The Ten Martyrs עשרה הרוגי מלכות
According the the Ari z”l (Sha`ar HaGilgulim, 34-39), the ten Martyrs are reincarnations of Yosef and his brothers.
1. Rav Elazar ben Shamua = Shimon
2. Rav Yishmael Kohen Gadol = Levi
3. Rav Shimon ben Gamliel = Yehuda
4. Rav Chutzpis = Yissachar
חמר גרם… בין המשפצים = חצפית המתרגמן
יִשָּׂשכָ֖ר חֲמֹ֣ר גָּ֑רֶם רֹבֵ֖ץ בֵּ֥ין הַמִּשְׁפְּתָֽיִם:
Issachar is a bony donkey, lying between the boundaries (Bereishis 49:14).
5. Rav Akiva ben Yosef = Yosef (Yaakov, Zimri)
6. Rav Chananya ben Teradion = Dan
7. Rav Yehuda ben Teima = Zevulun
8. Rav Yesheivav = Gad
9. Rav Yehuda ben Bava = Naftali
10. Rav Chanina ben Chachinai = Asher
Dina Should Have Married Esav
Dina could have married Esav and made him a good person. She was rather married off to Iyov (Meam Loez, Bava Basra 15b).
תלמוד בבלי בבא בתרא דף ט”ו עמוד ב
ויש אומרים איוב בימי יעקב היה. ודינה בת יעקב נשא. כתיב הכא (איוב ב: י) כדבר אחת הנבלות תדבי. וכתיב התם (בראשית לד: ז) כי נבלה עשה בישראל.
And some say, Iyov lived in the days of Yakov and that he married Dina, the daughter of Yakov. As it is written here: “You speak as one of the loathsome women speaks” (Iyov 2:10). And it is written there in the account of the incident involving Dina: “He has done a loathsome act in Yisrael” (Bereishis 34:7).
Yaakov thought the city of Shechem had a second chance to perform real repentance תשובה. He made a mistake in not bringing his brother Esav closer to Judaism, by not letting Esav marry Dina; he hid her in a box when they met Esav. This time Yakov did not want to miss an opportunity to bring people closer to G-d, through Dina.
This opportunity was lost once Shimon and Levi massacred the people of Shechem. Yakov believed fact city of Shechem became circumcised to prove that they wanted to be sincere Jews חוזר בתשובה. Therefore, we was angry with Shimon and Levi for massacring them. Chamor and Shechem had a spiritual connection to Moshiach; however, Shimon and Levi killed them!
When Shechem raped Dina she was either six or eight years old. Her brothers Shimon and Levi were thirteen years old. Shechem was known as a dangerous place, but Dina had no problem visiting there on her own.
תלמוד בבלי מכות י עמוד א
אמר אביי: בשכם נמי שכיחי רוצחים. דכתיב: “ירצחו שכמה…”
Abaye said: In Shechem too, murderers were common, as it is written (Hoshea 6:9) “And like gangs awaiting a man, a band of Kohanim murderders on the road to Shechem…” (Talmud Bavli Makkos 10a).
Shimon married Dina when she was already pregnant from Shechem, and then she gave birth to her daughter Osnat. This young girl was banished by Yakov from the family because he considered her a mamzeres of dubious genealogy since her father was Shechem.
Bad things tended to happen in Shechem.
תלמוד בבלי סנהדרין קב עמוד א
תנא משום רבי יוסי: מקום מזומן לפורענות: בשכם עינו את דינה, בשכם מכרו אחיו את יוסף, בשכם נחלקה מלחות בית דוד.
A Tanna taught in the name of Rav Yose: Shechem was a place predestined from earliest times for misfortune: In Shechem they violated Dina; in Shechem the brothers sold Yosef; in Shechem the kingdom of the house of Dovid was split (Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin 102a).
The Fifty Days Between Pesach and Shavuos – Potential Time for Moshaich
The leader’s name of Shechem was Chamor, to hint that he had a connection to the end of days. This Chamor indeed had a connection to Moshiach. Shechem had a Bris Milah which Kabalistically is from the middah of Yesod, which represents Yosef.
Shechem son of Chamor, got Dina pregnant with Osnat. She married Yosef , who ultimately is the origin of Moshiach ben Yosef. This is the specific reason that Yehoshua brought the Jews into Eretz Yisrael, since he a descendent of Yosef from the Tribe of Efrayim.
The truth was not known to Yakov that Shechem planned to kill Yaakov and his family, after he recovered from his painful Bris Milah procedure. The plan of Shimon and Levi was only to free Dina; however, their mission got complicated and they ended up killing the entire city.
According to the Yalkut Reuveini, Shechem wanted to connect to Yakov through Dina, so he got a Bris Milah. Circumcision, is a spiritual was to acquire spiritual merit זכות to dwell in Eretz Yisrasel. The Moslems, the children of Yishmael now clearly benefit from this act of circumcision.
We are reminded about Moshiach during the period of Pesach to Shavuos. We count 49 days of the Omer (Sefiras Ha’Omer). This was and is an opportune time to bring Moshiach. Just as the days of Succos and Shemini Atzeres are another auspicious time to bring Moshiach,
The name of G-d אלה-ים has two parts: the first three letters add up to gematria of 36; and the last two letters add up to 50. This name of G-d is represented in the Sefira Bina בינה , one of highest three Sefiros. The time between Pesach and Shavuos is for us to get closer דביקות to G-d via the 50 gates of understanding, called בינה . We count 49 days of Sefira and then celebrate the 1 day of Shavuos, when we were given the Torah by G-d on Mount Sinai.
If Jews keep the Torah properly, then on the Shavuos holiday Bina בינה is drawn down to the lower six Sefiros. This in turn, elevates us closer to the time of Moshiach and redemption.
Why did Shechem Merit To Be Connected With Moshiach?
Shechem desired Dinah because she was a daughter of Yakov and not because of her physical beauty.
Shechem is place where bad things historically happen. It’s a place set aside for punishment . In our times, a lot of terrorists have either come from there or performed acts of murder in that city.
תלמוד בבלי סנהדרין קב עמוד א
וילך רחבעם שכם כי שכם בא כל ישראל להמליך אותו תנא משום ר’ יוסי מקום מזומן לפורענות בשכם עינו את דינה בשכם מכרו אחיו את יוסף בשכם נחלקה מלכות בית דוד (מלכים א יא, כט) וירבעם יצא מירושלים.
And Rechavam went to Shechem, because all of Israel came to crown him king. It was taught in a Baraisa in the name of Rav Yosi: This place [Shechem] was designated for trouble. In Shechem, Dinah was violated. In Shechem, the brothers sold Yosef. In Shechem, the kingdom of King Dovid was split (Melachim I 11:29) “…and it came to be at that time when Jeroboam had left Jerusalem… (Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin 102a).
Murder is common there.
תלמוד בבלי מכות י עמוד א
אמר אביי: בשכם נמי שכיחי רוצחים, דכתיב (הושע ו:ט) “וכחכי איש גדודים חבר כהנים דרך ירצחו שכמה…שהיו מתחברין להרוג נפשות…
Abaye said: Murderers are also common in Shechem, as it is written (Hoshea 6:9): “And as troops of robbers wait for a man, so does the band of priests: they murder in the way toward Shechem…it means that people would band together to kill people… (Talmud Bavli Makkos 10a).
In contrast, the Zohar points out that Shechem is also a place where the Shechina dwells. Yosef is buried in Shechem, therefore it has the power of Yesod. This power can be used properly against the impurity of the snake נחש , which brought evil into the world from the original sin in Gan Eden.
Shechem שכם is composed of the letters shin “”ש and mem ,”מ” with a kaf “כ” in the middle. Kaf represents intellectual blindness. When you remove the kaf from the word we are left with shem שם, “The Name” which is a reference to G-d being revealed to the entire world at the time of Moshiach.