:8)
107 – to remember (זכר – ZaKhaR) literally means to be clear, hence to remember (be clear in mind) from ZaKhaH (זכה – (to be clear) be pure, free of guilt, right / justified, innocent, be acquitted / right, to be privileged. Also note (Syriac – (manifest something with clarity) use magic arts; bring up a familiar spirit; divine using a spirit)
108 – Holy (קדש – QoDeSh, QaDoSh) Allegorically: what is brought forward. Related to the roots meaning to put the head forward – QaDaD (קדד – to bow), QaDQaD (קדקד – crown of head) and QaDaM (קדם to proceed, advance forward); QaDaR (קדר – to drop the head > to duck under, gloomy, potter), QaDaHh (קדח – (drop the head) > to bore into, pierce), ShaQaD (שקד – watch intently, be watchful of, be vigilant, be determined), \aQaD (עקד – to draw the head toward the feet; fix the eyes on s.th, be deter-mined to do s.th (Arb)) The root QaDaSh (קדש) fundamentally means to advance something forward (so as to dedicate for sanctified use)
109 – Elohim (אלהים) plural of Eloah (אלוה) – Although most derive it from El (אל), I believe that the word evolved from LaWaH (לוה) meaning to escort and guide. Hence, initially the word Elohim (אלהים) referred to the pantheon of gods, whose purported purpose was to guide and escort humanity. With the advent of monotheism, the word was used with a singular verb to represent G-d, but continued to be used to represent the pantheons of others, a council of judges and people of similar purpose.

A.F.L Beeston, M.A. Ghul, W.W. Muller, J. Ryckmans (1982) Sabaic Dictionary. Publication of the University of Sanaa, Yar

Ernest Klein (1987) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Hans Wehr. Ed by J Milton Cowan (1979) Hans Wehr A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Ithaca, NY: Published in the United States by Spoken Languages Services, Inc with permission of Otto Harrassowitz

Jeremy Black, Andrew George, Nicholas Postgate, eds., A Concise Dictionary ofAkkadian, 2nd corrected printing (Santag Arbeiten und Untersuchungen Zur Keilschriftkunde, 5; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2000)

Marcus Jastrow (1996) A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushlami, and the Midrashic Literature.New York: The Judaica Press

J. Payne Smith’s (1999) A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Published by Wipf and Stock

G. del Olmo Lete & J. Sanmartin (2003) A Dictionary of the Ugaritic Language in the Alphabetic Tradition. Leiden: Brill. Translated by Wilfred G.E. Watson

Wolf Leslau (1976) Concise Amharic Dictionary. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles.

H.W.F. Gesenius (1979) Gesenius’ Hebrew – Chaldee Lexicon. Baker Books. Grand Rapids.

Judaic Classics by David Kantrowitz version 3.4, 1991 – 2009. Institute for computers in Jewish Life. Davka Corp and /or Judaica Press Inc.

About the Author
David Kolinsky is a retired physician born and raised in Monsey, New York. While living in Monterey California, David initially lived as a secular, agnostic Jew. However, in his spare time, he delved into twenty years of daily study of Hebrew etymology and Torah study culminating in the writing of an etymological dictionary of Biblical Hebrew and a metaphorical translation of Torah. Abandoning his agnostic views, David was simultaneously a spiritual leader of the world's smallest conservative synagogue, a teacher in his local reform synagogue, and a gabbai at Chabad. He is currently sheltering in place with his family in his new home in Plano, Texas.
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